Summer School Final Exam Multiple Choice



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Summer School Final Exam
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. At Yalta, the leaders agreed to recognize the Polish government that the Soviets had set up if Stalin agreed to

a.

allow free enterprise in Poland.

b.

allow Poland to trade with the West.

c.

hold free elections there as soon as possible.

d.

give up his demand for reparations from Germany.




____ 2. Which of the following best completes the diagram?

a.

Germany must be Communist.

b.

Germany must be divided.

c.

Germany must make reparations.

d.

Berlin must be placed under Soviet control.

____ 3. United Nations troops in Korea were driven back across the 38th parallel in an attack by



a.

the United States.

c.

South Korea.

b.

the Soviet Union.

d.

China.

____ 4. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were charged with



a.

passing atomic secrets to the Soviets.

b.

plotting to overthrow the U.S.

c.

being Communist Party members.

d.

planning acts of terrorism.

____ 5. Joseph McCarthy created the media frenzy that began his witch hunt by



a.

accusing Alger Hiss of being a Soviet spy.

b.

saying that there were spies in the United States Army.

c.

urging the House Un-American Activities Committee to hold open hearings.

d.

saying that he had a list of Communists employed by the State Department.

____ 6. The Egyptians seized control of the Suez Canal in order to



a.

assure their own national security.

b.

expel Western influences from their country.

c.

use the canal’s profits to pay for a dam.

d.

assure access to the canal for their ally, the Soviet Union.




____ 7. Which event on the time line represents the first time in history that the United States committed itself to maintaining peace in Europe?

a.

1952 Britain produces an atomic bomb.

b.

1949 NATO established.

c.

1948 Berlin Airlift begins.

d.

1953 Stalin dies.

____ 8. Look closely at the events on the time line. Choose the event that shocked Americans and resulted in a dramatic shift in American policy toward Japan.



a.

1949 NATO established

b.

1950 Korean War begins

c.

1949 People’s Republic of China established

d.

1952 Britain produces an atomic bomb



“While I cannot take the time to name all the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of 205 that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”
—Joseph McCarthy

____ 9. Statements such as this one by Senator McCarthy led to which of the following occurrences?



a.

Americans built more bomb shelters.

b.

President Truman desegregated the armed forces.

c.

The Supreme Court led an investigation of the State Department.

d.

Congress passed the McCarran Internal Security Act.




____ 10. Judging by the map, the Korean War resulted in

a.

large territorial losses for North Korea.

b.

very few territorial changes.

c.

large territorial losses for South Korea.

d.

United Nations control of the entire peninsula.

____ 11. Truman’s first meeting with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov marked a shift in Soviet-American relations because



a.

Truman gave in to most Soviet demands.

b.

Truman strongly confronted Molotov.

c.

Molotov gave in to most of Truman’s demands.

d.

each official approached the other cautiously but diplomatically.

____ 12. The Truman Doctrine resulted in



a.

the economic recovery of Europe.

c.

the rearming of West Germany.

b.

a pledge to fight communism.

d.

the Red Scare.

____ 13. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to



a.

punish Germany for World War II.

b.

help Germany form a new government.

c.

keep Communist countries weak.

d.

help Western Europe recover.

____ 14. Truman fired MacArthur because



a.

MacArthur’s mistakes caused his forces to lose the key port of Inchon.

b.

MacArthur ignored Truman’s command to invade China.

c.

MacArthur wanted to withdraw American troops from China.

d.

MacArthur demanded Truman’s approval to expand the war.

____ 15. The Eisenhower Doctrine gave the President the authority to



a.

withdraw troops from West Berlin.

b.

provide aid to Egypt for public works projects.

c.

spread pan-Arabism to the nations of the Middle East.

d.

use armed force to help Middle East nations resist Communist aggression.

____ 16. To prevent Communist revolutions in developing countries, Eisenhower used



a.

brinkmanship.

c.

embargoes.

b.

massive retaliation.

d.

covert operations.

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe . . . All are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.”

—Winston Churchill
____ 17. The “iron curtain” of which Churchill speaks is a symbol of

a.

disagreements over which country would provide funding for the Marshall Plan.

b.

the four sections into which the Allies originally divided Germany.

c.

the division between nations that won World War II and those that lost.

d.

the division between Communist Eastern Europe and Western democracies.

____ 18. Stalin’s demand for joint control of the straits of the Dardanelles triggered a crisis in



a.

France.

c.

Germany.

b.

Turkey.

d.

