Submission to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet 2 November 2011



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87 CNN, ‘Tapes show News Corp. subsidiary tactics’ CNN (online) 14 October 2011 .

88 Brendan O’Connor, A Right to Privacy in Australia (21 July 2011) Attorney General .

89 For example, 51% in an online poll said they had become more concerned about phone-hacking following the scandal: ‘Aussies concerned about phone-hacking’ The Age (online) 25 July 2011 .

90 See also Chapter Two and Appendix Table One.

91 Westin, above n 14, 33.

92 Wacks, above n 18, 11.

93 Wendy Frew, ‘Artists may face classification to counter nudity’, The Age (online), 18 April 2011 .

94 Australia Card Bill 1986 (Cth).

95 The invasion of the author’s privacy has further informed the views expressed in this paper. The author’s wallet was stolen in 2010 by a drug-addicted thief at a supermarket, and later the author’s identity was stolen through posing as the author to a bank teller to take money from the author’s accounts and to take a car for a test-drive.

96 Solove, above n 7, 205.

97 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 13.

98 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Consultation Paper 1 (2007) 56 [2.85].

99 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 98.

100 See page 75.

101 Inclosed Lands Protection Act 1901 (NSW) s4; Lincoln Hunt Australia Pty Ltd v Willesee (1986) 4 NSWLR 457, 465.

102 Summary Offences Act 1988 (NSW), Crimes Act 1900 (NSW); Wilkinson v Downton [1897] 2 QB 57.

103 Defamation Act 1974 (NSW).

104 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd. [1969] RPC 41.

105 Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979 (Cth).

106 Privacy Act 1988 (Cth).

107 Doyle and Bagaric, above n 5, 98.

108 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2536, [74.2].

109 Ibid, vol 3, 2564 [74.116].

110 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 21-22 [4.16]-[4.17].

111 Hosking v Runting [2005] 1 NZLR 1, [117] (Gault P and Blanchard JJ).

112 Rogers v TVNZ [2007] NZSC 91, [59] (Tipping J).

113 Hosking v Runting [2005] 1 NZLR 1, [110] (Gault P and Blanchard JJ).

114 Hosking v Runting [2005] 1 NZLR 1, [148] (Gault P and Blanchard JJ), and [244] (Tipping J).

115 Hosking v Runting [2005] 1 NZLR 1, [110], [119] (Gault and Blanchard JJ); see also Amanda Stickley, ‘Common Law Tort of Privacy – Faltering Steps?’ (2004) 25 Queensland Lawyer 81, 82.

116 This includes lower court decisions before Hosking: Professor John Burrows, ‘Privacy and the Courts’ (Speech delivered to the Privacy Forum, Wellington New Zealand, 27 August 2008).

117 Only Virginia, Minnesota, Rhode Island and Wisconsin do not protect privacy: see New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 94 [4.7].

118 Prosser, above n 26, 389.

119 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2540 [74.19].

120 David A Anderson, ‘The Failure of American Privacy Law’ in Basil S Markensis (ed) Protecting Privacy: The Clifford Chance Lectures Volume 4 (Oxford University Press, 1999) 151.

121 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 97-98 [4.15].

122 Griswold v Connecticut 381 US 479 (1965).

123 Mason, above n 28, 47.

124 United States Constitution First Amendment.

125 Restatement (Second) of Torts § 652D.

126 Murphy, Katharine, ‘Canberra to move on Privacy Law’, The Age (online) July 21 2011 <http://www.theage. com.au/national/canberra-to-move-on-privacy-law-20110720-1hp19.html#ixzz1T58aRPfx>.

127 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 19 [4.11].

128 Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Company Limited v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479.

129 Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Company Limited v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479, 496.

130 Amanda Stickley, ‘Personal Privacy: Boldly Going Where No Australian Court Has Gone Before: Part I’ (2003) 24 Queensland Lawyer 72.

131 Grosse v Purvis [2003] QDC 151 (16 June 2003) (Skoien J).

132 Grosse v Purvis [2003] QDC 151 (16 June 2003) (Skoien J) [442].

133 Australian Broadcasting Commission v Jane Doe [2007] VCC 281.

134 See, eg, Giller v Procopets [2004] VSC 113; Kalaba v Commonwealth of Australia [2004] FCA 763; Milne v Haynes [2005] NSWSC 1107; Moore-Mcquillan v Work Cover Corporation SA [2007] SASC 55;

135 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 55 [2.80].

136 OBG v Allan; Douglas v Hello! Ltd [2007] 2 WLR 920, [272]; see, eg, in Australia, Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Co Ltd v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479 and the decline of the High Court in Lenah to create a tort for invasion of privacy.

