Submission to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet 2 November 2011



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]. Another example which occurred this year is Federal Member for Labor, Craig Thompson, who has been accused of using a union credit card to pay for prostitutes [see Steve Lewis et al, ‘Craig Thompson scandal deepens with allegations of a $70,000 spending spree on a union credit card’, Daily Telegraph (online), 22 August 2011 ].

248 Kim Jackson, Media Ownership Regulation in Australia, (19 October 2011) Parliamentary Library .

249 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 178.

250 The author acknowledges that an Invasion of Privacy Act 1971 (Qld) is still in force in the State of Queensland.

251 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 178.

252 Ibid, 179.

253 Ibid.

254 Ibid, 180.

255 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s72; cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 84.

256 This is in line with the NSWLRC recommendations. See Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s72(b), (c); cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 84.

257 See page 7 of this paper under the heading: 1.1. ‘Definitional Difficulties’.

258 Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40.

259 Lindsay, above n 21, 8.

260 Ibid.

261 Wacks, above n 18, 10.

262 Carolyn Doyle and Mirko Bagaric, ‘The Right to Privacy and Corporations’ (2003) 31 Australian Business Law Review 237, 238.

263 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No. 120, above n 2, 3 [1.1].

264 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 57 [2.87].

265 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, 19 [1(f)].

266 See Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108 above n 6, vol 3, Chapter 74; and New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 21 [4.16].

267 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2584 [Recommendation 74-1].

268 See page 54 under the heading: 4.3. ‘Entitlement’.

269 However the ALRC recommended that personal information relating to deceased individuals should be protected for up to thirty years following death, in order to prevent mishandling of information after death, to allow living relatives to access appropriate information and to prevent distress to the families: Australian Law Reform Commission, above n 6, vol 1, 367 [8.44].

270 Paul Roth, ‘Privacy Proceedings and the Dead’ (2004) 11 Privacy Law and Policy Reporter 50.

271 In any respect, such an invasion would likely be captured under the provision in s2(a) contained in Recommendation 2 above in regards to interference with home or family life, and would still need to meet the threshold requirements of the cause of action.

272 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 50 [5.55].

273 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2584 [Recommendation 74-2].

274 See, eg, Andrews v TVNZ (Unreported, High Court of New Zealand, Allan J, 15 December 2006), where a husband and wife took action against Television New Zealand for broadcasting an intimate conversation between them following a motor accident. The claimants met the reasonable expectation of privacy requirement, but failed to prove that the publication of the conversation was highly offensive to the reasonable person of ordinary sensibilities.

275 This example is based on the facts of Andrews v TVNZ (Unreported, High Court of New Zealand, Allan J, 15 December 2006).

276 Re S (a child) [2005] 1 AC 593 at [17] (Lord Steyn).

277 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 25 [5.5].

278 Eric Barendt, ‘Privacy and freedom of speech’ in Andrew T Kenyon and Megan Richardson (eds), New Dimensions in Privacy Law: International and Comparative Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 2006) 11.

279 Australian Press Council, Submission PR 411 to Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, 7 December 2007.

280 Lange v Australian Broadcasting Corporation (1997) 189 CLR 520.

281 Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information, Report No 108 (2008) vol 3, 2572 [74.146].

282 Barendt, above n 278, 12-16.

283 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 180.

284 Murray v Big Pictures (UK) Ltd [2008] EWCA Civ 446, [14].

285 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2566 [74.124].

286 Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24; Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba); Privacy Act 1990 RSNL (Newfoundland and Labrador); Privacy Act 1996 RSBC (British Columbia).

287 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 50 [5.56].

288 Solove, above n 7, 181.

289 Employment law may also assist in this example. See, eg, Fitzgerald v Smith t/a Escape Hair Design [2010] FWA 735, where the employee was terminated due to a Facebook status she posted which related to her Christmas bonus and holiday pay.

290 Amendment of Limitation Act 1969 (Cth) ss14C, 56E; in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 91.

291 For example spreading intimate sexual details on an internet blog: see Solove, above n 7, 52.

292 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 1, 359 [8.15].