Poland.

____ 19. The Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact in response to NATO’s decision to



a.

send troops to fight Communist uprisings in Greece and Turkey.

b.

send supplies to West Berlin.

c.

allow West Germany to rearm and join its organization.

d.

intervene in Korea.

____ 20. The Korean War began when



a.

North Korean troops invaded the south.

b.

American and Soviet forces clashed at the 38th parallel.

c.

American troops landed at the port of Inchon.

d.

Chinese forces crossed the Yalu River.

____ 21. Many CIA operations took place in nations with primarily agricultural economies, known as



a.

liberated nations.

c.

satellite nations.

b.

covert nations.

d.

developing nations.

____ 22. Sputnik was a



a.

Soviet satellite.

c.

covert operation.

b.

U-2 spy plane.

d.

ballistic missile.

____ 23. Eisenhower used the term “creeping socialism” to refer to



a.

public support for national health care.

b.

the expansion of Social Security.

c.

the expansion of the welfare system.

d.

federal aid to businesses.

____ 24. To benefit from a cheaper labor pool, some businesses in the 1950s began to



a.

hire African Americans.

c.

expand overseas.

b.

hire teenagers.

d.

franchise.

____ 25. The development of the transistor made possible the



a.

mass production of radios.

c.

development of the computer.

b.

miniaturization of radios.

d.

mass production of computers.

____ 26. Rock n’ roll grew out of the sounds of



a.

jazz.

c.

rhythm and blues.

b.

swing.

d.

ragtime.

____ 27. In his book The Other America, Michael Harrington wrote about



a.

the beat movement.

c.

poverty.

b.

street gangs.

d.

the generation gap.

____ 28. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, efforts began in the United States to



a.

send more juvenile delinquents to jail.

b.

discourage adolescents from becoming interested in Communism.

c.

limit the amount of television children watched.

d.

improve math and science education.



“. . . [It would] reverse the basic direction of our national labor policy, inject the government into private economic affairs on an unprecedented scale, and conflict with important principles of our democratic society. Its provisions would cause more strikes, not fewer.”
—President Truman on the Taft-Hartley Act

quoted in The Growth of the American Republic



____ 29. What can you infer was the intent of the Taft-Hartley Act?



a.

to change the way labor unions operate

b.

to end labor unrest and put people back to work

c.

to keep the government out of business

d.

to enforce dynamic conservatism

____ 30. Which group might disagree with President Truman’s opinion of the Taft-Hartley Act?



a.

union leaders who called the act a “slave labor” law

b.

Democrats in Congress who supported the President’s policies

c.

Americans who wanted the government to stop union strikes and labor unrest

d.

union workers who wanted to continue the practice of union shops




____ 31. The Baby Boom resulted in a sharp increase in the number of live births. Between 1945 and 1947, the number of live births per 1,000 people increased from 20.5 to

a.

26.

c.

24.

b.

26.5.

d.

25.5

____ 32. After World War II, labor unrest was triggered by



a.

rising inflation.

c.

lack of jobs.

b.

falling wages.

d.

poor working conditions.




____ 33. Which of the following choices best completes the diagram?

a.

supported unions’ right to contribute to political campaigns

b.

allowed right-to-work laws

c.

increased the minimum wage

d.

outlawed strikes

____ 34. For many Americans, suburbs came to symbolize



a.

the American dream.

c.

a departure from traditional values.

b.

the GI Bill.

d.

life during wartime.

____ 35. One of the most popular shows ever to air on television was a situation comedy called



a.

I Love Lucy.

c.

The Lone Ranger.

b.

The $64,000 Question.

d.

Dragnet.

____ 36. The government unwittingly encouraged residents of public housing to remain poor by



a.

increasing the rent as they earned more money.

b.

evicting them as soon as they began to earn any money.

c.

requiring them to pay for maintenance.

d.

locating the housing too far from available jobs.




____ 37. Based on the information presented in the chart above which candidate was most likely from the South?

a.

Truman

c.

Wallace

b.

Thurmond

d.

Dewey

“The Indians believed that when the dark clouds of war passed from the skies overhead, their rising tide of expectations, though temporarily stalled, would again reappear. Instead they were threatened by termination . . . Soaring expectations began to plunge. Termination took on the connotation of extermination for many.”