137 See, eg, Right of Privacy Bill 1961 (UK), Right of Privacy Bill 1967 (UK), Right of Privacy Bill 1969 (UK), Right of Privacy Bill 1987 (UK), Right of Privacy Bill 1989 (UK).

138 Which traditionally is comprised of the elements from Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41, which require the information to be confidential, imparted in circumstances where there is an obligation of confidence, and the unauthorised use of that information is detrimental.

139 Lindsay, above n 21, 4.

140 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953) Article 8.

141 Human Rights Act 1998 (UK) ss2, 6.

142 Human Rights Act 1998 (UK) s12.

143 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953) Article 10.

144 Ash v McKennitt [2007] 3 WLR 194, [46].

145 Coco v AN Clark (Engineers) Ltd [1969] RPC 41.

146 Ash v McKennitt [2007] 3 WLR 194, [8].

147 There are a large number of academic articles on the overlap between breach of confidence and privacy, which are beyond the scope of this paper.

148 Michael Rivette, ‘Litigating privacy cases in the wake of Giller v Procopets’ (2010) 15 Media and Arts Law Review 283.

149 Ibid, 289.

150 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 54 [2.80].

151 Johnston, Mark, ‘Should Australia force the square peg of privacy into the round hole of confidence or look to a new tort?’ (2007) 12 Media and Arts Law Review 441.

152 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Invasion of Privacy, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 56 [2.84].

153 R Toulson, ‘Freedom of Expression and Privacy’ (Paper presented at Association of Law Teachers Lord Upjohn Lecture, London, 9 February 2007), 7; quoted in Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, 2564.

154 In this case, the ABC had reported on a court case concerning the plaintiff’s husband. The television broadcasts identified his name, the offence of rape within marriage which he was convicted with, the suburb in which they lived, and the victim’s name (which included her maiden name, which she reverted to after the rape). The plaintiff took action against the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) for, amongst other claims, breach of privacy and breach of confidence, and was successful in obtaining compensation.

155 In this case, the plaintiff claimed breach of privacy, amongst other claims, for acts of stalking, intimidation, abusive phone calls and other acts by the defendant.

156 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 55 [2.82].

157 See, eg, Wainwright v Home Office [2004] 2 AC 406.

158 Giller v Procopets (2008) 40 Fam LR 378.

159 Michael Tilbury, ‘Remedies for breach of confidence in privacy contexts’ (2010) 15 Media and Arts Law Review 290, 291.

160 Ireland Working Group on Privacy, Report of Working Group on Privacy (2006).

161 Hong Kong Law Reform Commission, Civil Liability for Invasion of Privacy (2004) 139 [Recommendation 2].

162 See page 81.

163 Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24.

164 Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba).

165 Privacy Act 1990 RSNL (Newfoundland and Labrador).

166 Privacy Act 1996 RSBC (British Columbia).

167 British Columbia also creates a tort for unauthorised use of name or portrait.

168 Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba) s 2(1).

169 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Consultation Paper 1, above n 98, 84 [3.49].

170 Chester, Murphy and Robb, above n 38, 359.

171 British Columbia uses the term ‘exception’ instead of ‘defence’.

172 Only in Saskatchewan.

173 See, eg, Code of Virginia §§ 8-650, c671; 765 Illinois Consolidated Statutes 1075/10 9; New York State Consolidated Laws, Civil Rights §50.

174 California Civil Code 1998 §1708.8(a).

175 Massachusetts General Laws, Part III Courts, Judicial Officers and Proceedings in Civil Cases, Title I Courts and Judicial Officers, Chapter 214 Equity Jurisdiction, Section 1B.

176 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, 2564 [74.116].

177 Ibid.

178 Ibid, vol 3, 2565 [74.117]-[74.118].

179 Wacks, above n 39, 1.

180 Victorian Law Reform Commission, Surveillance in Public Places, Report No 18 (2010) 149 [Recommendation 22].

181 Ibid, 150 [Recommendation 23].

182 Ibid, 151 [Recommendation 24].

183 Australian Law Reform Commission, Review of Australian Privacy Law, Discussion Paper 72 (2007) 26-28, [Proposals 5-1 – 5-7].

184 See page 86.

185 The proposals of the VLRC are not dealt with in detail in this paper.

186 There were 295 recommendations in the Report. For example, the ALRC sought to redraft the Privacy Act in order to create Unified Privacy Principles that apply to public and private sector agencies.

187 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2535-2586.

