Study Guide short Answer Answer each question with three or four sentences



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86. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:

Antislavery Republicans: This group initiated policies, such as the Confiscation Act, that brought blacks closer to being freed en masse by the federal government. In 1862, they persuaded Congress to end slavery in the District of Columbia, outlaw slavery in the federal territories, and help to pass a Second Confiscation Act. Lincoln built on these initiatives.


Refugee Slaves: This group, known as contrabands, forced the issue by seizing freedom for themselves through escape from slavery to Union lines. Thousands of these displaced people presented a problem for Lincoln because Union generals and Congress created policies legitimizing their wartime freedom and service for the Union cause. The prospect of strengthening the Union army with black troops and damaging the South by depriving it of slave labor led Lincoln to sign the Emancipation Proclamation.

PTS: 1 REF: Secession and Military Stalemate, 1861–1862


87. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:

Emancipation’s Political Impact: The Emancipation Proclamation produced a racist backlash among white voters who were fearful of insurrection and economic competition with newly freed slaves. Their votes provided the Democratic Party with gains in key political posts, calling into question Republican war strategies and giving more powerful arguments for peace. Ultimately, however, Republicans retained their congressional majority and Lincoln refused to retreat from his position.


Military Impact: Militarily, emancipation made possible the official use of blacks as soldiers in the Union army, which increased the number of troops for fighting and transformed the war into a war to end slavery.

PTS: 1 REF: The Turning Point, 1863


88. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Differences: Grant fought a modern form of war that relied on the Industrial Revolution, massive casualties, rapid movement of troops through rail transport, and total war.
Strengths: The massive movement of troops to attack all Confederate armies; the use of industrial technology, targeting the entire South for occupation; the acceptance of heavy casualties; and the use of railroad transportation were successful strategies and tactics.
Weaknesses: Grant lost many troops and was nicknamed “the butcher” due to his aggressive style and his targeting of civilians and cities. His style of warfare also cost the federal government a great deal of money.

PTS: 1 REF: The Union Victorious, 1864–1865


89. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Impact on the North: The two battles were the first significant Union military victories. The victories provided new strategic openings into the Deep South and rallied northerners to the Union and to the Republican Party. American diplomats gained leverage in Europe as well.
Impact on the South: The battles caused thousands of military casualties for the Confederates, and General Lee’s Army of Virginia was nearly destroyed at Gettysburg. They demoralized the southern army and population. The Vicksburg campaign cut the South in half geographically, facilitated Union occupation of the Deep South, and prevented the Confederate army’s use of the Mississippi River. The South lost the economic, diplomatic, and military support of Britain after the battles were over.

PTS: 1 REF: The Turning Point, 1863


90. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Description: Hard or total war included using troops to attack the civilian population through the destruction of industry, farms, and entire cities of the Deep South. Also known as the scorched-earth policy, the effects were devastating to all aspects of southern life.
Sherman’s Strategy: After Vicksburg, Sherman swung his armies into the Southeast, moving northward along the east coast toward the capital of the Confederacy: Richmond, Virginia.
Results: The results were massive destruction of southern industry and economy, the demoralization of Confederate families, the capturing of supplies, military occupation of the South by the North, and lasting animosity by southerners toward the federal government.

PTS: 1 REF: The Union Victorious, 1864–1865


91. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Fear and Harm: Women who lived near the fighting were vulnerable to injuries, emotional suffering, and abuse from marauding troops.
Changing Domestic Roles: Farm women had to do additional work when their men joined the army. Working-class women often confronted utter deprivation after losing male breadwinners.
New Work Opportunities: New fields of employment in nursing and civil service were opened to women. Women also filled jobs in schools and offices, and they worked in textile, shoe, and food-processing factories.

PTS: 1 REF: Toward Total War


92. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Ten Percent Plan: His Ten Percent Plan would have allowed rebellious states to return to the Union after 10 percent of voters had taken a loyalty oath and the state approved the Thirteenth Amendment. Conceived in 1863, before the Union had really embraced the notion that the war would end slavery, this plan did not do enough to create any significant change in the South’s economy, political system, or social organization. Lincoln sought only to restore the Union.
Wade-Davis Bill: The Wade-Davis Bill called for the disfranchisement of Confederate leaders, state governments run by those who had never fought the Union, and oaths of allegiance from a majority of every southern state’s population. When presented with the bill in 1864, Lincoln defeated it because he found it too strict and punitive. He opened talks with key congressional representatives to find a compromise, but he was assassinated before this took place.
Assessment: Lincoln’s approach to Reconstruction evolved between 1863 and 1865, as the war’s aims broadened. There was a great deal of patriotic support in the Union when the war ended in April 1865. People respected him as a leader and he might have had considerable influence shaping Reconstruction at that point.

PTS: 1 REF: The Struggle for National Reconstruction


93. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Black Codes: These laws were implemented by Confederates after the Civil War to prevent substantial black mobility and to reduce the ability of African Americans to improve their conditions. They imposed severe penalties on blacks who did not hold full-year labor contracts and set up procedures for taking black children from their parents and apprenticing them to former slave masters.
The Impact of Black Codes on National Politics: Black Codes essentially threatened to restore slavery-like conditions in the South, and Andrew Johnson did nothing to challenge them. The Black Codes were a turning point because they spurred Republicans in Congress to challenge Johnson and work to bring more federal intervention into the Reconstruction process. They helped to create a Radical Reconstruction backlash against the attempts of white southern Democrats to reduce black rights and mobility.