—Benjamin Reifel, a Sioux Indian quoted in The Earth Shall Weep
____ 38. What does the “termination” cited in the passage above imply?

a.

the execution of Native Americans

b.

the imprisonment of Native Americans

c.

the loss of Native Americans’ separate legal recognition

d.

the government’s insistence that Native Americans could not assimilate

____ 39. “Dynamic conservatism” meant balancing economic conservatism with



a.

activism in areas that would benefit the country.

b.

an escalation of the Korean War.

c.

increases in government aid to American businesses.

d.

a program to spend more on schools and public housing.

____ 40. As the election of 1948 approached, President Truman criticized the majority Republican Congress, which came to be known as the



a.

“Dixiecrat Congress.”

c.

“Middle-of-the-Road Congress.”

b.

“Featherbedding Congress.”

d.

“Do-Nothing Congress.”

____ 41. In the United States, the 1950s was a decade of incredible



a.

scarcity.

c.

prosperity.

b.

overpopulation.

d.

turmoil.

____ 42. What was the significance of Levittown, New York?



a.

It was the setting of a popular television sitcom.

b.

It was one of the earliest suburbs built in the 1950s.

c.

It was the poorest town in the United States.

d.

It was the place where the transistor was invented.

____ 43. Who were Chuck Berry and Little Richard?



a.

African American singers

c.

radio disc jockeys

b.

stars of a television western

d.

beat poets

____ 44. In the 1950s, unemployment soared in rural Appalachia because of



a.

the termination policy.

c.

the Bracero program.

b.

the mechanization of coal mining.

d.

migration to the suburbs.

____ 45. In response to the arrest of Rosa Parks, African Americans



a.

organized restaurant sit-ins.

b.

organized a bus boycott.

c.

formed the first Black Panther group.

d.

formed the NAACP.

____ 46. In Little Rock, Arkansas, the governor tried to prevent African American students from entering a white high school by



a.

closing the school.

c.

hiring the Ku Klux Klan.

b.

redrawing the school district.

d.

deploying the National Guard.

____ 47. The organization founded by student civil rights activists was



a.

SNCC.

c.

NAACP.

b.

CORE.

d.

SCLC.

____ 48. At first President Kennedy acted slowly on civil rights because he



a.

was not sure such laws were really needed.

b.

needed support from many Southern senators to get other programs passed.

c.

believed that civil rights had to evolve gradually, as people’s values changed.

d.

did not want to provoke violence in the South.

____ 49. One advantage President Johnson had––that Kennedy did not––in getting the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed was his



a.

ability to convince minorities to vote.

b.

close relationships with civil rights leaders.

c.

intimate knowledge of how Congress worked.

d.

willingness to appoint minorities to his cabinet.




____ 50. The first major protest of the civil rights movement occured in what state, according to the time line above?

a.

Mississippi

c.

Arkansas

b.

Alabama

d.

Montgomery




____ 51. Why do you think the Supreme Court’s decision in Morgan v. Virginia did not prevent the Rosa Parks incident from happening?

a.

Rose Parks staged her protest in Alabama, not Virginia.

b.

The Supreme Court did not rule on that case until after Rosa Parks sat on the bus.

c.

The Supreme Court ruling applied to interstate buses, not local buses.

d.

Equal facilities were not provided on Alabama buses.



“Now let us say that we are not advocating violence. . . . The only weapon we have in our hands this evening is the weapon of protest. If we were incarcerated behind the iron curtains of a communistic nation—we couldn’t do this. If we were trapped in the dungeon of a totalitarian regime—we couldn’t do this. But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right!”

––Martin Luther King, Jr.



____ 52. This speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. reveals his commitment to



a.

ending suffering under totalitarian regimes.

b.

ending incarceration in communistic nations.

c.

the right to protest granted by American democracy.

d.

protesting communistic laws.

____ 53. The ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 had established



a.

the right of African Americans to vote.

b.

the right of all Americans to peaceful protest.

c.

the separate-but-equal doctrine.

d.

the right of all Americans to equal protection under the law.

____ 54. When first established, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference set out to end segregation and



a.

encourage African Americans to register to vote.

b.

tame poverty in inner cities.

c.

challenge the “separate-but-equal” doctrine.

d.

promote education for African Americans.

____ 55. The Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first since Reconstruction, was intended to



a.

protect the right of African Americans’ to vote.

b.

end lynching.

c.

protect the right of African Americans to attend desegregated schools.

d.

end discrimination in hiring.

____ 56. Robert Kennedy tried to help African Americans register to vote by



a.

sending U.S. Marshals to voting booths in the South.

b.

directing the news media to cover the marches in the South.

c.

having the Justice Department file lawsuits throughout the South.

d.

proposing a voting rights bill to Congress.

