Sukkot, Chanukah and Yemot ha-mashiach: An Analysis of Primary Sources



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47. "Yom Yisud Heikhal Hashem (Al Pi Nevu’ot Chaggai Ve-Zekharia)," Megadim 12 (Tishrei 5751), 49-97; see p. 93 in particular.

48. "Chanukah and its Relationship to the Prophecies of the Second Temple Period," Alei Etzion 1 (Tevet 5755), 11-20.

th. J. A. Goldstein, The Anchor Bible: I Maccabees, Vol. 41, p. 38-39.

49. See also A. H. Silver, A History of the Messianic Speculation in Israel, p. 4.

50. The employment of this methodology leads scholars to date several pseudepigraphical works to the era surrounding the Hasmonean period:

A. The Book of Jubilees, or at least part of it, is placed by Goldstein (ibid., p. 39, footnote 4) at close but prior to 167 B.C.E., in the time of Hellenization when Jason or Menelaus served as Kohanim Gedolim, for its description of the eschatological age (23:16-31) begins with Jewish sinners in positions of leadership and power in conjunction with the oppressive presence of "the sinner of nations."

B. The Testament of Moses is placed by J. Licht (in "Taxo, or the Apocalyptic Doctrine of Vengeance," The Journal of Jewish Studies (herein JJS) Vol. XII, Nos. 3-4 (1964), p. 95-103) at 166 or early 165 B.C.E., the era of mass martyrdom which came prior to the acceptance of the Halakhic decision of Matityahu and Yehuda in favor of resistance over martyrdom (See I Maccabees 2:29-40). Its encapsulation in history ends with the narrative of Taxo (9:1-6), a Levi apparently from the time of Antiochus' persecutions who, with his seven sons, resigns himself to martyrdom in a cave rather than transgression of God's mitzvot. The narrative is followed by immediate Divine revelation and the eschatological apocalypse. (The evidence in chapter 6 that leads to Kahana's dating of the book to between 6 and 33 C.E. (pp. 315-316, 321) and R.H. Charles' dating to between 7 and 29 C.E. (p. xiii) is viewed by Licht, in his second solution, to be a later, post-Herodian interpolation.)

C. Enoch I is placed (by both Goldstein (40-42) and Kahana (26)) at some point near but before 160 B.C.E., after Yehuda Ha-makkabi's astounding victories but prior to his death, for its allegorical view of history ends with the tale of how one among many oppressed sheep grows a large horn, is joined by all, and goes to battle with the oppressing ravens, until the master of the sheep joins the battle against the oppressors and causes all the antagonizing birds of prey to be swallowed by the ground, and all the enemy animals flee from before the sheep (90:9-19). The fable is immediately followed by an account of how the master of the sheep (representing God) then sits in judgment on all creatures and the ensuing eschatological events.



D. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is placed by R.H. Charles (The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, Vol. II - Pseudepigrapha, p. 204) at some point in the second century B.C.E. after the Hasmonean victory but prior to the breach of Yochanan Hyrcanus from the Pharisees, due to its shift of the tribe of the Mashiach and kingship from the offspring of Yehuda to that of Levi, as appears in Reuven 6:7-11, Levi 8:14, and all of 18, Dan 5:10 and Yosef 10:11. He attributes the additions relating them back to Yehuda to the subsequent abandonment of hope in the messianic nature of the Hasmonean dynasty.

51. In chapter 7, to reconcile Testament of Moses chapter 9 by demonstrating that the redemption via Yehuda was a direct result (Maccabees II 8:4). See Goldstein p. 40.

52. See Goldstein p. 48-49.

53. Introduction to S. Zeitlin and S. Tedesche, The Second Book of Maccabees, p. 69.

54. Vol. 2, p. 87.

55. See I. Efros, Prophecy, Wisdom and Apocalypse, in the Mordecai M. Kaplan Jubilee Volume, 215-223.

56. See J. A. Goldstein, The Anchor Bible: II Maccabees, Vol. 41A, p. 291-304.

57. 20:44, 36:20-32, 39:7; Yeshaya 66:5.

