Study Guide short Answer Answer each question with three or four sentences



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14. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of British Industrial Revolution: By 1750, Britain had become the first country to use new manufacturing technology and work discipline to expand output. Using water and steam power, Britain produced woolen and linen textiles, iron tools, furniture, and chinaware in greater quantities and at lower cost than ever before.
Impact of Industrial Revolution on American Colonies: The Industrial Revolution produced a “consumer revolution” that raised the living standard of many Americans but landed many in debt for the first time, making Americans more dependent on overseas creditors and international economic conditions.

PTS: 1 REF: The Midcentury Challenge: War, Trade, and Social Conflict, 1750–1765


15. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Changes for Women: Women were increasingly absorbed within the values and attitudes of a patriarchal system. As farm size declined, women bore fewer children. Household tasks shifted from maintenance and self-sufficiency to the production of supplemental income for the household. Women played an important role in the Great Awakening in both the North and the South. The extent of alarm at women’s participation in the Great Awakening indicates that women actually had a great deal of power in society that men only tacitly recognized. Customs, laws, and attitudes about women did not really change during this century. Women remained subordinate to men economically, politically, and socially.

PTS: 1 REF: New England’s Freehold Society | Commerce, Culture, and Identity


16. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Economic Objections: Publicly, colonists objected to the Sugar Act by claiming that it would ruin the distilling industry in North America. In fact, wealthy merchants like John Hancock had made their fortunes smuggling French molasses, and they resisted the policy because it would make such smuggling and trade more difficult.
Constitutional Objections: Colonists made constitutional objections to both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. In Massachusetts, the colonial assembly argued that the tax legislation was “contrary to a fundamental Principall of our Constitution: That all Taxes ought to originate with the people.” In other colonies they claimed that new taxes violated the constitutional liberties of British people in the form of trial without juries and taxation without representation. The Sugar Act stipulated that merchants prosecuted under the act would be tried in vice-admiralty courts, not local common-law courts, which also sparked colonial arguments that the British administration was violating its own constitutional laws. They objected to the British reformers’ views that Americans were second-class subjects of the king, with rights limited by the Navigation Acts, parliamentary laws, and British interests.

PTS: 1 REF: An Empire Transformed | The Dynamics of Rebellion, 1765–1770


17. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Colonists’ Rights as British Subjects Under English Common Law: After decades of salutary neglect, Americans recognized that Britain’s new approach to colonial administration would deprive them of some of their rights as British subjects. British administrators believed that only British subjects in Britain had such rights, and that Americans were second-class subjects of the king subject to different laws.
Direct Versus Virtual Representation: In response to taxation, radical colonists such as Benjamin Franklin argued that they should not be subject to British taxes unless they also had representation in the British Parliament. Most British politicians rejected this idea, suggesting that colonists already had virtual representation in Parliament because some of its members were transatlantic merchants and West Indian sugar planters.
• “Natural Rights”: Drawing on Enlightenment rationalism, Patriots argued that all individuals possessed certain “natural rights” to life, liberty, and property, and that governments were bound to protect those rights. They also argued that a “separation of powers” among government branches prevented arbitrary rule.

PTS: 1 REF: The Dynamics of Rebellion, 1765–1770


18. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Political/Constitutional Changes: Britain’s leaders planned to fashion a centralized imperial system in America similar to the one they had put in place in Ireland. They envisioned a powerful fiscal-military state and assumed the absolute supremacy of Parliament. They planned to administer the colonies for the benefit of Great Britain, with little regard for the desires of the colonists or their local assemblies.
Economic Changes: Under the political regime envisioned by the British leaders, Parliament would have exercised much tighter fiscal control over the colonies. They aimed to achieve increased tax revenues sent from the colonies to England and an increase in British-manufactured goods purchased by the colonists. Under this system, the colonists would have had little economic autonomy, and a much larger percentage of colonial revenue and colonial products would have made their way to Britain.

PTS: 1 REF: An Empire Transformed | The Dynamics of Rebellion, 1765–1770


19. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Colonial Grievances: The Tea Act actually made the tea imported by the British cheaper than the smuggled Dutch tea, so the colonists’ grievances were not economic. Rather, they believed the British intended to bribe them with cheap tea to encourage their abandonment of principled opposition to the tea tax. Merchants joined the protest because the East Indian Company planned to distribute the tea directly to them, excluding American wholesalers from the trade’s profits. The Tea Act offended colonists and reignited colonial resistance based on simmering anger against increased taxation by Parliament.

PTS: 1 REF: The Road to Independence, 1771–1776


20. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Urban Patriots: The Patriot movement initially gained support from those Americans directly affected by British colonial policy—urban residents, artisans, merchants, and lawyers played an active role in the resistance. This group also included many of the educated elite, including ministers who supported the nonimportation movement and had been affected by both the Great Awakening and Enlightenment philosophy. Participants in urban mobs and riots and the most radical elements of the movement drew support from the middling and lower ranks of society, including artisans, skilled workers, laborers, sailors, and the unemployed.
Rural Patriots: By the late 1760s, British imperial policies increasingly intruded into the lives of farm families by sending their sons to war and raising their taxes. They feared that British measures threatened the yeoman tradition of land ownership and felt personally threatened by British policies. The rebellion also gained broad-based support from rural laborers, and small-town artisans, merchants, and professionals, especially in New England and other parts of the Northeast.
Slave Owners: Southern slave owners—especially wealthy planters—supported the rebellion as well. They were frequently in debt to British merchants and, accustomed to controlling their slave laborers and seeing themselves as guardians of English liberties, resented their financial dependence on British creditors. They dreaded the prospect of political subservience to British officials.
Women Patriots: Religious women from both rural and urban areas, as Daughters of Liberty, also supported the rebellion by organizing and sustaining the nonimportation boycotts and producing homespun cloth in place of British cloth.

