Study Guide short Answer Answer each question with three or four sentences



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PTS: 1 REF: The Capitalist Commonwealth
37. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Republican Ideas: Americans in the northern states embraced a democratic republicanism that celebrated political equality and social mobility. Middle-class Americans, in particular, applied these egalitarian ideas to their marital relationships.
Republicanism and Marriage: The notion of political equality called into question patriarchal authority, giving women more social latitude for advocating for social and political equality. As patriarchal authority over the family decreased, young men and women began to choose their own marriage partners for love, affection, and happiness, and establish companionate marriages.

PTS: 1 REF: Toward a Democratic Republican Culture


38. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Republican Fathers: Patriarchal authority diminished as fathers lost their central role as shapers of their families’ financial future, largely because of a lack of abundant land. Furthermore, republican fathers, influenced by sentimentality and ideas about egalitarianism, began to act as paternalists rather than patriarchs, and worked toward developing their children’s consciences, self-discipline, and sense of responsibility.

PTS: 1 REF: Toward a Democratic Republican Culture


39. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Missouri Compromise: The question of how to integrate the states that were being carved out of the Louisiana Purchase into the Union provoked controversy over which states would be slave states, if any, and which states would be free states. Southerners used the principles of equal rights, state sovereignty, and property rights to argue that they should be allowed to take their slaves into Missouri if they wished. In 1820, Henry Clay devised a series of political agreements, known as the Missouri Compromise, that allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state in 1820 and Missouri as a slave state in 1821, balancing the number of free and slave states.
Comparison to 1787: By 1820, the task of compromise over this issue had become much more highly charged and more difficult. It took only two months in 1787, but over two years in 1820, to resolve the issue. This compromise joined the questions of western expansion, slavery, and the continuation of the Union in new ways for the first time.

PTS: 1 REF: Aristocratic Republicanism and Slavery


40. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
The Second Great Awakening: The Second Great Awakening strengthened connections between the American people and Protestant Christianity, swelling the ranks of new churches and sects of Protestantism. The new faithful rejected the Calvinists’ emphasis on human depravity and weakness and celebrated human reason and free will, reflecting the belief that people could shape their own destiny. Individual salvation was linked to religious benevolence and the notion that those who had received God’s grace were duty-bound to work for the greater welfare of the human race, and especially for the poor and downtrodden.
Women Reformers: The Second Great Awakening appealed directly to women and their quest for social and political equality. The movement increased the confidence and role of religious women as a positive force for social change achieved through active efforts in the church, public arena, educational institutions, and home. Using their new spiritual authority, Protestant women sought to address the issues of poor relief, women’s education, and female virtue.

PTS: 1 REF: Protestant Christianity as a Social Force


41. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Banking and Credit: State-chartered banks emerged in the early nineteenth century, and Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. These banks provided loans to merchants and other businessmen who needed capital to finance their ventures.
Rural Manufacturing: American entrepreneurs drove a significant expansion of rural manufacturing after 1790. They bought raw materials, hired farm families to process them, and sold the finished products, which included shoes, brooms, hats, and utensils. Farmers, who could now buy many more products, began to switch from subsistence farming to raising livestock or single crops for sale.
Technology: The invention of mechanical spinning machines and looms in the 1810s and 1820s allowed entrepreneurs to establish factories in which rural farm families could come to work. These establishments turned out much larger quantities of goods for sale to consumers.
Legal Factors: Influenced by the Federalist Supreme Court, innovations such as limited liability and eminent domain created the legal foundation.

The Commonwealth System: The state and federal governments began to invest in internal improvements that fostered trade in order to enrich the “common wealth.” Under this system, governments funneled aid to private businesses that improved the general welfare by building roads, canals, and dams.

PTS: 1 REF: The Capitalist Commonwealth
42. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Religious Effects: Intolerance toward non-Protestant beliefs, including Catholicism. There was an increase in church membership in the egalitarian denominations such as Methodism and Baptism. The number of churches around the country increased and became the social centers of communities in rural areas. The number of blacks in Protestant sects increased.
Social Effects: People influenced by the Great Awakening formed new institutions to train ministers, thus increasing the number of postsecondary schools. Women gained greater importance and power in church affairs and ultimately gained more access to education and leadership positions, and greater spiritual and community authority.
Political Effects: The Great Awakening created a wide range of benevolent reform movements that expanded into the political realm.

