Summer of Kleist Memorial Tournament



Download 93.5 Kb.
Date conversion15.05.2016
Size93.5 Kb.
Summer of Kleist Memorial Tournament

Round 1
Tossups


1. Son of a Scottish bookseller, he graduated second in his class from Cambridge in 1880 ad four years later held the Cavendish Professorship. His early works were concerned with extending the theories of Maxwell. His investigations of cathode rays led to his deduction of the existence a new particle and its charge to mass ratio, and later found the absolute charge independent of Millikan. His later investigations of positive cathode led to his discovery and isolation of isotopes by mass spectrometry. He was, foremost, a great teacher, as six of his students were Nobel laureates and he himself received the prize in 1908. FTP, name this British physicist, discoverer of the electron.
A: J.J. _Thomson_
2. His 1862 work consists of 16 line sonnets which trace the dissolution of his first marriage and is entitled Modern Love. A supporter of the emancipation of women, The Egoist and Diana of the Crossways both contain heroines who exercise freedom of choice in love and marriage. Identify this 19th century English novelist and poet whose known work The Ordeal of Richard Feverel is about the harm done to a young man by being brought up in a sheltered household. George Meredith
3. When Ea learned of her plan to kill her descendents, he killed her lover Apsu in his sleep. In vengeance she bore a whole army of demons and bestowed the Tablets of Destiny unto her new consort Kingu, who was also her son. Her plan to make Kingu lord of the universe was thwarted by Marduk, who slew both of them. From Kingu’s blood emerged mankind, and from her cleaved body emerged the earth and the sky. FTP, name this Babylonian entity, a giant dragon that personifies the saltwater ocean and gave birth to all existing things.

Answer: _TIAMAT_


4. A group of French intellectuals have currently co-opted his name for the name of their group dedicating themselves to a systematic attack on the underpinnings of modern economic theory. Too playful, he lacked the patience to be a grand professor or do any kind of system building—as a youth he was an amateur boxer. As a sociologist his early works include Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function. This was of course only a prelude to his most important work, which examined the forms of exchange in cultures in North American, Melanesia and Polynesia. FTP, identify this French sociologist, author of The Gift, and nephew of Emile Durkheim.
Answer: Marcel Mauss
5. Son of a civil servant, he studied mathematics at Cambridge and obtained a Ph. D. at Princeton under Alonso Church. He expanded on Godel’s work by proving that mathematics would always contain undecidable propositions. During World War II he designed the Bombe machine, based on one of his previous suppositions, that cracked the German enigma code. His namesake machine is not actually a machine but a mathematical ideal of a computing device. FTP, name this British mathematician, the father of modern computing.
A: Alan Turing
6. The so-called “fingerprint region” lies between 1,500-400 inverse centimeters. Carbonyl groups are represented by spikes at 1740 inverse centimeters, while triple bonded carbons spike at 2200 inv. cm, double bonded carbons at 1645 inv cm, and single bonded carbons at 1200 inv cm. Hydrogens bonded to nitrogen show a sharp spike at 3100 to 3500 inv cm, and hydroxy groups show a broad spike in the same region. Based on measuring the frequency of molecular vibrations as bonds stretch, bend, and rotate, a graph is plotted measuring frequency versus transmittance. FTP, name this method of identifying chemical structure, named for the spectrum of radiation it measures.
A: _Infrared Spectroscopy_ or _IR Spectroscopy_
7. A dictator as much as inspiration to other composers, he often served as a critic and taskmaster for men like Tchaikovsky, Borodin, and Mussorgsky. A talented pianist, one of his greatest works for that instrument is 1869’s Islamey. Identify this Russian composer of the tone poem Tamara best know as a member of the “mighty fistful” along with such others as Cui and Rimsky-Korsakov. Mily Balakirev
8. In 1359 he married his cousin Blanche of Lancaster through whom he succeeding to a dukedom in 1362. After her death he married the daughter of Pedro the Cruel of Castile and assumed the title of King of Castile. FTP, identify this man, made Duke of Aquitaine by Richard IV, ancestor of the kings Henry IV, V, VI, and VII.

