|Sun ‘n’ Fun 2010: Ars Longa Tossups Brevis
Packet by William Butler, Evan Adams and Matt Bollinger
1. Lam and Ruwase developed a dynamic approach to stop this from occurring called CRED. Utilizing one of these often involves a NOP sled and one common method of stopping their use places a randomized canary values to be checked in the prologue and epilogue. Recent advances in countering them include instruction set and address space randomization. They commonly involve functions like scanf and strcpy, which are found in C. They are common in languages that do not do bounds-checking on arrays. For 10 points, name this type of flaw in a computer program where data is written beyond the intended boundary of a data structure and are a common source of security vulnerabilities.
ANSWER: buffer overflow [accept buffer overrun; prompt on code injection; prompt on overflow; accept stack smashing]
2. In one of this man’s poems, the smell of the title substance reminds a man of “the big/house he visited when he was eight,” but “the mallet slipped long since from the hands…that are not the hands of a child.” This author of “Soap Suds” wrote, “Let them not make me a stone and let them not spill me/otherwise kill me” in a poem that begins “I am not yet born; O hear me.” One of this man’s comic poems begins by asserting, “It’s no go the merry-go-round, it’s no go the rickshaw.” For 10 points, name this author of “Prayer Before Birth” and “Bagpipe Music,” an Irish poet who was friends with W.H. Auden and Stephen Spender.
ANSWER: Louis MacNeice
3. This god absorbed attributes from the earlier god Coniraya and from Tutujanawin. Chasca is his attendant and he is served by Cuichu, a rainbow god who is associated with a site important in his worship. He imparted power to people through lines known as ceques and acllas were maidens that were sacrificed to him. The raymi, or festival, dedicated to this god sees him symbolically tied to a post and is held in June. He is the father of the Ayar brothers, and in one story he sends his children to Earth to help people and tells them to plant a golden rod in the ground to start a city. He was the primary god worshiped in the Coricancha, where mummies surround a depiction of him consisting of a golden disk. For 10 points, name this husband of Pachamama and son of Viracocha, the Incan sun god.
4. This man never wrote more than one movement for his first attempt at a symphony entitled, Symphonic Rhapsody for Orchestra. This composer included “Dance of the Prisoners”, “The Festival March”, and “The Marketplace at Isaphan” in his Aladdin Suite. During this man's psychological period he composed the cantata Hymnus amoris and the opera Saul and David. He adapted a work of Holberg for his other opera, Maskarade. After the sinking of the Titanic, this man composed a Paraphrase on Nearer my God to Thee, while his 3rd symphony begins with an allegro espansivo movement. This man's 6th and 2nd symphonies are entitled Semplice and The Four Temperaments respectively. For 10 points, name this Danish composer of The Inextinguishable.
ANSWER: Carl Nielsen
5. The actual pressure coefficient is equal to the low velocity pressure coefficient divided by the square root of one minus this value squared according to the Prandtl-Glauert rule. When the local value of this approaches unity, the freestream value of it, is termed critical. When this number is equal to one at a nozzle, choked flow can occur and when it’s less than 0.3, the flow is considered incompressible. This is equal to the velocity of the flow divided by the square root of the product of RT and the ratio of the specific heats at constant pressure and volume respectively. That denominator simplifies to the speed of sound in the medium, meaning this value is the ratio of velocity to the speed of sound. For 10 points, name this number that is greater than one for supersonic velocities.
ANSWER: Mach number
6. Prince Sado of this dynasty was executed by being shut in a rice box, and its cloth tax was decreased by the Kyunyok Law. It suffered the Imo mutiny and signed the Treaty of Ganghwa. Revolts towards the end of its rule included Kyong-nae's Rebellion and the Donghak Uprising, but its decline really began with the assassination of Queen Min. The ruling elite during this dynasty were known as the Yangban, and it was founded by Yi Song-gye. It employed the kobukson designed by Admiral Yi Sin-sin to fight off Japanese invasions, also known as turtle ships. King Sejong introduced Hangul in this dynasty. For 10 points, name this dynasty which succeeded the Koryo, the longest lasting dynasty of Korea.
