Study Guide short Answer Answer each question with three or four sentences



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Summary of Reasons for the Emergence of Women’s Issues in the Antebellum Period: The Second Great Awakening and the increasing prosperity of the white middle-class, a result of the Market and Industrial Revolutions, served to politicize women and to justify their new role as the moral reformers of family and society. These historical developments gave women more time at home to focus on family and its relationship to the larger social world, and empowered them to take action as agents for social change. Women quickly entered into abolitionist circles, thus giving them a route to raise the issue of women’s rights and full equality with men in American society. As the moral reformers of the era, white middle-class women sought to fix social ills, including heavy drinking by men, Sabbath breaking, and prostitution. In particular, the impact of these issues on women helped to popularize a feminist call for improving social problems.
Sections: Abolitionism; The Women’s Rights Movement

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism | The Women's Rights Movement


64. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Supply: The U.S. Congress ended the international slave trade in 1809, which closed off a new supply of slaves from Africa. At the same time, the African American population in the Upper South was increasing naturally, making more slaves available for sale within the United States. These factors created a pool of surplus slaves in the Upper South.
Demand: The federal government expanded slavery and the slave trade by securing Louisiana from the French in 1803, removing Indians, and annexing Texas and other lands taken from Mexico during the 1840s. Southerners eagerly moved further south and west into the newly acquired and vacated territory to cultivate cotton, which was increasingly in demand for textiles and was highly profitable after the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney.

PTS: 1 REF: The Domestic Slave Trade


65. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Slaves’ Status: It reinforced their status and vulnerability as property.
Slaves’ Experiences: Slaves lived under the constant fear and threat of being sold. The forced migration destroyed one-fourth of all slave marriages and separated one-third of all slave children under the age of fourteen from their parents. Cotton slavery was typically harsher and more onerous for slaves because the profitability of cotton led owners to adopt the gang-labor system to increase productivity.

PTS: 1 REF: The Domestic Slave Trade | The World of Southern Whites


66. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Slave Society Concept: The South was known as a slave society because slavery served as its economic foundation, and the institution affected all aspects of life in the region.

Nonslaveholding Whites’ Experiences in the South: Most white southerners did not own slaves. Although they were white and could enjoy the psychological satisfaction that they ranked above blacks, poor whites received little respect from their wealthier counterparts. They had little hope of improving their lot because there were no public schools and little economic opportunity. Nevertheless, they were required to serve in the patrols and militias that guarded against black uprisings.

PTS: 1 REF: The World of Southern Whites
67. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Background Information: In 1835 twenty-seven thousand white Americans and three thousand African American slaves resided on Mexican land raising cotton and cattle when Mexico adopted a new constitution creating a stronger central government and dissolving state legislatures. Mexico’s president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, sought to impose national authority throughout Mexico; in response, some American settlers proclaimed the independence of Texas and adopted a constitution legalizing slavery.
Events at the Alamo: Santa Anna attempted to put down the American rebellion and led the army that wiped out the American garrison defending the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas. American newspapers then urged Americans to “Remember the Alamo” and depicted the Mexicans as butchers operating in the service of the pope.

PTS: 1 REF: Expanding and Governing the South


68. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Description of the South’s Prosperity: The South’s economy was the fourth richest in the world. Two-thirds of the wealthiest Americans lived in the South, and they believed that the plantation system would continue to produce wealth indefinitely. Thirty percent of the South’s population consisted of impoverished black slaves who, because they counted as property, made up a significant percentage of elite southerners’ wealth. Wealthy southerners’ nonslave property was only 60 percent of the northern average.
Paradoxical Elements of Southern Prosperity: Wealthy southerners continued to buy land and slaves rather than invest in technological innovations of the day, placing short-term profits ahead of long-term economic gain. Slave labor, the foundation of southern prosperity, discouraged foreign immigration, which limited urban growth. By the mid-nineteenth century, northern prosperity exceeded that of the South, and the gap between the two regions widened further every year. Despite the South’s wealth, it functioned as an economic colony because Great Britain and the North bought its staple crops and provided the manufactured goods, financial services, and shipping facilities it required.

PTS: 1 REF: Expanding and Governing the South


69. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Description of “Positive Good” Argument: Elite planters began to argue in the 1830s that slavery was not just a necessary evil, but a “positive good” in the South because it subsidized their elegant lifestyle and provided care and tutelage to African Americans. They believed that Africans were inferior to white men; that subordination to whites was necessary; and that slave owners provided food, clothing, shelter, and care for their human property.
Reasons for Its Use: Southern apologists began to articulate the “positive good” argument in the 1830s in order to justify the continuation of slavery and to counter the emerging abolitionist critique.