John of Gaunt
9. His novel, The Spell describes a Hitlerian stranger’s domination of a mountain village, expounding his theory of mass psychology that he spend the end of his life pursuing. He had spent an earlier portion of his life in a Nazi prison, and it was only through the intervention of James Joyce and a number of other international writers that he was released. Still earlier he had sold his family’s textile industry to more assiduously pursue physics, mathematics, and philosophy. He is best known however, for two works, one, which describes the last hours of Virgil’s life, and another which depicts the disintegration of European society in the latter half of the 19th century. FTP, identify this Austrian author of The Death of Virgil and The Sleepwalkers.
Answer: Hermann Broch
10. His work with celebrities stems all the way back to his childhood, when his grandparents’ neighbor, Sergey Rachmaninov posed for him. As a teenager, he co-edited his high school literary magazine, The Magpie, with James Baldwin. Later on, Baldwin would provide the text to his 1964 collection, Nothing Personal, while 1959’s Observations featured words by Truman Capote. As he chronicled the civil rights and anti-war movements in pictures, he also began a 24 year stint shooting fashion at Vogue magazine, indulging his penchant for stark, highly contrasting black-and-white photographs of individuals in confrontational poses. In 1992, he became the first staff photographer for The New Yorker. FTP, identify this preeminent photographer whose life was the basis for the film Funny Face and who released collections such as Glitter Slave, In the American West, and The Sixties.

Answer: Richard _AVEDON_


11. Partially selected because he was young, timid and in poor health, he provided the perfect non-entity around which warring factions could rally. He reached peace with Poland by signing the 14 year Truce of Deulino but upon its expiration, he was defeated in the Smolensk War in which Russia was forced to acknowledge Poland’s claim to Deulino. Also during his rein, the Polish king Wladylaw IV gave up his claim to the Russian throne in exchange for 20,000 rubles. Identify this Russian czar whose rein saw the first Russian expedition to the Pacific, the first contact with China will as the strengthening of the frontiers. Michael Romanov (Mikhail Fedorovich)
12. The title character and his sons attempt to enter the Setch, where they must pledge loyalty to Christ, the Trinity and the Holy Church. After an attack by the Poles, the Jews are implicated, and although many are killed, Yankel is saved. This proves helpful, as he tells the hero of his son Andrii’s betrayal for the love of a beautiful Polish woman. In an ensuing battle, the title character kills Andrii for his betrayal; however, his other son, Ostap, is taken prisoner. Although he attempts to save Ostap, he arrives in Warsaw just to watch him die. He is then taken prisoner and crucified to a burning tree. FTP, name this character, a Cossack warrior, the subject of a book by Nikolai Gogol.
Answer: Taras Bulba
13. It was founded in 1958 by Robert Welch, who was also the inventor of Sugar Babies candies. It was named in honor of a Georgia missionary turned World War II Army Captain who was killed by Red Chinese forces just after the war ended and was, in Welch’s eye, the first American casualty of the Cold War. For 10 points – identify this association, known in the 1960s for its fanatically anti-Communist activities.

Answer: John Birch Society


14. This mountain range, home to the Jules Carde Observatory, has its highest point at Mount Tahat, 9,573 feet above sea level. Consisting mostly of volcanic basalt and pink granite, the largest town is the region is Tamanrasset, which is located at an oasis along the caravan route to Kano, Nigeria. For 10 points – identify this mountainous plateau located in southern Algeria.
Answer: Ahaggar Mountains

15. There is evidence that he held an administrative office in finance, dated about 55AD, though it is considered to be unreliable. He was in the senate until expelled for alleged immorality, though the real cause was growing unrest in the senate and his speeches attacking Cicero, who was defending Milo, accused of murdering the demagogue Clodius. One of his most important works explores the origins of party struggles that arose in Rome when war broke out against the king of Numidia. Another of his works deals with corruption in Roman politics by tracing the conspiracy of a certain patrician. FTP, identify this historian and Roman literary stylist, whose most famous works are Catiline’s War and The Jugurthine War.