58. See Goldstein, II Maccabees, p. 292.

59. O. S. Rankin, The Origins of the Festival of Hanukkah, The Jewish New-Age Festival, and Kittel, Die Hellenistische Mysterienreligion und das Alte Testament, cited in S. Zeitlin, "Hanukkah," The Jewish Quarterly Review (JQR) Vol. XXIX (1938-1939).

60. See Goldstein, p. 46-48.

61. p. 87.

62. In Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity, Vol. 32: The God of the Maccabees, Studies on the Meaning and Origin of the Maccabean Revolt, p. 17. In light of Maccabees I, it is no wonder that S. Zeitlin (in The Second Book of Maccabees, p. 92, and in "Hanukkah," JQR 12, p. 35) emphatically stresses that normative Judaism of the Second Temple period had no eschatological aspirations.

63. E.g., full Hallel, Simcha, K’riat Ha-Torah, Ner, etc. See H. Leshem, Shabbat U-mo’adei Yisrael Vol. 1 (291-292) for a more complete comparison; more comparisons will also be drawn below.

64. See Maimonides in his Peirush Ha-mishnayot on Sanhedrin Perek 10 (Chelek).

65. E.g., the aforementioned meal of the Leviathan for the righteous found in The Baruch Apocalypse and Ezra IV, the ages of the shevatim as found in The Testaments of the Patriarchs, the story of the renegade angels in The Book of Enoch, et al.

66. See Zohar Vol. 1 p. 19b.

67. At least according to the Behag, who claims on p. 282 that its authors were the elders of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

68. Sefer Ha-galui, in A. E. Harkaby’s Ha-sarid Ve-hapalit Mi-sifrei Rasag, pp. 150 and 180.

69. Hilkhot Sofrim p. 282 (Warsaw edition).

nd. M. Z. Kedri, Zeman Chiburah Shel Megillat Antiochus, Bar-Ilan 2 (5724) 213-211, excerpted in D. Sperber, Minhagei Yisrael, Vol. 5.

70. See N. Frid, "Nusach Ivri Chadash Shel Megillat Antiochus," Sinai 64 (5729), 97-140, and particularly pages 108-117 for a full discussion of this topic.

71. In the London manuscript as recorded in Frid, p. 121.

72. In p. 298-299 of I. Abrahams, "An Aramaic Text of the Scroll of Antiochus," JQR (original series) XI (1899), p. 291-299.

73. Ibid., p. 294.

74. Ibid., p. 295.

75. See S. Stein, "The Liturgy of Hanukkah and the First Two Books of Maccabees," JJS Vol. V (1954), no. 3 100-106, and no. 4 , 148-155.

76. Also interesting in Al Ha-nissim is the textual similarity between certain phrases therein and Daniel - e.g., ba-zeman ha-zeh and the term zeman which seems a key word in Daniel’s apocalypse, appearing five times therein and nine in the entire book, and only five times in the rest of Tanakh, as well as asiyat shem for God and kayom ha-zeh, which appears in 9:15, etc. Further, the similarities between "You have given over the mighty into the hands of the weak..." and verse 70:4 in The Baruch Apocalypse I cannot be ignored.

77. In all rabbinic texts, Tarmod is interchangeable with Tadmor, a city mentioned in Melakhim I 19:9.

78. Bereishit Rabba 56:11, Eicha Rabbati 2:4, Yerushalmi Ta’anit 4:5; see Yevamot 16a, 17a.

79. Shir Ha-shirim Zuta 5:2, also cited in Yalkut Ha-mechiri Yeshaya p. 89.

80. See Maccabees I 2:41, etc.

81. Berakhot 28a, Yoma 12b, 73a, Megilla 9b, 21b, Horiyot 12b, Menachot 39b, 99a.

82. Midrash Kohelet 11:2.

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