PTS: 1 REF: The Struggle for National Reconstruction


94. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Johnson’s Actions: Johnson vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau law and other civil rights bills. He defied the will of the people on several occasions and acted against the wishes of and legislation passed by the majority party in Congress, which held a three-to-one ratio of seats over the Democratic Party.
Johnson’s Influence: Johnson’s unwillingness to compromise and his racism toward blacks alienated his administration from leading Republicans. Radical Republicans responded by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Radical Republicans stepped into leadership roles and implemented a much more stringent approach to Reconstruction that, for a brief time, empowered African Americans politically and made steps toward creating real change in the South.

PTS: 1 REF: The Struggle for National Reconstruction


95. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Federal Visions for the New South: Congressional leaders imagined that the postwar South would consist of plantation agriculture based on cotton, and that former slaves would serve as wageworkers on those plantations. With the exception of the more radical Republicans, most in Congress did not endorse land grants to former slaves, leaving them little choice but to work for others.
Freedmen’s Efforts to Shape Their Own Lives: Freed slaves without land or geographic mobility were presented with two options: working for rock-bottom wages, or working as sharecroppers. Working for wages meant that former slaves would engage in an unequal bargaining relationship with their former master, would suffer from fear of being re-enslaved, and would experience debasement. They wanted freedom, not dependency, and many chose sharecropping instead.

PTS: 1 REF: The Meaning of Freedom


96. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Conflicts over Land: Freedmen wanted land because they saw it as the basis for their economic independence and freedom. In the mid-1860s, some Republican leaders and some freed slaves believed that freedmen could expect to receive land grants as part of the Reconstruction process. During the War, Union forces had confiscated Confederates’ land in some areas and distributed it to freed slaves who set up farming operations. Johnson restored Confederate landowners’ property and former slaves were evicted. Most Republicans were unwilling to “give” land to freed slaves.
Poor Economy in Reconstruction South: Former masters lacked cash to pay for wages, so they allowed freedmen to rent land and grow a crop that would be paid for at the end of the season after cotton was sold.
Black Question for Autonomy: Blacks wanted to be masters of their own time and be independent, so they demanded that they pay for their rented land in shares of the cotton crop. Sharecropping came about because most blacks were unable to own land, forcing them to rent land from whites. Blacks did not want to work the gang system, as former white masters wanted them to, because of the constant supervision and punishments.

PTS: 1 REF: The Meaning of Freedom


97. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Background on Redeemers: Southern whites who had been excluded from power during Radical Reconstruction took advantage of the political scandals and economic panics of the 1870s to take back control of southern politics. These Democrats, who believed that the Reconstruction governments were illegitimate regimes and sought to restore Confederate power in the South, were known as Redeemers.
Reasons for Terror: Given the high number of black voters in the South, it was difficult for the Redeemers to use the ballot box to take power. They did not hesitate to use force when necessary, and many white southern leaders, like Nathan Bedford Forrest, the founder of the Ku Klux Klan, had military experience. Ex-Confederates shot, hanged, and beat black political leaders. Black and white Republicans went into hiding or fled for their lives. White Democrats essentially used paramilitary tactics to overthrow the democratically elected governments and took power themselves.

PTS: 1 REF: The Undoing of Reconstruction


98. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Presidential Reconstruction: Lincoln would likely have allied himself with the moderate Republicans in support of an amnesty program less lenient than his initially plan, but also less severe than the Radical Republican plan. Lincoln would likely have remained committed to full citizenship for ex-slaves; he would not have backed down before the Ku Klux Klan and would have used the force necessary to control it. He might have enlisted Lee and other southerners to help him rebuild the Union.
Congressional Reconstruction: Reconstruction ultimately failed because of a lack of congressional leadership. As Radical Republicans left office, their replacements were moderates who wanted to abandon the South and end Reconstruction in favor of industrial development and participation in big business.

PTS: 1 REF: The Struggle for National Reconstruction | The Undoing of Reconstruction


99. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Slavery and Confederate Self-rule as Mutually Exclusive: Slavery and the suffering of the Civil War prevented any reconciliation between former slaves and their masters. Slavery was based on the idea of abject servitude by one race, deemed inferior, to that of another, leading to violence, rape, and the sale of family members. White southerners and black slaves never understood one another because of the profound ideological differences created by slavery. Whites would never tolerate true equality, and blacks would never settle for anything but real equality and freedom.

PTS: 1 REF: The Meaning of Freedom | The Undoing of Reconstruction


100. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Explanation of Contested Election: Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes because he was untainted by connections to scandal, corruption, or economic panics. Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden of New York. After the election, the electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina remained in doubt because both Democrats and Republicans claimed electoral victory. A congressional commission was appointed to decide the winner and ultimately elected Hayes. Hayes quickly pulled troops out of the South, and Republican administrations in the South collapsed.

PTS: 1 REF: The Undoing of Reconstruction
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