ANSWER: Choson [or Joseon; accept Yi before Ye Song-gye is mentioned]
7. Considering the social contract, this man proposed the Staatsburgervertag as a worldly manifestation of the Rechtslehre, or “doctrine of right.’ This thinker argued that man discovers his own limitations in his conception of the Anstoss, or “check.” This man proposed that the system of philosophy one chooses depends on the type of person one is in distinguishing between his own philosophy and dogmatism. This thinker proposed the “self-positing of the I” as the foundation of his worldview, the Wissenschaftslehre. In another work, this man argued that laws contrary to morality cannot be the creations of a divine being; that work was published without his name, leading it to be attributed to Kant. For 10 points, name this author of An Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation, a German idealist.
ANSWER: Johann Gottlieb Fichte
8. The narrator of this novel receives a postcard decorated with a Little Red Riding Hood cartoon. After a forehead injury, the main character has experiences of appearing to be dead but then would come back to life after peeing; he later suffers from amnesia and daydreams about murder. He remembers the night-soil man, the Joan of Arc picture book, the odor of sweat, and the carrying of the shrine. That character has a sexual encounter with a painting of St. Sebastian and becomes fixated with the armpits of Omi. He almost marries Sonoko and goes to a brothel whereupon he hopes to die in a B-29 bombing raid. For 10 points, name this novel in which Kochan metaphorically hides behind the titular item, written by Yukio Mishima.
ANSWER: Confessions of a Mask [or Kamen no kokuhaku]
9. A political cartoon from this election depicts one person who failed to become Republican nominee as a giant magnet attracting items including leaches, which represent political machines. A campaign manager, named Wharton Barker, was told to arrange a spontaneous ovation every time he entered the assembly. One of the conventions took 36 ballots and Thomas Bayard was second at the DNC in Cleveland. One major party candidate was attacked in the general election by the forged Morrey letter and 3rd party candidates included Neal Dow of the Prohibition Party and the Greenback's James Weaver. William English was the Dems’ V.P. Candidate and Chester Arthur was the Republican’s. For 10 points, identify this election where Winfield Hancock lost to James Garfield.
ANSWER: United States Presidential Election of 1880
10. One approach to synthesizing this compound was described by Hegedus and Semmelhack. The reaction for one type of these with alkynes to yield alkoxyphenols was discovered by Karl Dötz and is better known as a benzannulation reaction. One classical way of making these is done by conducting a nucleophilic addition of an organolithium compound to a metal carbonyl and then treating with a trialkyloxonium salt. This compound can be found in Grubb's catalyst and those with high oxidation states and an unpaired triplet state are named for Schrock, which contrast with those named for Fischer. For 10 points, name these organic compounds with a divalent carbon atom that has only six valence electrons.
ANSWER: carbene [accept Fischer carbene before “high oxidation states”]
11. One character in this novel dreams about an organ “like a golden city upon the side of a mountain” and is told that “it is Handel.” Later, that character is involved in a balloon crash, but is rescued by captain Giovanni Gianni. That character runs into problems marrying his love, because her elder daughter Zulora must marry first. A watch is confiscated because the people who have seemingly swapped the ideas of illness and crime also believe that machines would evolve and take over. The main character marries the daughter of Nosnibor, Arowhena after escaping over the mountains from the land he set off with Chowbok. For 10 points, name this Samuel Butler novel centering on Higgs's travels to the titular satire of Victorian England.
12. One period of this polity’s history is known as the Prince Regent Years because Prince Luitpold was forced into power by the madness of his nephew Otto. This polity was restored by the Treaty of Baden after Maximilian II Emanuel’s decision to join the French at Blenheim led to its elimination in the Treaty of Ilbersheim. In this region, Anton Arco-Valley assassinated Kurt Eisner, who had set up a republic here in 1918. After Charles Theodore allowed Austria to annex much of this state, Frederick the Great of Prussia forced a return to the status quo at the Treaty of Teschen. Its first king named Ludwig had a dalliance with Lola Montez and its second Ludwig built the castle Neuschwanstein and patronized Wagner. For 10 points, name this German state which hosted the Beer Hall Putsch in its capital Munich.
13. With Jackson Beatty, this psychologist discovered that when students listened to numbers they had to memorize, their pupils dilated, and contracted when reciting the digits. Along with a common co-author he proposed a problem testing people's understanding of Bayes theorem called the cab problem, and explored the occurrence of people giving special weight to a particular probability called the certainty effect. This lead to his most famous theory, which is expanded upon in Choice, Values, and Frames. It comes out of the Allais paradox and says that decisions have editing and evaluation phases. That theory supersedes expected utility theory and predicts that people will be risk seeking during losses. For 10 points, name this man who with Amos Tversky proposed prospect theory.