Answer: Sallust (Gaius Sallustius Crispus)
16. There are two types: Col factors and R factors. The col factors code for the production of proteins called colicins, which kill bacteria, while R-factors code for resistance to some types of antibiotics. They play important roles in protein production but are most often often used as a method of gene therapy, in which a desired stand of DNA is spliced into them and set to spreading rapidly among populations of cells, which can be exploited for commercial or medical uses such as the rapid production of insulin. FTP, identify this type of genetic material, found in bacteria as circular fragments.
A: _plasmids_
17. He was born in the same town as funk legend George Clinton: Kannapolis, North Carolina. Making his first Winston Cup start in 1975 at Charlotte, he finished 22nd, one spot ahead of current car owner Richard Childress. The only man ever to win NASCAR Rookie of the Year and the Winston Cup in consecutive seasons, doing so in 1979-80, he would win six more Winston Cups, tying him with Richard Petty for the all-time record. For 10 points, name this "Intimidator" whose races the #3 Chevrolet Monte Carlo.
Answer: Dale Earnhardt, Sr. (you must prompt here because of the emergence of Dale

Earnhardt, Jr. as a NASCAR personality.)


18. A part of the failed invasion of Canada in 1775, he also served as a brigadier general at Trenton and Princeton. After giving up Fort Ticonderoga without a fight before the advance of Burgoyne in 1777 he was court martialed and, though exonerated, did not hold any more commands during the war. Appointed president of the Continental Congress in 1787 he became the first governor of the Northwest Territory. Identify this poor general, defeated by Little Turtle in 1791, who was also an unpopular governor, removed from that position in 1802. Arthur St. Clair
19. Frequently creating Frescoes, he painted the ceiling at the Museo ca Rezzonico inVenice to celebrate the marriage of Ludovico Rezzonico and Faustina Savorgnan. After earning fame in Italy, he was invited to Wurzburg to paint frescoes celebrating the life of Emperor Frederick I. Identify this Italian Rococo painter of The Banquet of Cleopatra and Queen Zenobia Addressing Her Soldier. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
20. In one famous story, he and Wittgenstein got into a fight involving a poker at a meeting of Cambridge’s philosophy club. In the apocryphal retellings of the story, it remains unclear if there were any blows exchanged. His most important principle states that science advanced by the scientist finding counterexamples to proposed theories. Much of his work has centered around this “falsifiability criterion” of science. Under this method, Marxism, metaphysics, and astrology fail to qualify as sciences because they do not adhere to the criterion. This problem of pseudosciences was one which troubled him since age 17. He has written numerous articles defending his views on science, including The Poverty of Historicism and Objustive Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach. FTP, identify this philosopher, author of The Logic of Scientific Discovery.
Answer: Karl Popper
Summer of Kleist

Round 1 Bonuses

1. Alright, so you’ve been complaining about Heinrich von Kleist. You say, “not enough Kleist!”, you say, “not hard enough Kleist!” This tournament and this bonus are both for you. Identify these things about your friend Heinrich von Kleist for five points each and make your dreams come true:

(Note, this is probably the hardest bonus at the tournament.)


5 - For starters, HvK was involved in a troupe of artists, authors and patrons in Dresden where he and friend started a periodical. Name that periodical.
Answer: Phobus
5 – Next, name the man with whom he started Phobus, the court philosopher for Prince Metternich.
Answer: Adam Mueller
5 – Next, name the tragic drama of his which centers on the love of the queen of the Amazons for Achilles.
Answer: Penthesilia
5 – Inspired by a threatened rising against Napoleon, HvK wrote some savage war poems and this political and patriotic tragedy, which was an attempt at a call to arms for all of Germany.
Answer: The Warrior’s Battle
5 – Next, identify this drama he wrote, set in Swabia in the Middle Ages about a strong heroine. It was shut out of the Berlin stage.
Answer: Katherine of Heilbronn
5 – For a final 5 points, HvK killed himself and a psycho woman who begged him to kill her. Identify that woman, and you will live forever in Kleist Heaven!
Answer: Henriette Vogel

2. Name the following terms from anthropology FTSNOP.


F5P, this is the science that examines the ways in which earth sediments accumulate in layers. _stratigraphy_

FTP, a custom in many societies, this is the term for when, after the death of her husband, the widow marries her brother. _Levirate_

F15P, this is the study of the processes that affect the remains of dead animals. _Taphonomy_

3. Answer the following questions about a 20th Century art movement for the stated number of points.


(5) Originating in Russia around 1913, its members were extremely fascinated with machines and technology and thus adopted building materials such as glass, steel, and plastic as their media. The Realist Manifesto, published in 1920, outlined the agenda of these so-called artist-engineers.