PTS: 1 REF: The World of Southern Whites


70. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Passive Resistance: Many slaves passively resisted by working slowly, feigning illness, losing or breaking tools, stealing food, or running away.
Church, Family, and Fictive Kin: They also adapted Christianity to their own purposes, envisioning God as a deity who would liberate them. Black congregations devised a distinctive and joyous brand of Protestant worship that sustained them and infused their lives with meaning. The practice of “taking root” allowed slaves to build the best possible lives for themselves. Family relationships and fictive kinship provided community and sustenance.
Bargaining and Negotiation: Slaves in South Carolina successfully won the right to labor by the task instead of working under constant supervision. Others pressed their owners for the right to cultivate their own gardens or insisted that their owners pay them for “overwork.”
Active Resistance: A few slaves resisted more violently by setting fire to their master’s house, destroying crops or equipment, or poisoning their master’s food, especially if they were threatened with separation from loved ones. It was not uncommon for slaves to run away, either temporarily or in an effort to escape slavery permanently. A very few slaves participated in violent uprisings such as Prosser’s Rebellion or Turner’s Rebellion.

PTS: 1 REF: The African American World


71. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Continuity: Some cultural traits from Africa were useful (such as incest taboos to prevent inbreeding on large-scale plantations), and some were easily replicated (such as the ring shout, the Congo dance, and “jumping the broom”) in the new circumstances of slavery in America. Naming practices allowed slaves to evoke the memories and customs of Africa, and to contribute to building fictive kinship ties and communities.
Change: The passage of time eroded some less important aspects of the culture, such as ritual scarring. Masters also shaped cultural development by allowing for certain behaviors like the practice of religion, and prohibiting others, such as mutilation of slaves by fellow slaves. Christianity and the domestic slave trade encouraged the emergence of a homogenized African American culture that contributed to the erasure of regional differences among slaves.

PTS: 1 REF: The African American World


72. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Similarities: Free blacks experienced racism in both the North and the South. In both areas, many legal restrictions were placed on the rights of free blacks. Most whites viewed blacks as socially inferior economic competitors and confined them to low-paying menial work. Federal regulations excluded African Americans from jobs with the postal service, from holding passports, or claiming public lands.
Southern Free Blacks: Most southern free blacks lived in coastal cities and were skilled urban artisans such as carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers, butchers, and shopkeepers. Nevertheless, they faced many dangers, including the denial of jury trials and kidnapping by whites who sold them into slavery.
Northern Free Blacks: Many Northern free blacks, on the other hand, lived in rural areas and worked as farm laborers or tenant farmers. Urban northern blacks were often domestic servants, laundresses, or day laborers. Northern blacks did have the freedom to create institutions such as Free African Societies, orphanages, and churches that provided them with a sense of autonomy and solidarity. Only a few states allowed free black men to vote, attend public schools, and sit next to whites in churches. In Massachusetts, blacks could testify against whites in court. A few free northern blacks—including the mathematician Benjamin Banneker and merchant Paul Cuffee—used their talents and achieved distinction.

PTS: 1 REF: The African American World


73. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Geographic and Demographic Factors: By 1820, most black slaves in America had been born in the United States, helping to create a homogeneous black culture. The forced migration of more than one million slaves from the Upper to the Lower South over a relatively short period of time brought diverse groups of slaves together and erased regional differences.
African Influences: African cultural customs persisted among slaves and influenced African American culture. Black culture expressed African marriage conventions, naming practices, and musical forms.

Family and Fictive Kin: The creation of fictive kinship networks was part of a complex community-building process of order in which family values remained intact.


Resistance to White Domination: African American resistance severely limited masters’ power. Slaves slowed the pace of work by feigning illness, breaking tools, and running away. These practices also contributed to the creation of a homogeneous African American culture.

PTS: 1 REF: The African American World


74. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Rationale for War: Polk went to war with Mexico to obtain desirable Mexican land for capitalist production, to create a continental nation with trading ports near Asia, and to fulfill a Christian and Manifest Destiny ideology.
Explanation for the War’s Divisiveness: The war became divisive in Congress initially because it revived the question of slavery in the western territories, which had been dormant since the Missouri Compromise in 1820. David Wilmot’s Wilmot Proviso proposed to set the issue to rest by banning slavery from any new territories acquired from Mexico, but it alienated southerners who wanted to extend cotton-based plantation slavery. By reviving the issue of slavery in the west, the Mexican War set the United States on the course toward civil war.