ANSWER: Daniel Kahneman
14. An important dance from this country, the moutya, is related to a music and dance style more common in its part of the world, the sega. It is home to jellyfish trees and the Coco de Mer species of palm tree. Esmerelda, possibly the world’s oldest tortoise, is a member of this nation's Aldabra giant tortoise. Pirate Jean François Hodoul is said to have buried a treasure on this country's Silhouette Island. This nation's first president was James R. Mancham, and the Vallée de Mai nature reserve is located on the island of Praslin. This nation’s people speak a creole called Seselwa and its largest island is Mahé. For 10 points, name this island nation with a capital of Victoria, located in the Indian Ocean-north of Madagascar.
ANSWER: Republic of Seychelles
15. Abreu-Goodger and Merino devised the most prominent software for detecting these structures that can come in “tuning fork” arrangements. The proposed moco and tuco examples bind to metal containing components and one associated with the B. subtilis glycine cleavage operon has both type I and II components that act cooperatively. They are associated with TH1 box binding to TPP and thus can regulate thiamine biosynthesis. These structures with an expression platform and a natural aptamer are found in the 5' UTR and work by the formation of a stem loop that either stops transcription via terminator loops or prevents transcription by hiding the Shine-Delgarno sequence. For 10 points, name this form of gene regulation in bacteria where the mRNA binds a metabolite and thus turns on or off the expression that mRNA.
ANSWER: riboswitch [prompt on aptamer before mentioned]
16. In one of this author’s stories, the titular girl is inspired and later disillusioned by the charismatic King Barlo. This author wrote about a “dynamic atom aggregate” in an 835-line poem ending, “Let the big light in!” In another of this man’s short stories, Bob Stone carries on an affair with Louisa, but finds him with Tom Burwell, who kills him and is lynched. This man wrote a play in which Ralph returns from New York to teach in the South, but needs help from Fred Halsey and the former slave Father John. This author collected “Blood-Burning Moon” and “Kabnis” in a volume of African-American poetry, stories, and plays. For 10 points, name this Harlem Renaissance author of Cane.
ANSWER: Jean Toomer
17. Oscar Niemeyer, Arne Jacobsen, and Alvar Aalto, helped to design an experimental housing project in this city for a 1957 Building Exhibition. In addition to the Interbau this city is home to and the namesake of a sculpture by Brigitte and Martin Matschinsky which depicts a giant stainless steel broken chain. This city’s tallest building appears to display a cross when hit directly by the sun, a phenomenon known as the “Pope’s Revenge.” One monument here consists of a concrete slab for each page of the Talmud, titled “Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe.” It also contains a zigzag shaped Jewish museum designed by Daniel Libeskind and a government building here had a glass dome added by Norman Foster. For 10 points, name this home of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag.
18. The failures of one treaty at this location caused the Treaty of Bucharest to be negotiated only three months later after another war broke out. That treaty declared Albania an independent state and ended the First Balkan War. An 1841 convention negotiated in this location closed the Dardanelles and the Bosporus to all warships. An 1867 treaty signed here called for the destruction of the fortifications of the so called “Gibraltar of the North” and solved the Luxembourg Crisis. A charter here provided the legal basis for the Nuremberg trials, and an 1839 treaty named for this city commanded all its signatories to guard the newly independent Belgium. This city also names a 1930 follow-up to the Washington Naval Conference. For 10 points, name this treaty hub and English city.
ANSWER: Treaty of London
19. In this work, two characters discuss Constance, who was called “old” by a Portuguese man, but thought he meant “pretty.” At the end of this work, the title character is served a dish of tarantulas and vipers with wine made of vinegar and ice. The title character of this work puts on the cape of the Marques de la Mota and takes the places of Batricio and Don Octavio. Accompanied by his reluctant servant Catalinon, the title character betrays the lower-class women Tisbea and Aminta. At this play’s climax, Don Gonzalo punishes the title character for his deceptions by dragging him to hell. For 10 points, name this drama about the playboy Don Juan, written by Tirso de Molina.
ANSWER: The Trickster of Seville
20. The Master of Hohenfurth’s depiction of this scene shows an angel holding a replica of gothic church in the lower right and two servants pouring water into a bucket at the bottom. Geertgen tot Sint Jans is best known for painting a miniscule hovering angel in his version of this scene “at night.” Many versions of this scene contain the characters Zelomi and Salomè, who were banned by the Council of Trent. This scene is at the center of Rogier van der Weyden's Middelburg Altarpiece. The church of this name contains the “Door of Humility” and the Chapel of St. Jerome. Botticelli depicted a choir of twelve angels dangling crowns over it in his “mystical” version. For 10 points, name this scene which is often paired with the “Adoration of the Magi” and generally includes a manger.