Answer: _CONSTRUCTIVISM_


(10) Constructivism was borne primarily out of this Ukranian artist’s “painting reliefs,” which were abstract geometric creations of sheet iron, wood, and cardboard.

Answer: Vladimir _TATLIN_


(15) In 1919, Vladimir Tatlin was commissioned to design the world’s tallest structure. He proceeded to conceptualize this leaning iron spiral that supported a cylinder, cone, and cube made of glass, each of which could be rotated at different speeds. A 22 foot high model was displayed at the 6th Congress of the Soviets, but the project never came to fruition.

Answer: _MONUMENT TO THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL_

4. Answer the following about the fall of Quebec in 1759.

A. (5) The decisive battle occurred at this site outside Quebec City on September 13.


Answer: Plains of Abraham
B. (10) Of course, both generals, Wolfe and Montcalm, died during the battle. For 10 points, identify either the English brigadier or the French lieutenant who negotiated the terms of surrender.
Answer: James Murray or Jean-Baptiste-Nicolas-Roch de Ramezay
C. (15) In April 1760, French forces led by Francois de Levis attempted to retake the city, defeating the garrison led by Murray at this battle. The French laid siege to the city, but were unable to take it before British reinforcements arrived.
Answer: Battle of Ste-Foy

5. Identify the site associated with Scottish history, 30-20-10.


(30) Located in the district of Angus, the castle is currently owned by the Strathmore family, of which Britain’s Queen Mother is a member. Legend has it that a secret chamber hides a terrible secret that is revealed to the eldest son on his 21st birthday. One account says that the room houses a deformed child bore by Lady Strathmore in 1800, while according to another source, its occupants are the preserved remains of captive members of the Ogilvie family.
(20) It was regarded as a holy place early on and was the purported home of St. Fergus in the 8th Century. Malcolm II was brought here after being mortally wounded on Hunter’s Hill in 1034. Malcolm’s blood so thoroughly soaked the floorboards that no amount of scrubbing could remove the stains and the floor had to be later reboarded.
(10) Contrary to Shakepeare’s account, Duncan I was slain in 1040 by his cousin Macbeth not here but more likely in a battle near Elgin. It was impossible that Macbeth was a thane of this estate for it did not become a thanage until 1264.
Answer: _GLAMIS_

6..Identify the following of Maxwell’s Equation’s:


10: The line integral of the electric field dotted over area equals charge over epsilon naught, it relates net electric flux to enclosed charge.
A: _Gauss’ Law_ of electricity
10: The line integral of electric field over arc-length equals the derivative of magnetic flux, it relates induced electric field to changing magnetic flux.
A: _Faraday’s Law_
10: The line integral of magnetic field over arc length equals mu-naught times derivative of electric flux plus displacement current, it relates magnetic field to changing electric flux and current.
A: _Ampere-Maxwell_ Law

7. Identify the ancient thinkers from descriptions for the stated number of points


(5) He was responsible for the flowering of philosophy in the Greek world and founded a religious community of ascetics. He espoused metempsychosis, or the transmigration of souls and was convinced that he had been a hero of the Trojan War in a previous life. He is most famous for a theorem commonly used by high school students that, according to Shaquille O’Neal, is impossible to solve.

Answer: _PYTHAGORAS_


(10) Among the achievements of this resident of Miletus were: identifying Ursa Minor and its use in navigation, stating the theorem that a circle is bisected by its diameter, and being the first Greek to calculate the length of a year as 365 days. He had a bona fide water fetish as he posited that all matter was composed of it and that the whole earth floated on a bed of water.

Answer: _THALES_


(15) As a practical joke, he once wrote a fake letter to Pythagoras proclaiming that Thales had died due to absent-mindedness. However, only one sentence of his writings remains. He believed that the world could be broken down into an imperceptible that he dubbed “apeiron.” The first maps of the world and the stars are credited to him and he is generally regarded as the father of astronomy.

Answer: _ANAXIMANDER_

8. With his recent beatification by the Catholic Church, Pius IX has been in the news of late. Answer the following about his career for ten points each.
(10) Pius’ manueverings to have debate on all issues but papal infallibility led to the liberal faction abandoning this meeting in 1869-1870, where the principle of infallibility ex cathedra was established.