____ 57. In registering African Americans to vote, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 authorized the Attorney General to



a.

provide literacy tests to newly registered voters.

b.

refuse African Americans the right to vote.

c.

work side-by-side with local officials.

d.

send federal examiners to register qualified voters.



“I don’t believe you can change the hearts of men with laws or decisions.”

––President Dwight Eisenhower



____ 58. Eisenhower’s statement means that



a.

you cannot persuade people to stop being prejudicial.

b.

you cannot legislate people into changing their opinions.

c.

African Americans would not be willing to uphold new judicial rulings.

d.

sympathizers are difficult to convince.




____ 59. In which year was equal access to all public facilities first allowed?

a.

1960

c.

1964

b.

1962

d.

1968

____ 60. Dr. King selected Selma, Alabama, for a protest march because



a.

African Americans were a majority of the population.

b.

most African American residents were not registered to vote.

c.

violence against Freedom Riders in Selma had been well-documented.

d.

opposition to school desegregation was particularly intense in Selma.

____ 61. In 1967, Thurgood Marshall became the first African American to



a.

be voted into Congress.

c.

earn a law degree.

b.

attend an all-white school.

d.

serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.

____ 62. When the Supreme Court ordered school districts to end school segregation “with all deliberate speed,” the wording was vague enough that many districts were able to



a.

plan a protest march outside the Supreme Court building.

b.

keep their schools segregated for many more years.

c.

appeal the Brown v. Board of Education ruling.

d.

use the Southern Manifesto to defy the Supreme Court.

____ 63. The bus boycott in Montgomery lasted for



a.

more than a year.

c.

exactly six months.

b.

less than two weeks.

d.

nearly nine weeks.

____ 64. What two events convinced Truman to help France in Vietnam?



a.

the fall of China to communism and the outbreak of the Korean War

b.

Japan’s surrender in World War II and the fall of China to communism

c.

the establishment of a Communist government in Vietnam and the Korean War

d.

the establishment of a Communist government in Vietnam and the fall of China

____ 65. The goal of Agent Orange was to



a.

infiltrate the Vietcong military.

b.

sabotage Vietcong equipment.

c.

destroy the Vietcong’s ability to hide in jungles.

d.

cut Vietcong supply lines.

____ 66. The “educational” hearings on Vietnam were intended to



a.

boost public support for the war.

b.

boost congressional support for the war.

c.

explain the war to the Senate.

d.

explain the war to the public.

____ 67. After the Tet offensive, the mainstream American media began to



a.

appeal to Americans to support the war effort.

b.

give less air time to antiwar protesters.

c.

give more air time to antiwar protesters.

d.

openly criticize the war effort.




____ 68. According to the time line, when did the first U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam?

a.

one year after the signing of the Geneva Accords

b.

one year after the passing of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

c.

one year prior to the Tet Offensive

d.

one year prior to student protests at Kent State University

____ 69. Nightly news coverage of the Vietnam War on television helped



a.

raise Johnson’s ratings in the polls.

b.

unify Americans behind the war.

c.

create a credibility gap.

d.

support the nation’s “hawks.”




____ 70. How much time passed from the moment the first combat troops arrived until all Americans had left Vietnam, according to the time line above?

a.

5 years

c.

8 years

b.

6 years

d.

10 years

You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. . . . Asia, after all, has already lost 450 million of its peoples to the Communist dictatorship, and we simply can’t afford greater losses

—President Dwight Eisenhower
____ 71. In this passage, Eisenhower is making the point that

a.

just as Korea had been a short war, so would Vietnam.

b.

if Vietnam fell to communism, so would other nations in Southeast Asia.

c.

the real enemy is Asia, not Vietnam.

d.

the fall of Vietnam to communism could lead to its spread to the United States.

____ 72. Who overthrew the Diem government in 1963?



a.

the Vietcong

c.

a group of Vietnamese generals

b.

the U.S. government

d.

a group of Buddhist monks

____ 73. Many college faculty and students against the Vietnam War abandoned their classes and gathered informally to discuss the issues in a new form of protest called a



a.

sit-in.

c.

show trial.

b.

teach-in.

d.

political rally.

____ 74. During the Vietnam War, American planes dropped ____, a jellied gasoline explosive that explodes on contact.



a.

Agent Orange

c.

grenades

b.

napalm

d.