PTS: 1 REF: Protestant Christianity as a Social Force


43. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
British Advantages: Due to low transatlantic shipping and low interest rates, British manufacturers could import raw cotton from the United States, make it into cloth, and resell it at bargain prices. The British also had cheap labor, which made it possible for them to undersell American competitors and drive them out of business.
American Advantages: Americans improved on British technology, making it possible to produce more cloth in a shorter amount of time using fewer workers. Americans had the advantage of abundant natural resources of cotton and wool, and efficient transportation and energy provided by fast-moving rivers. The U.S. federal government passed high tariffs on imported goods, giving American products an advantage in the American marketplace. American manufacturers also recruited thousands of young farm women as a cheap source of labor.
Americans’ Success: By the 1820s, American textile factories were at the cutting edge of technological innovation. Tariff protection, improved technology, and cheap female labor allowed American operations to undersell their British rivals and to make a higher-quality cloth.

PTS: 1 REF: The American Industrial Revolution


44. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Role of Machine Tools in American Industrial Revolution: Machine tools accelerated the rate of industrialization by creating machines that made parts for other machines and pioneering interchangeable parts. Machine tools produced machinery so rapidly, precisely, and cheaply that mechanization spread easily throughout the United States. The machinery that Americans produced operated at higher speeds that British equipment and it could make more elaborate fabrics. Making and using these parts made American firms like Remington and Singer into multinational businesses.

PTS: 1 REF: The American Industrial Revolution


45. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
State Governments: State governments chartered private companies to build roads and turnpikes. The New York legislature funded the Erie Canal in 1817. Governments also passed taxes, sold bonds, and charged tolls to pay for such projects.
National Government: Congress funded large improvements such as the National Road in 1811. The national postal system, established in 1791, facilitated networks for the exchange of information. The U.S. Supreme Court encouraged interstate trade by establishing federal authority over interstate commerce. These developments facilitated a massive migration of people to the Greater Mississippi River basin and, by 1860, nearly one-third of Americans lived in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota.

PTS: 1 REF: The Market Revolution


46. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Canal’s Scope: Construction of the Erie Canal was the central economic event of the first half of the nineteenth century because of its unprecedented size (364 miles), scope, and cost in comparison to any other single economic venture before the transcontinental railroad of the 1860s.
Canal’s Impact: The regional impact of the Erie Canal was profound in terms of unifying the nation culturally and physically. It improved the economy of the northeastern and northwestern sectors and brought migrants westward to settle the Midwest on lands obtained from Indians. The Erie Canal’s success also caused a canal-building boom that connected Philadelphia and Baltimore to the Great Lakes region.

PTS: 1 REF: The Market Revolution


47. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Middle-Class Characteristics: Middle-class culture stressed moral and mental discipline and celebrated work as the key to individual social mobility and national prosperity. Middle-class Americans were alarmed by the conditions and culture of workers, which featured dilapidated and overcrowded neighborhoods, pollution, crime, and drinking.
Revivalist Churches’ Message: Revivalist preachers like Charles Finney emphasized individuals’ moral free agency. This message was attractive to middle-class men and women who had already accepted personal responsibility for their lives and improved their material condition. Finney and others like him inspired many middle-class Americans to join revivalist churches.
Middle-Class Managers’ Motives for Joining Revivalist Churches: Middle-class managers might join revivalist churches for a variety of reasons, including a personal desire for salvation, the desire to please an employer, an interest in religious education for children, the desire for social support, or the desire to find a community of like-minded people.

PTS: 1 REF: New Social Classes and Cultures


48. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Identifying and Hiring Cheaper Workers: Manufacturers could employ young farm women who were available because of poor agriculture in New England and a shortage of men, who often moved west to farm. Women traditionally appeared docile and easy to manage, and their families needed the additional income. Many textile manufacturers hired women in the 1820s and 1830s. By the 1840s and 1850s, they turned to European immigrants who worked for even lower wages. In the mid-nineteenth century, manufacturers focused primarily on Irish immigrants for cheap labor.
Relocation: Industries could relocate to the South and use slave labor. However, the immature transportation networks in the South meant that higher transportation costs often negated any labor savings.
Technological improvements: Manufacturers could cut costs by utilizing more advanced machinery that turned out more of their product in less time and with less human involvement. American industrialists constantly sought new technology to automate and organize factory processes.