Answer: The _FIRST VATICAN_ Council


(10) On December 8, 1864 Pius released this infamous encyclical which attacks “progress, liberalism, and modern civilization” in its “Syllabus of Errors.”

Answer: _QUANTA CULPA_


(10) While this concept had existed in some form since the Church’s early days, Pius made it official on December 8, 1854; as a result, the Church views the mother of Christ to be free of all sin.

Answer: the _IMMACULATE CONCEPTION_

9. Identify these composers of madrigals, 10 points each.

A. Living in 13th century Florence, his surviving madrigals and ballatas include a cadence named after him. (describe the cadence)

Answer: Francesco Landini (or Landino)

B. The Flemish composer was equally adept at madrigals, chansons, and lieder. He also received the Order of the Golden Spur for a collection of masses he dedicated to Pope Gregory XIII.

Answer: Orlando di Lasso (or Roland de Lassus)

C. Appointed organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1591, he edited the 1603 collection of English madrigals, The Triumphes of Oriana.

Answer: Thomas Morley

10. Answer the following regarding The Old Man and the Sea FTSNOP:

(5) What is the name of the title character?

Santiago

(10) Give the number of days Santiago has gone without a catch. If you are within 5, you get 5 points.



84 days

(15) Now, give the name of the boy who was Santiago’s companion.



Manolin

11. Identify the following Secretaries of War or Defense, FTPE:


10: Secretary of War during the Civil War, his removal in violation of the Tenure of Office Act was the ostensible reason for Andrew Johnson’s impeachment.
A: Edwin Stanton
10: Secretary of the Navy during last two years of World War II, in 1947 he was appointed the first Secretary of Defense.
A: James Forrestal
10: Onetime head of the Ford Motor Company, he took the job for $1.00 per year. One of Kennedy’s “Best and Brightest,” he played a large role in America’s policy in Vietnam.
A: Robert McNamara

12. Identify the following related to changes of state.


A. (5) This term denotes the temperature and pressure at which all three phases can exist in equilibrium. For water, it occurs at 0.01ºC and 608 pascals.
Answer: triple point
B. (5) This change of state can only occur at temperatures below that of the triple point. The rate of this change can be quickened by placing the substance in a vacuum chamber.
Answer: sublimation
C. (10) A liquid boils when the pressure above its surface is equal to this property of the liquid.
Answer: vapor pressure
D. (10) This equation defines the relationship between vapor pressure and temperature.
Answer: Clausius-Claperyon equation

13. Answer the following about the partitions of Poland.


A. (5) Give the exact year of any one of the three partitions of Poland.
Answer: 1772, 1793, or 1795
B. (5) The First Partition occurred at the suggestion of Frederick II of Prussia, who proposed it to deflate Austro-Russian tensions caused by Russia’s military victories against this nation.
Answer: Ottoman Empire
C. (10) The Second Partition of Poland was brought about by this body, which asked Russian troops to intervene to restore the constitution that had been replaced in 1791.
Answer: Confederation of Targowica
D. (10) The Third Partition was precipitated by an insurrection led by this man, which caused Prussian and Russian troops to invade Poland to subdue it.
Answer: Tadeusz Kosciuszko

14. Identify these early black American authors 15 points each:


A) This author is considered to be the first black author to publish in America. His religious writings deal with race and the injustice of slavery. Since his works were edited by whites, his themes have taken on more importance. Those works include Evening Thought, An Essay on the Ten Virgins, A Winter Peace, and An Evening’s Improvement.
Answer: Jupiter Hammon
B) This author’s 1789 slave narratives are considered unique because the autobiographical style was not fully developed in the eighteenth century. His narrative is written in the picaresque style, and contains an account of his kidnapping, trek through the jungles, his arrival at the coast, and his trip along the Atlantic in a slave ship.
Answer: Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa

15. Identify the following neurotransmitters, 5 for 1, 10 for 2, 20 for 3, 30 for 4:


It inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses in the central nervous system, a deficiency in it leads to Parkinson’s Disease.
A: dopamine
Stored in vesicles at the end of the axon, its release into the synapse creates the end-plate potential that leads to impulse transmission
A: acetylcholine
Common in the brain and spinal cord, it causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane by opening chloride channels, thus inhibiting nuerotransmitter release.
A: gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA
Derived from the amino acid tryptophan, fluctuations in the level of this neurotransmitter cause mood swings. Several drugs are thought to cause their “high” by stimulating production.
A: serotonin

16. Given the description, identify the following musical instruments for 10 points each.


(10) Also known as the aetherophone, this instrument’s sounds are based on the heterodyning effect, which occurs when two high frequency sound waves of similar but varying frequency combine to make a lower audible frequency, equal to the difference between the two radio frequencies. It is played by moving one’s hands around a metal loop and antennae attached to a four-legged cabinet.