Greek fire

____ 75. What event happened at My Lai that profoundly shocked Americans?



a.

American troops invaded Cambodia to destroy Vietcong military bases.

b.

Defense Department documents revealed that officials had lied about war decisions.

c.

Ohio National Guard soldiers fired on antiwar demonstrators.

d.

Unarmed Vietnamese civilians were massacred by U.S. troops.

____ 76. Liberals generally believe in



a.

religious faith as the best way to solve social problems.

b.

transferring more power from the federal government to state governments.

c.

free speech and privacy.

d.

reducing government regulation of business.

____ 77. Before Ronald Reagan became governor of California, he was



a.

a lawyer.

c.

an actor.

b.

a shoe salesman.

d.

a televangelist.

____ 78. Reagan believed that massive Soviet defense spending would



a.

collapse the Communist system.

c.

maintain peace.

b.

lead to nuclear war.

d.

reduce U.S.-Soviet tensions.

____ 79. In the Iran-Contra scandal, officials sold weapons to Iran to



a.

support the guerrillas fighting against the pro-Soviet government in Iran.

b.

support the pro-Western government in Iran in its fight against communism.

c.

gain freedom for American hostages being held in the Middle East.

d.

improve relations with the Iranian government.




____ 80. Which is the most accurate description of perestroika, according to the diagram above?

a.

Perestroika involves religious freedom.

b.

Perestroika turns economic problems over to the people.

c.

Perestroika involves a new structure which includes some capitalist components.

d.

Perestroika protects freedom of speech

____ 81. One important benefit that resulted from glasnost was that now



a.

Soviet and American citizens did not have to use passports.

b.

private enterprise became part of Soviet life.

c.

Soviet citizens could make international policy.

d.

Soviet people could openly discuss politics.




____ 82. During the Reagan administration, the deficit grew by

a.

25 percent.

c.

over 100 percent.

b.

10 billion dollars.

d.

50 percent.



“The answer is that all those young men went on their spree of looting because they had been given permission to do so. They had been given permission to do so by all the papers and magazines, movies and documentaries—all the outlets for the purveying of enlightened liberal attitude and progressive liberal policy—which had for years and years been proclaiming that race and poverty were sufficient excuses

for lawlessness. . . .”

—Midge Decter, quoted in Commentary, September 1977


____ 83. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the passage?



a.

Liberal attitudes in the media make youth prone to destruction and lawlessness.

b.

The media think that race and poverty are no excuse for lawlessness.

c.

Social problems are mostly caused by youth who are uneducated.

d.

Freedom of speech is causing other social problems.

____ 84. Conservatives generally support



a.

government regulation of the economy.

b.

the split of government power between state and federal levels.

c.

social programs sponsored by government to help disadvantaged Americans.

d.

shifting wealth to reduce the gap between rich and poor.

____ 85. The collapse of the Soviet economy was due to



a.

inefficient central planning and huge expenditures on the arms race.

b.

revolutions in Eastern Europe and the destruction of the Berlin Wall.

c.

Boris Yeltsin’s attack on the Communist Party in Russia.

d.

Reagan’s “trickle-down economics.”

____ 86. To keep the deficit under control, Reagan proposed



a.

increasing taxes.

c.

cutting social programs.

b.

decreasing interest rates.

d.

issuing more government bonds.




____ 87. Which of the following choices best completes the diagram?

a.

monetarism

c.

supply-side economics

b.

Keynesianism

d.

Reaganomics

____ 88. Reagan wanted to appoint Supreme Court justices who would



a.

follow the original intent of the Constitution.

b.

interpret the Constitution more broadly.

c.

expand the Constitution to better fit present-day problems.

d.

limit application of the Constitution.

____ 89. In May 1989, Chinese students and worker held demonstrations for



a.

higher wages.

c.

democratic reforms.

b.

halting war.

d.

a capitalist economy.

“We have every right to dream heroic dreams. . . . You can see heroes every day going in and out of factory gates. Others, a handful in number, produce enough food to feed all of us. . . . You meet heroes across a counter. . . . There are entrepreneurs with faith in themselves and faith in an idea who create new jobs, new wealth and opportunity. . . . Their patriotism is quiet but deep. Their values sustain our national life.”

—President Ronald Reagan
____ 90. The passage above is a prime example of the way in which Reagan

a.

motivated Americans to believe in themselves.

b.

challenged Americans to start new jobs.

c.

calmed Americans about the Cold War.

d.

chastised Americans for being unrealistic.

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