PTS: 1 REF: War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846–1850


75. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Impact of the Compromise of 1850: The Compromise of 1850 gave the illusion of resolving the issue of whether legally to allow slavery in new lands acquired from Mexico by balancing sectional interests. It stipulated that California would enter the Union as a free state and allowed the territories of New Mexico and Utah to resolve the question of slavery through popular sovereignty. It also abolished the slave trade (but not slavery) in the District of Columbia and implemented a new Fugitive Slave Act, which limited the rights of fugitive slaves and expanded those of slave owners and slave catchers.
Benefits Offered by the Compromise of 1850: The South benefited more because slavery remained legal in the nation’s capital, the federal government increased its use of force to return escaped slaves to their masters, and the Utah and New Mexico territories were allowed to choose whether they wanted slavery. The North won California’s free status, but the compromise did nothing to ease their fears that the South had become a slave power intent on dominating the United States.

PTS: 1 REF: War, Expansion, and Slavery, 1846–1850


76. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Fugitive Slave Act: The Compromise of 1850 failed in large part because antislavery northerners refused to accept the most controversial element of the law: the Fugitive Slave Act. This legislation required federal magistrates to determine the status of alleged runaways and denied them a jury trial or even the right to testify. Southern slave owners used its provisions to reenslave about 200 fugitives (as well as some free blacks). Antislavery northerners mobilized to resist the law and directly aided and protected fugitives.
Continued Efforts to Expand Slavery: Proslavery southerners also plotted to extend slavery into the West, the Caribbean, and Central America. The Second Party system was unable to contain the debate, further destabilizing the compromise.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher Stowe’s antislavery novel boosted opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act and support for abolitionism throughout the North and the world. By raising the level of protest, Stowe’s novel made further compromise increasingly unlikely.

PTS: 1 REF: The End of the Second Party System, 1850–1858


77. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Douglas’s Rationale for the Kansas-Nebraska Act: Douglas wanted to resolve sectional disputes, politically organize the Louisiana Purchase lands into new territories, extinguish Native American land claims, and earn a fortune and higher political office by facilitating a railroad from Chicago to San Francisco. He believed that popular sovereignty would appease both northerners and southerners by putting the question of slavery into their hands.
Outcome of the Act: The act was no more successful than the Compromise of 1850 because the North and South were morally polarized on the issue and now willing to use violence for their causes. Both sides were politically determined to remake the act and avoid any compromises. Its basis in popular sovereignty doomed the act because of the vagueness of the policy.

PTS: 1 REF: The End of the Second Party System, 1850–1858


78. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Lincoln’s Position: Lincoln believed that the slave power was dangerous and warned that the proslavery Supreme Court might soon declare that the Constitution did not permit a state to exclude slavery from its borders. Lincoln feared the spread of slavery to new states and territories made possible by the Dred Scott decision of 1857. He advocated the gradual emancipation of slaves in Washington, D.C., and favored the colonization of freed blacks in South America or Africa.
Douglas’s Position: Douglas argued strongly for white supremacy and popular sovereignty, and advocated the Freeport Doctrine, which suggested that a territory’s residents could exclude slavery simply by not adopting a law to protect it. He also supported the Dred Scott decision.

PTS: 1 REF: Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Triumph, 1858–1860


79. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:

Northern Objections to the Fugitive Slave Act: Northern abolitionists found the Fugitive Slave Act intolerable because it made blacks even more susceptible to abuse and legally required whites to participate in the capture of fugitive slaves. Northerners also believed that southerners had used shady means to dominate the government and to get the Fugitive Slave Act passed.


Tactics for Resistance: Northerners had long denounced the states’ rights position, arguing that slavery and republicanism were mutually exclusive. Nevertheless they took a states’ rights position because it was expedient to do so. Arguing that the Fugitive Slave Act violated state sovereignty, they enacted personal-liberty laws that guaranteed all residents, including fugitives, the right to a jury trial. They used this line of argumentation to protect fugitive slaves and follow their moral convictions.