188 Ibid, vol 3, 2583 [74.195].

189 Ibid, vol 3, 2586 [Recommendation 74-6].

190 Ibid, vol 3, 2582 [74.191].

191 Cf New South Wales Law Reform Commission, which recommended an action for invasion of privacy without the need for a degree of seriousness: New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 8 [3.2].

192 See page 42 under the heading: 3.2 ‘New South Wales Law Reform Commission Report’.

193 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2568 [74.135].

194 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2585 [Recommendation 74-3(c)].

195 Ibid, vol 3, 2569 [74.136]. See also SBS, ‘Privacy’, Insight Program, 25 October 2011 (Cherine Fahd).

196 Ibid, vol 3, 2568 [74.133]-[74.135]; Australian Broadcasting Corporation v Lenah Game Meats (2001) 208 CLR 199 at [42] (Gleeson CJ).

197 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2575 [74.159].

198 Ibid, vol 3, 2584 [Recommendation 74-2].

199 Ibid, vol 3, 2572 [74.147].

200 Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24 s4(1)(e).

201 Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24 s4(2); Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba) s5(f)(i), (iii); Privacy Act 1990 RSNL (Newfoundland and Labrador) s5(2)(a); Privacy Act 1996 RSBC (British Columbia) s2(3)(a).

202 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2584 [Recommendation 74-1].

203 Ibid, vol 3, 2565 [74.119].

204 Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24 s3; Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba) s3; Privacy Act 1990 RSNL (Newfoundland and Labrador) s4.

205 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2585 [Recommendation 74-3(a)].

206 Ibid, vol 3, 2576 [74.160].

207 Ibid, vol 3, 2585 [Recommendation 74-4].

208 Ibid, vol 3, 2578 [74.174].

209 Ibid, vol 3, 2579 [74.176].

210 Ibid, vol 3, 2585 [Recommendation 74-5].

211 Ibid, vol 3, 2585 [Recommendation 74-3(b)].

212 Ibid, vol 3, 2577 [74.167].

213 See also Privacy Act 1978 RSS (Saskatchewan) c P-24 s2; Privacy Act 1987 CCSM (Manitoba) s2(2); Privacy Act 1990 RSNL (Newfoundland and Labrador) s3(1); Privacy Act 1996 RSBC (British Columbia) s1(1), which provide the statutory tort is actionable without proof of damage.

214 Australian Law Reform Commission, Report No 108, above n 6, vol 3, 2586 [Recommendation 74-7].

215 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009, cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 84-92.

216 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s72, cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 84.

217 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 8 [3.2].

218 Ibid, 11 [4.1].

219 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s74(2), cited in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 85.

220 Campbell v MGN Ltd [2004] 2 AC 457 at [94] (Lord Hope).

221 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 27 [5.9].

222 Ibid, 71 [10.1].

223 Ibid, 46 [5.46]; and see Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s74(4) at page 86 of the Report.

224 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 31 [5.15].

225 Ibid, 21 [4.15].

226 Ibid, 33 [5.17].

227 Ibid, 6 [1.8].

228 However the initial Consultation Paper did recommend providing a non-exhaustive list of the types of invasions of privacy, similar to the ALRC.

229 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 34-46; and see Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s74(3) at pages 85-86 of the Report.

230 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 50-51 [5.56]-[5.57].

231 Ibid, 49 [5.54].

232 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s75(1)(d); in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 86-87.

233 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s75(1)(e); in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 87.

234 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 55-56 [6.12].

235 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s76(1)(e); in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 88.

236 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 58 [7.7].

237 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s76; in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 87-88.

238 New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 63 [7.17].

239 Civil Liability Amendment (Privacy) Bill 2009 s77; in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 88; and see New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 61-62 [7.13].

240 Amendment of Limitation Act 1969 (Cth) s14C; in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 91.

241 Amendment of Limitation Act 1969 (Cth) s56E; in New South Wales Law Reform Commission, Report No 120, above n 2, 91.

242 Commonwealth, Australian Government First Stage Response to the Australian Law Reform Commission Report 108 For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, Cabinet, October 2009, 5 (Joe Ludwig).

243 Ibid, 14.

244The author has submitted this dissertation for consideration by the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet, following the release of the Issues Paper.

245 Commonwealth, above n 43, 51.

246 Centre for Law and Genetics, PR 127 to Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice, 16 January 2001.

247 There are many sex scandals involving politicians that are featured heavily in the media, for example NSW Transport Minister David Campbell using his ministerial car to visit gay sex clubs while he was married with children [see McDonald, Timothy, ‘Campbell sex scandal sparks privacy debate’, ABC News (online), 22 May 2010
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