E1. This man’s prolonged bitterness at being replaced at the head of his party was called “the longest sulk in history.” He presided over the decimalization of the currency and replaced the “selective employment tax” of his predecessor with the “value added tax” that survives today. As opposition leader, it was he who sacked Enoch Powell from the shadow government. He asked “Who governs Britain?” and called for a snap election attacking Joe Gormley of the National Union of Mineworkers for a strike which had forced him to implement the Three-Day Week. He defeated his eventual successor Harold Wilson in a surprise election, and this leader brought the UK into the European Community in 1973. For 10 points, name this Conservative Prime Minister.
ANSWER: Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath
E2. Sodium phenylburate is often used to treat suffers of disorders of this pathway. Defects in transporters found in this pathway can lead to HHH syndrome and Lysinuric Protein Intolerance. N-acetylglutamate is an allosteric activator of a key enzyme in this pathway. Aspartate and Citrullyl-AMP are used in one step of this reaction to form arginosuccinate. Like a connected pathway, fumarate is a byproduct of this reaction. In the mitochondria, citrulline is formed using a transcarbamoylase. Two amino acids that are part of this pathway are arginine and ornithine, and this cycle is sometimes named for the later. This cycle allows the body to deal with overconsumption of protein. For 10 points, name this cycle which generates a namesake compound allows the body to remove excess nitrogen.
ANSWER: urea cycle [accept ornithine cycle before mentioned]
E3. In this game, finding Attila's Armor allows you to complete combos uninterrupted even if enemies block them. The “Poetry in Motion” achievement can be won by executing a combo worth 666. At one point, the protagonist of this game fights his obese father who wields a giant metal cross, and winning that fight earns one of the thirty-one relics that can be found. Bosses in this game include Semiramis, Francesco, and a tag team of Cleopatra and Marc Antony. This game follows a crusader who sews a cross shaped tapestry onto his chest and takes a scythe from Death before travelling through nine circles of hell to reclaim the soul of his lover, Beatrice Portinari. For 10 points, name this 2010 game named for the first section of the Divine Comedy.
ANSWER: Dante’s Inferno
E4. While addressing a certain figure, this man humbly called himself a “nobody,” a “small rope, a tiny ladder, the tail end, a leaf.” This man almost delayed his holy task after being told that his uncle was dying, but was divinely reassured that his uncle had been saved. On his daily routine, this man saw a shining cloud with a rainbow around it above a hill now called the “Capilla del Cerrito.” John Paul II’s canonization of this man was controversial since his historical authenticity is debated. After finding Castilian roses growing in barren soil, this man brought them to his bishop, who was awed by the image of Mary emblazoned on this man’s cloak. For 10 points, name this indigenous Mexican to whom the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared.
ANSWER: St. Juan Diego [prompt on partial answer]
1. The musicologist narrator of this novel composes a work entitled Threnody based on the Odyssey. For 10 points each:
 Identify this novel in which the narrator is sent to South America to find primitive instruments, falls in love with Rosario, and attempts to stay in the jungle. After leaving for a time, he finds he is unable to return to the jungle village.
ANSWER: The Lost Steps [or Los pasos perdidos]
 The Lost Steps is by this author of the short story collection The War of Time and Manhunt.
ANSWER: Alejo Carpentier
 This Carpentier novel tells of French revolutionary Victor Hugues and his impact on the lives of Sofia, Carlos and their cousin Esteban after their father dies.
ANSWER: Explosion in a Cathedral [or El siglo de las luces]
2. The protagonist of this film searches for the agent Henry Dickson and kills the inventor Professor Von Braun, before defeating the central computer by reading it poetry. For 10 points each:
 Name this French film in which the journalist Lemmy Caution infiltrates the title dystopic city.
 Alphaville is a film by this New Wave director of My Life to Live, who depicted Michel’s flight from the police in Breathless.
ANSWER: Jean-Luc Godard
 In this Godard film, Fritz Lang plays himself as a man hired by Jeremy Prokosch to direct an adaptation of Homer's Odyssey. It’s based on an Alberto Moravia novel and features Brigitte Bardot playing the wife of writer Paul Javal.