PTS: 1 REF: The American Industrial Revolution


49. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Adams as Secretary of State: As secretary of state, Adams’s conservative values and rigid morals were in tune with that earlier era of disinterested politics. He achieved great diplomatic successes, such as acquiring Florida from the Spanish through the Adams-Onís Treaty.
Adams as President: As president, Adams’s political style was out of date. He ignored his lack of popularity and the hostility of many others in power, and supported Indian land rights and the Tariff of 1828.

PTS: 1 REF: The Rise of Popular Politics, 1810–1828


50. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Jackson’s Policies: Jackson disdained the American System plan of high tariffs and centralized economic development, and called banks and tariffs the protectors of monopoly and special privilege. He made these views public during his campaign and won because they appealed to many social groups.
Evolution of Jackson’s Policies: His decentralized economic policies evolved over time in response to state and private attempts, such as South Carolina’s Nullification Ordinance and the rechartering of the Second Bank of the United States, to create high tariffs and central banks.
Effect of Jackson’s Policies: Jackson’s decentralized economic policies hurt the American economy because they destroyed the American System of protective tariffs and internal improvements, resulting in a profound reduction in the economic activities and creative energy of the federal government.
Sections: The Rise of Popular Politics, 1810–1828; The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829–1837

PTS: 1
51. ANS:



Answer would ideally include:
Summary of the Taney Court’s Interpretations: The Taney Court endorsed states’ rights over national centralization and control, and also viewed the constitution as a document preserving capitalist competition by reducing the role of government in shaping the economy through tariffs and banks.
Analysis of Differences: The Taney Court’s decisions undermined the Marshall decisions, reversing the nationalist and property-rights decisions of the Marshall Court.
Impact of the Taney Court Interpretations: The Supreme Court under Roger Taney gave constitutional legitimacy to Jackson’s policies that endorsed states’ rights and free enterprise. Taney helped Jackson kill the Bank of the United States, reduce high tariffs, and remove more Native Americans from their lands.

PTS: 1 REF: The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829–1837


52. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
History as a War Hero: Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 had a great effect on his popularity.
Cultivation of His Public Image: Using his common origins, Jackson worked to cultivate his public image as a frontiersman and Indian fighter. His image and his public messages of democracy led people to believe that he was a champion of the common people against wealthy northeastern elites.
Campaign Strategies: Martin Van Buren directed Jackson’s campaign, effectively spreading his image and message. His opponents were considerably blander.
Sections: The Rise of Popular Politics, 1810–1828; The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829–1837

PTS: 1
53. ANS:



Answer would ideally include:
Working Men’s Party Ideology: Comprised of artisans and laborers, this party wanted to abolish banks and create fair taxation polices and universal public education. They championed unions, artisan republicanism, and independence, and hoped to raise the standard of living for workers and laborers.
Jacksonian Democrats’ Ideology: Traditional Protestants and Catholic immigrants, the Jacksonian Democrats opposed high tariffs and a centralized bank. They championed states’ rights and equal rights for all white men, and opposed government and private attempts at moral reform of social ills.
Whigs’ Ideology: The Whigs believed in evangelical religion and politics dominated by men of talent and wealth; they celebrated the entrepreneur and the enterprising individual. They championed the Industrial Revolution, high tariffs, and a centralized banking system to promote economic growth.
Sections: The Jacksonian Presidency, 1829–1837; Class, Culture, and the Second Party System

PTS: 1
54. ANS:



Answer would ideally include:

Whigs and the Origins of the Second Party System: The Second Party System began during the 1830s when professional politicians of middle-class background created the Whig Party in opposition to the astounding rise of the Democratic Party under Jackson.


Analysis of Early 1840s Politics: During the 1840s, Whigs and Democrats competed for appeal to different cultural groups, creating a very spirited period of intense political debate, an expansion of the electorate, a rise in party loyalties and party competition, and an appeal to ethnocultural politics. The role of the unions and Working Men’s parties decreased as a result of the economic downturn of 1837 and the Taney Court decisions.