293 Ibid, vol 1, 360 [8.18].

294 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 52 [6.3].

295 Phillip Coorey, ‘Xenophon overstepped the mark on parliamentary privilege’, Sydney Morning Herald (online), 15 September 2011 .

296 ABC, ‘Xenophon speech puts parliamentary privilege in spotlight’, 7.30 Report, 29 September 2011 (Professor Greg Craven) < http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-09-14/the-row-over-the-naming-of-an-alleged-rapist/2899618>.

297 Tilbury, above n 159, 294.

298 Tilbury, above n 159, 294.

299 P Youngman, Submission PR 394 to Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, 7 December 2007.

300 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2586 [Recommendation 74-7].

301 See Chapter One generally for discussion of the privacy issues that arise online.

302 Rodrigues, above n 52, 238.

303 Solove, above n 7, 113.

304 Solove, above n 7, 167.

305 Solove, above n 7, 200-201.

306 Solove, above n 7, 169.

307 Jill Duffy, 10 things you should know about Facebook Timeline (23 September 2011) PC Mag .

308 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 9 [3.3].

309 Wacks, above n 39, 1.

310 The Honourable Michael Kirby, in Milanda Rout, ‘Kirby says both rights can co-exist’, The Australian (online), 23 July 2011 .

311 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 1, 196 [3.20].

312 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, (entered into force 13 March 1976) [1980] ATS 23, Article 17.

313 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, (entered into force 13 March 1976) [1980] ATS 23, Article 19.

314 See, eg, Australian Constitution ss51(i), 51(xiii), 51(xiv), 51(xx).

315 Restatement (Second) of Torts §652D comment c; cited in NSWLRC Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 102 [4.28].

316 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2583 [74.197].

317 Victorian Law Reform Commission, ‘Victorian Law Reform: Keeping Private Lives Private’ (2011) 85(10) Law Institute Journal 87.

318 Lincoln Hunt Australia Pty Ltd v Willesee (1986) 4 NSWLR 457, 465, cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, above n 2, 42 [2.40]; and see Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 63.

319 Bernstein v Sky News Ltd [1978] QB 479; Raciti v Hughes (1995) 7 BPR 14,837.

320 Lord Bernstein v Skyviews and General Limited [1977] 2 All ER 902, 909, cited in cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, above n 2, 42 [2.45].

321 Ettinghausen v Australian Consolidated Press Limited (1991) FLR 307.

322 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 65.

323 Defamation Act 1974 (NSW) s 15.

324 Pacific Dunlop v Hogan (1989) 23 FCR 553.

325 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 68.

326 Wilkinson v Downton [1897] 2 QB 57.

327 Tucker v News Media Ownership Ltd [1986] 2 NZLR 716.

328 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 69.

329 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 19 [4.12].

330 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd. [1969] RPC 41.

331 Creation Records Ltd v News Group Newspapers (1997) 39 IPR 1.

332 Franklin v Giddins [1978] QdR 72.

333 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Report No 120, above n 6, 19 [4.12].

334 Donoghue v Coombe (1987) 45 SASR 330.

335 Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) Part 2, divs 8-10.

336 Ibid, s562AB.

337 Ibid, s547C.

338 Ibid, s529.

339 Summary Offences Act 1988 (NSW) ss21G, 21H.

340 Ibid, s4; see also New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 61 [2.102].

341 Workplace Surveillance Act 2005 (NSW) s15.

342 Ibid, ss18, 36, 37.

343 Ibid, s19.

344 Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) Part 6, Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) Part 10.7.

345 Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) s13 [National Privacy Principles 9, 11].

346 Court Information Act 2010 (NSW) s6.

347 Ibid, s10.

348 Doe v Australian Broadcasting Commission [2007] VCC 281.

349 Health Records and Information Privacy Act 2002 (NSW).

350 Ibid, s68(2).

351 Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 (Cth) Part 2 Div 5.

352 Ibid, s35J.

353 Wilkinson v Downton [1897] 2 QB 57.

354 Tucker v News Media Ownership Ltd [1986] 2 NZLR 716.

355 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 69.

356 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 19 [4.12].

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