ANSWER: Contempt [or Le Mépris]
3. This man argued that biological results should be compared with independently derived social laws in “Individual and Collective Representations.” For 10 points each:
 Name this French sociologist who distinguished between the mechanical solidarity of less advanced societies and organic solidarity of modern societies in The Division of Labor in Society.
ANSWER: Émile Durkheim
 This other French thinker, author of Ethics and Moral Science, adopted Durkheim's “collective representations” and argued that it must be used to understand primitive society in works like Primitive Mentality and Primitives and the Supernatural.
ANSWER: Lucien Lévy-Bruhl
 This work of Lévy-Bruhl argues that the title conceptual framework is “prelogical” and is based around a “law of participation.”
ANSWER: How Natives Think [or Les Fonctions Mentale dans les sociétés inférieures]
4. This battle occurred two days before the Hungarian loss at Mohi, and it was won by a small detachment of Subutai’s army commanded by Baidar, Kadan, and Orda Khan. For 10 points each:
 Name this 1241 battle at which the polish forces of Henry II the Pious were crushed by the Mongols.
ANSWER: Battle of Legnica [or Battle of Liegnitz; or Battle of Wahlstatt]
 The battle of Legnica occurred in this region, which was ruled by the Piasts before passing to Bohemia. It was attacked and taken from Austria by Frederick the Great.
 The Hungarian king Bela IV of this line is revered for rebuilding after the loss at Mohi. Other members of this dynastic house include Saint Stephen and Andrew III.
ANSWER: House of Arpad
5. This lieder was used as the basis of the composer's string quartet No.14 in D minor and it is begun and ended by a D-minor piano prelude funeral march, For 10 points each:
 Name this song based on a poem by Matthias Claudius in which one singer asks the other to pass by her.
ANSWER: “Death and the Maiden”
 Death and the Maiden is by this composer who created the song “The Hurdy-Gurdy Man” for his collection Winterreise and composed the Trout Quintet.
ANSWER: Franz Schubert
 This sonata in C major by Schubert is for four hands and for a time was suspected to be a basis for a lost symphony, an idea that is now discredited.
ANSWER: Grand Duo [or D812]
6. The set of irreducible representations of these is called a character table. For 10 points each:
 Name this set of symmetry operations for a molecule.
ANSWER: point group
 Molecules that have no other symmetry operator than E are necessarily this. This term refers to molecules with non-super-imposable mirror images.
 This high symmetry point group is characterized by tetrahedral rotational symmetry with reflection symmetry. Molecules in this group such as methane have 4 C3 axes, 3 C2 axes, 3 S4 axes, and six σd (sigma sub d) planes.
7. Most mosques contain a niche called a mihrab so that practitioners of this practice can know qibla, or the direction of Mecca. For 10 points each:
 Name this pillar of Islam, the practice of prayer.
ANSWER: salat [or salah]
 Practitioners know when it’s time to pray because this person calls out the adhan, or call to prayer.
 In some mosques the muezzin responds to the Imam during services. The imam often stands on one of these pulpit like platforms, which are slightly raised from the ground.
8. One character in this novel is Michael Eden, who gives Jews a berth out of Nazi Germany. For 10 points each:
Name this novel about an aspiring Jewish actress who enters a volatile relationship with Noel Airman, but eventually settles down to marry the lawyer Milton Schwartz.
ANSWER: Marjorie Morningstar
This other novel ends with the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and sees the naval officer Victor Henry negotiate with Hitler, Stalin, and Churchill in the service of FDR.
ANSWER: Winds of War
In this other Herman Wouk novel, Willie Keith joins officers Steve Maryk and Tom Keefer in removing the incompetent Captain Queeg from power on the title ship.
ANSWER: The Caine Mutiny
9. According to one legend, this ruler was hacked to death by Brodir while praying in his tent. For 10 points each:
 Name this man who parleyed his control of Munster into replacing Máel Sechnaill as High King of Ireland in 1002.
ANSWER: Brian Boru
 Brian and his son Murchad were killed at this bloody 1014 battle, which plunged Ireland back into its separate kingdoms.
ANSWER: Battle of Clontarf
 The Battle of Clontarf took place on this holiday, which also saw a 1998 peace agreement signed in Belfast and a 1964 Alaska earthquake.