PTS: 1 REF: The End of the Second Party System, 1850–1858


80. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:

Description of System’s Collapse: The Second Party System collapsed due to its inability to resolve the crisis over slavery in the western territories. Since the 1840s, members of the Whig party had debated their position on the Mexican War and the territories the United States gained as a consequence of the war. These divisions intensified in the 1850s and split both major political parties along sectional lines. The Whigs were unable to absorb these divisions and never again sponsored a national ticket. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 further divided and ruined the party, sending many antislavery members into the Republican ranks.


The Democratic Party: The Democrats also split along sectional lines. Northern Democrats lined up behind Stephen Douglas. Southern moderates defended southern rights and demanded protections for slavery; fire-eaters repudiated the Union and advocated secession. These divisions made it possible for the Republican Lincoln to prevail in the election of 1860.

PTS: 1 REF: The End of the Second Party System, 1850–1858


81. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Description of the Missouri Compromise: The Missouri Compromise originated to resolve questions about the status of slavery in the western territories in 1820. It prohibited slavery north of the Missouri Compromise line (36°30¢ north latitude), with the exception of the state of Missouri. To maintain an equal number of senators from free and slave states in the U.S. Congress, it provided for the nearly simultaneous admission of Missouri and Maine.
Possible Outcome of Compromise of 1850’s Extension: Slavery would never have been considered for Kansas, and bloodshed would not have occurred there. The question of slavery in the other western territories would not have been up for debate. North of the 36°30¢ line, territories would have been free; south of it, they would have been open to slavery. Sectional balance in Congress might still have been an issue, however. Furthermore, southerners would likely have been far more assertive regarding expansion into Mexico and the Caribbean. A new political party could not have staked its claim on a prohibition of slavery in the territories, as the Republicans did.

PTS: 1 REF: The End of the Second Party System, 1850–1858


82. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Republicans’ Role in Election’s Outcome: After the demise of the Whig Party, the Republicans realized that it might be possible for their presidential candidate to win in 1860. To maximize their chances, they nominated Lincoln because he was more moderate on the question of slavery than many more prominent Republicans and therefore more electable. Party leaders also believed that Lincoln’s egalitarian image would have a broader appeal.
Democrats’ Role in Election’s Outcome: Unlike Republicans, who aimed to nominate a candidate with broad appeal, the Democrats could not agree on either a firm political stance or a single presidential candidate. The Democrats lost the election because of their inability as a party to take a firm stance on the spread of slavery to new states and territories. Southern Democrats divided into two groups: moderates and radicals. Northern Democrats rejected both groups. Southern Democrats held their own party convention in 1860 and nominated the sitting vice president Breckinridge; northern and midwestern delegates met separately and nominated Stephen Douglas.

PTS: 1 REF: Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Triumph, 1858–1860


83. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
History of Compromises: Previous compromises regarding the spread of slavery to new states and territories had all failed. This history led some participants to believe that any additional effort at compromise would also fail.
Crittenden Compromise: Lincoln’s election in November 1860 intensified southerners’ fears and created a secession movement that, by December, had led to the withdrawal of several southern states. The Crittenden Compromise proposed a constitutional amendment to protect existing slavery and the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific. Acting on strict instructions from Lincoln, who planned to take a harder line when he was inaugurated, congressional Republicans rejected it. The sides had become too polarized to compromise.

PTS: 1 REF: Secession and Military Stalemate, 1861–1862


84. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Loyal Border States: The states that remained with the Union were Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware. Northwest Virginia, which was home to many anti-secessionists, broke away from Virginia and became the state of West Virginia.
Border States’ Rationale for Loyalty: Border states remained in the Union because there were large numbers of loyal unionists within the states, they wanted to maintain economic development, they wanted to avoid war with the federal government over their geographical closeness, and they did not have to give up slavery to do so.
Federal Influence on Loyalty: Lincoln also moved aggressively to keep the border states in the Union for strategic reasons. He ordered Union troops to battleground states, such as Maryland, and addressed Confederate sympathizers, and he used economic incentives and political persuasion to promote loyalty in more neutral states, like Kentucky.

PTS: 1 REF: Secession and Military Stalemate, 1861–1862


85. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Economic Reforms: Republicans enacted a neomercantilist program of government-assisted economic development that surpassed Henry Clay’s American System. It raised tariffs, encouraging domestic industries and winning political support from northeastern manufacturers and workers. It created an integrated national banking system that forced local banks to accept federal charters and regulations. Congress passed the Homestead Act in 1862 to give farmers “free land” and to boost agricultural production. Finally, it funded a system of internal improvements, including the transcontinental railroad, that helped to integrate the West into the Union.

PTS: 1 REF: Toward Total War

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