Answer: _THEREMIN_


(10) This keyboard instrument was first developed in 1963 by the Bradley brothers for the British company Streetly Electronics. A strip of magnetic tape was placed under each key and when a key was depressed, a pre-recorded sound that corresponded to the key’s pitch was emitted. The sound maintained the characteristics of a sustained note but only lasted about 8 seconds. It is considered the grandfather of the present-day digital sampler.

Answer: _MELLOTRON_


(10) Originally intended to test compression schemes for transmitting voices over copper phone lines, it was invented by Homer Dudley, a research physicist at Bell Labs. It was comprised of an analyzer that detected energy levels of successive sound samples measured over the whole audio frequency spectrum and a synthesizer that fed the sounds back out through a network of filters energized by a noise generator. The rest is history in the eyes of old-school funk bands and German avant-garde musicians.

Answer: _VOCODER_

17. Identify these University of Toronto professors, FTSNOP.

A. (5) He wrote From Cliché to Archetype, Understanding Media, and The Medium is the Massage.

Answer: Marshall McLuhan

B. (10) His first work, Fearful Symmetry, is a study of the works of Blake, and he is best known for The Anatomy of Criticism.

Answer: Northrop Frye

C. (15) An economist by training, his later works shifted focus to the effects of communications on the rise and fall of communications, making him a major influence on a young McLuhan. His major work is 1951’s The Bias of Communication.

Answer: Harold Innis

18. Identify these works by Fyodor Dostoevsky FTPE:


A) This epistolary novella is about the copying clerk Makar Devushkin, who lives in the corner of a kitchen. He exchanges letters with Varvara Dobrosyolova.
Answer: Poor Folk
B) This work originally began as a column in a literary journal, and though he was unable to maintain its aesthetic design, some of his best short stories are included in it: “The Meek One”, “The Dream of a Ridiculous Man”, and “Bobok”, as well as a number of autobiographical and semi-fictional sketches.
Answer: The Diary of a Writer
C) This is an autobiographical account of his time in Omsk prison , to which he was sentenced due to having been involved in the Petrashevsky circle, a socialist group in St. Petersburg.
Answer: The House of the Dead

19. Its formal definition consists of a set of states, an alphabet, a transition function, an initial state, and a set of marked states. FTPE:


A. (10) Identify this device which is capable of representing a language.
Answer: automaton
B. (10) This type of automaton is only capable of expressing what are called regular languages.
Answer: finite-state machine
C. (10) An unmarked state in an automaton in which there are no feasible events is referred to as this type of state.
Answer: deadlock (prompt on: blocking)

20. As most college bowl players know, hip-hop is not just a music but a lifestyle. For five points each or 30 for all, give the four basic elements of hip-hop.


(5) Current superstars of this element include the Invisbl Skratch Piklz , the X-Ecutioners, and 5th Platoon. They in turn owe their success to pioneers such as Grandmaster Flash, Grand Wizard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataa, and Kool Herc.

_DEEJAYING_ing (or _TURNTABLING_, _SPINNING_)


(5) The written form is known as ciphering and it can trace its lineage back to the epic tales of the griot (“gree-oh”) of Mali, boastful prison ballads, Jamaican toasting, and the pithy utterances of Muhammad Ali.

_RAP_ping (or _EMCEEING_, _FLOWING_, _RHYMING_)


(5) Experts in this element recognize the helicopter, the windmill, and the handglide as its staples. Legends in this field include the Zulu Kings and the Rock-Steady Crew.

_BREAK_danc_ING_ (or _B-BOYING_)


(5) The origins of the modern movement of this art form can be traced to the early 1970’s to a Greek-American teenager known only as Taki 183 who lived in New York City. In the 1980’s, Jean-Michel Basquiat brought the form from the streets to the art galleries.

_GRAF_fiti (or _TAGGING_, _BOMBING_)


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page