ANSWER: Good Friday
10. The title character of this work is pursued by a thief named Gines. For 10 points each:
Name this work in which the title secretary reveals that his employer Ferdinando Falkland murdered Barnabas Tyrrel.
ANSWER: Caleb Williams
Caleb Williams was written by this British author of Political Justice and St. Leon.
ANSWER: William Godwin
William Godwin was the father of this other author, who wrote about Lionel Verney in The Last Man as well as a scientist name Victor in Frankenstein.
ANSWER: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
11. The highest ranked of these in a legion was called the primus pilus, and the command of each cohort was divided between six of them. For 10 points each:
 Name these Roman officers who each commanded about one hundred men.
 After this series of 107 BC reforms, each centurion was given a lettered assistant called an optio. These reforms also removed class distinctions and reduced the size of baggage trains by increasing the amount each soldier carried.
ANSWER: Marian reforms [or reforms of Marius]
 Before the Marian reforms, the Roman battle order usually began with the Hastati and the Principes, who were backed up by these oldest, wealthiest, soldiers. They were often kept in reserve or never used because of the success of the other soldiers.
ANSWER: Triarii [or Triarius]
12. The allowed states in one of these can be specified by constraints and their namesake variables contrast with mechanical variables and cannot be derived from the complete microscopic description of one of its elements. For 10 points each:
 Name these collections of a large number of systems and the weights of those systems.
 This hypothesis states that all accessible microstates are equally probable during the system's evolution.
ANSWER: ergodic hypothesis
 The ergodic hypothesis only holds if the system is this. This is also describes the systems in a microcanonical ensemble.
13. In some stories, this hunter was trained by the centaur Chiron. For 10 points each:
 Name this tragic Greek hero was turned into a deer and torn apart by his dogs after seeing Artemis bathe.
 This other mythological figure was transformed after the fisherman Glaucus asked a jealous Circe for a love potion.
 In another story of transformation, this woman is raped and has her tongue cut out by Tereus. She tells this to her sister Procne by weaving it in a tapestry and is eventually turned into a bird.
14. This work criticizes the “surplus repression” of society and its two parts are titled after “The Reality Principle.” For 10 points each:
 Name this work that criticizes Freud and argues that the mind has a desire for freedom and happiness.
ANSWER: Eros and Civilization
 Eros and Civilization was written by this author of the essay “Repressive Toleration”, who critiqued the Soviet Union in Soviet Marxism and was inspired to write Reason and Revolution by Hegel's master-slave dialectic.
ANSWER: Herbert Marcuse
 This other work of Marcuse states that the title entity is absorbed by society through the creation of “false needs,” therefore stifling social criticism.
ANSWER: One-Dimensional Man
15. At one point in this work, three of the central characters discuss the similarities between chemical interactions and human relationships. For 10 points each:
Name this work in which Edward marries Charlotte, but Charlotte loves Edward’s friend the Captain, and Edward loves Charlotte’s friend Ottilie.
ANSWER: Elective Affinities
Elective Affinities was written by this German Romanticist who also wrote The Sorrows of Young Werther.
ANSWER: Wolfgang von Goethe
This other German Romantic wrote the novels William Lovell and Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen, in addition to some fairytales.
ANSWER: Ludwig Tieck
16. During the Civil War this state was the site of St. Albans raid, in which Bennett Young robbed three banks before fleeing to Canada. For 10 points each:
 Name this state in which Seth Warner and Ethan Allen led the Green Mountain Boys in a border war against New York.
 One of Vermont’s most notable residents was this US senator, whose fervent Radical Republicanism led Jubal Early to burn his Pennsylvania iron mill.
ANSWER: Thaddeus Stevens
 The New York-Vermont border wars were the result of this Colonial Governor’s practice of selling land he did not own. He is the namesake of a town that was the site of a Revolutionary War battle in the Saratoga campaign.
ANSWER: Benning Wentworth
17. This was first studied in depth by Pioneer 10 and ironically caused damage to Pioneer's instruments. For 10 points each:
 Name this entity with an equatorial strength of about 4.3 gauss, the cause of a certain decametric synchrotron radiation.
ANSWER: Jupiter's magnetic field [accept clear equivalents]
 Jupiter's magnetic field and ultraviolet light causes a namesake plasma torus to form from the sulfur dioxide ejected from this volcanic moon.
 Jupiter's magnetic field is coupled to its magnetosphere by this current, allowing angular momentum to be transferred from Jupiter to Io.