PTS: 1 REF: Class, Culture, and the Second Party System


55. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Ethnocultural Politics: Some people based their decision on ethnic and religious background. Whigs tended to be Protestant descendants of settlers from the British Isles. Democrats in the North were often Catholic (especially Irish) immigrants.
Economic Position: Some chose a party as a result of their involvement in commerce or commercial agriculture. Individuals who believed there was a need for the government to fund infrastructure projects, such as roads and canals, became Whigs. Those who had no interest in commercial development became Democrats.
Geographical Position: Other economic interests also played a role in choosing a political party; for example, Westerners sought easy and quick distribution of western lands and the removal of Native Americans from desirable property, and tended to be Democrats.

PTS: 1 REF: Class, Culture, and the Second Party System


56. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Description of Transcendentalism: Transcendentalism was an intellectual movement rooted in New England Puritanism, in which young men and women questioned the Puritan constraints of their heritage. They were deeply influenced by Romanticism, a European conception that rejected the ordered, rational world of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment in favor of capturing the passionate aspects of the human spirit.
Transcendentalism in Historical Context: Transcendentalism reflected the major social changes wrought by the Industrial and Market Revolutions and the Second Great Awakening, which reordered the relationship of the individual and society. Rapid economic development and geographical expansion weakened many traditional institutions and social rules, enabling individuals to define morality for themselves.

PTS: 1 REF: Individualism: The Ethic of the Middle Class


57. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Transcendentalism as Individualism: Transcendentalism empowered the individual to reject traditional social restraints but retain self-discipline and civic responsibility.
Transcendentalism as a Motivating Force for Reform: The movement called on individuals to improve the self and society along moral lines, which made transcendentalism a powerful force for social reform. Emerson argued that the new market economy had diverted the nation’s spiritual energies away from faith in Christianity, necessitating a reform movement to bring the nation closer to God.

PTS: 1 REF: Individualism: The Ethic of the Middle Class


58. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Sources of Abolitionism: Like other reform movements of the era, abolitionism drew on the religious energy and ideas generated by the Second Great Awakening. Early nineteenth-century reformers argued that human bondage was contrary to the American values of republicanism and liberty. Abolitionists condemned slavery as a sin and took it as their moral duty to end this violation of God’s law.

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism


59. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Change and Continuity in Black Activism: Over time and in response to white violence, blacks moved away from the strategy of social uplift through education, temperance, and hard work. In the 1820s and 1830s, they increasingly called for active resistance—including, sometimes, violence—to free African Americans from slavery.
Role of Black Activists: Black activists such as Frederick Douglass and David Walker were crucial in reminding white abolitionists of the horrors of slavery, and of the necessity for black equality and the use of violence to end slavery. Less radical black activists also continued to argue for a strategy of social and moral uplift for poor free and enslaved blacks, which maintained the focus on black rights and not just an end to slavery. Black activists stimulated white violence, which kept abolitionism alive over time as a social movement.

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism


60. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Earlier Antislavery Efforts: Earlier antislavery movements were based on republican values of liberty and equality. The abolitionist movement drew energy from the Second Great Awakening and the moral sin of slavery according to Christianity. As a moral sin, slavery needed immediate eradication, not a slow phasing out over time.
Explanation of Anti-Abolitionist Hostility: Calls for immediate abolition conjured up images in the white mind of full black equality in marriage and the law. High unemployment and racism in this slave-based nation combined to produce a violent backlash against those who called for immediate black equality. White northerners feared a loss of status and income; white southerners feared a slave insurrection.

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism


61. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:

Motivations for Religious Women’s Turn to Reform: Desiring a stronger public role to improve society (as called on by the Second Great Awakening) and motivated by the women’s rights movement, religious women viewed their gender as perfectly suited to helping the downtrodden in American society lead a more moral life attuned to the teachings of Christianity.

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism | The Women's Rights Movement
62. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Antebellum Women’s Rights Movement: Organizers of the antebellum women’s rights movement strove to improve women’s equality with men in sexual standards and behavior, marriage and inheritance rights, and public life. Women wanted a more active political and economic role in society.
Reasons for Opposition: Opposition came particularly from men, based on their traditional Christian notions of the separate duties or “spheres” for men and women. Patriarchy or male rule prevented women from realizing true equality. Some women resented women’s rights advocates who appeared to claim superiority over other women.
Sections: Abolitionism; The Women’s Rights Movement

PTS: 1 REF: Abolitionism | The Women's Rights Movement


63. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
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