ANSWER: Birkeland current
18. In plants, this enzyme has eight copies of the large subunit and eight copies of the small subunit and its activation requires carbamylation of lysine 201 and association of a magnesium ion. For 10 points each:
 Name this enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of carbon dioxide with ribulose,1,5-bisphospate.
ANSWER: RuBisCo [or ribulose bisposphate carboxylase/oxygenase]
 Two molecules of this compound are the product of the reaction that rubisco catalyzes.
ANSWER: 3-PGA [or 3-phosphoglyceric acid; or 3-phosphoglycerate; or glycerate 3-phosphate]
 Some algae deal with RuBisCo inefficiency by the formation of these dense structures of mostly RuBisCo in or near chloroplats. In Euglena, they are capped with paramylon.
19. This country’s independence hero is Jose Gervasio Artigas, who formed the Liga Federal after winning the Battle of Las Piedras. For 10 points each:
 Name this South American country whose independence was fought for by the Thirty-Three Orientals, and which was eventually created as a buffer state between Argentina and Brazil in 1828.
 This Uruguayan political party was founded by Manuel Oribe and drew most of their support from the countryside. After allying with Juan Manuel de Rosas and losing the great civil war from 1839-1852, they wouldn’t gain power until 1959.
ANSWER: Blancos [or National Party; or Whites]
 Oribe opposed this first president of Uruguay and founder of the Colorado Party.
ANSWER: Fructuso Rivera
20. The central group on this show is allied with Jimmy O’Phelan, who leads a group called the True IRA. For 10 points each:
 Name this show in which Katey Sagal plays Gemma Morrow, the mother of Jax Teller and matriarch of the title motorcycle gang.
ANSWER: Sons of Anarchy
 Sons of Anarchy is a show on this cable network, which also broadcasts It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Rescue Me, The Shield, and Archer.
 In this FX show, Timothy Olyphant plays U.S. Marshal Raylan Givens, who is reassigned to rural Kentucky after shooting someone in Florida.
E1. In one rendition, four faces are embedded in a wall above with only the mouths and noses showing. For 10 points each:
 Name this subject which the artist associated with it also depicted in one work with a series of plaster casts at the top.
ANSWER: target [prompt on bullseye]
 Target with Plaster Casts and Target with Four Faces is by this American artist who made use of encaustic painting and who created Field Painting, Periscope (Hart Crane), and Diver. He also served as artistic advisor to Merce Cunningham.
ANSWER: Jasper Johns
 Jasper Johns is perhaps best known for depictions of this subject, of which he did a “white” one and a work where three of them are superimposed on each other.
ANSWER: American flag
E2. This actually refers to two slightly different approaches, but in the more commonly used form each node pair has an independent equal probability of having an edge. For 10 points each:
 Name this doubly eponymous model for generating random graphs.
ANSWER: Erdős–Rényi model
 Not surprisingly the number of edges in Erdős–Rényi graphs follow this distribution whose namesake coefficient is given by n choose k.
ANSWER: binomial distribution
 A pattern in a network is considered a network motif if it appears more significantly in nature than in a random graph. This pattern is the only significant widespread three membered transcription network motif in cells. Type I coherent ones act as a sign sensitive delay element.
ANSWER: feedforward loop
E3. Name these cities in Texas for 10 points each:
 This second largest city in Texas is home to the 750 foot Tower of the Americas, as well as the River Walk and the Alamo.
ANSWER: San Antonio
 This city at the western tip of Texas sits across the Mexican border from Ciudad Juarez.
ANSWER: El Paso
 This city in Northwestern Texas was the birthplace of Buddy Holly and formed from an 1890 merger with Monterey. It is home to Mackenzie Park and is the site of a Big 12 university.
E4. Name these South African authors, for 10 points each:
This man wrote about the Afrikaaner Martin Mynhardt, who struggles to hold onto his family farm, in Rumors of Rain. He also wrote about Ben du Toit’s search for Gordon Ngubene, who has been captured by South African police, in A Dry White Season.
ANSWER: Andre Brink
Uncle tries to get Mary Jane to win a beauty contest in this man’s story, “Grieg on a Stolen Piano.” Born “Ezekiel,” he also wrote about Zungu, who justifies his wickedness to himself by the titular mantra, in “Man Must Live.”
ANSWER: Eskia Mphahlele
A more famous South African author is this man, who wrote Elizabeth Costello and The Life and Times of Michael K
ANSWER: J.M. Coetzee