PTS: 1 REF: The Road to Independence, 1771–1776


21. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
General Howe’s Role: Howe took control of New York quickly in the Battle of Long Island and then outflanked and nearly trapped Washington’s troops on Manhattan Island. Rather than destroying the rebels, Howe, who still hoped for a political compromise, hoped to demonstrate the American army’s weakness and persuade the Continental Congress to give up the rebellion. This decision bought the rebels more time. During the winter they spent in Valley Forge in 1777, Washington and the Continental army had time to improve their forces. Howe’s slow and misguided attack against Philadelphia contributed to General Burgoyne’s loss at Saratoga, New York. He probably bears the greatest responsibility for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory in North America.
Burgoyne’s Role: General Burgoyne was charged with the task of leading British troops south from Quebec to work with Iroquois fighters and General Howe’s troops to isolate New England. Burgoyne believed his large army would dominate the rebels easily and led it in a very leisurely way. His slow progress gave the American troops time to mobilize and ultimately defeat Burgoyne, who was still waiting for his Iroquois reinforcements.
London’s Role: Ministers in London began with a realistic plan to demonstrate Britain’s military superiority and nip the rebellion in the bud. General Howe did not follow their plan, however, and his reluctance made it much more difficult to stop the revolution before it made much progress.

PTS: 1 REF: The Trials of War, 1776–1778


22. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Saratoga as Turning Point: Saratoga was a turning point for many reasons. The American victory, which occurred shortly after General Howe’s troops seized Philadelphia, proved that Britain’s capture of the colonial capital could not stop the rebellion. The victory resulted in the capture of over 5,000 British troops and their equipment, and served to demonstrate to the British that the war would not be as easy as they had expected. Finally, the American victory at Saratoga ensured the success of American diplomats in France, who secured a French alliance that would be critical for the Americans’ defeat of the British in 1783.

PTS: 1 REF: The Trials of War, 1776–1778


23. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
French Alliance: France’s alliance was vital to the American victory against Britain. France was the most powerful nation in Europe and had a long history of conflict with Britain. Determined to avenge the loss of Canada during the Great War for Empire, the French foreign minister persuaded King Louis XVI to provide the rebellious colonies with a secret loan and much needed gun powder. The Continental army’s victory at Saratoga made it possible for the French foreign minister to seek a formal alliance. Both nations wanted to defeat Britain, and they signed the Treaty of Alliance in 1778, which specified that neither partner would sign a separate peace with Britain. The French bolstered the Americans’ confidence and provided troops, naval power, and military leadership that aided the Americans tremendously

PTS: 1 REF: The Path to Victory, 1778–1783


24. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Property Qualifications for Voting and Office Holding: Pennsylvania’s democratic constitution abolished property ownership as a test of citizenship, and granted taxpaying men the right to vote and hold office. Massachusetts’ conservative constitution, on the other hand, restricted office holding to elite property holders.
Legislative Structure: Pennsylvania’s and Vermont’s democratic constitutions instituted unicameral legislatures with complete power and no governors to exercise a veto. In Massachusetts, New York, and other states where political leaders hoped to limit democratic power, constitutions specified a bicameral legislature with an upper house of substantial property owners to offset the popular majorities in the lower house. Conservative Patriots established mixed governments in which elected governors had veto power and judiciaries were appointed.

PTS: 1 REF: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776–1787


25. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Economic Causes: Grim postwar conditions included economic recession, a disrupted economy, and a shattered economic infrastructure. In many states, farmers could not make ends meet and accumulated significant debts, including tax debts.
Political Causes: In Massachusetts, the new constitution placed power in the hands of the mercantile elite that owned the bulk of the state’s war bonds. Ignoring the interest of ordinary citizens, these legislators increased taxes fivefold to pay off wartime debts and stipulated that those taxes had to be paid in hard currency. When farmers could not afford to pay their debts, creditors threatened them with lawsuits. By the1780s, middling farmers and artisans now controlled lower houses of state legislatures. Because they lacked formal political authority, Massachusetts farmers called extralegal conventions to protest high taxes and property seizures. Ultimately mobs of angry farmers closed the courts by force. These crowd actions grew into a full-scale revolt led by Captain Shays, a Continental army veteran. Shays’s men linked their actions to the Patriot movement, protesting unfair taxation.

PTS: 1 REF: Creating Republican Institutions, 1776–1787


26. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Great Compromise: The delegates created a new government based on a combination of the New Jersey and Virginia plans; They created a bicameral legislature that reflected the needs of small and large states. Every state was allowed to send two members to the Senate, while in the House, where representation depended on population, the largest states would have the most representatives.
Three-Fifths Compromise: The major conflict over slavery was how slaves would count in a state’s population for the purposes of determining representation in the House of Representatives. The convention delegates compromised by determining that each slave would count as three-fifths of a person. Other conflicts over slavery were resolved by the delegates’ agreement to place a twenty-year moratorium on the Atlantic slave trade; to treat other aspects of slavery as political rather than moral issues, agreeing to a fugitive slave cause that allowed masters to reclaim slaves who escaped to other states; and refusing to mention slavery in the Constitution.
State Sovereignty: The delegates agreed to preserve state sovereignty in the Constitution by restricting the central powers of the national government through the use of state rather than national courts. Voters in national elections did not have to be landowners, and the president of the nation would be chosen by an electoral college chosen on a state-by-state basis.

PTS: 1 REF: The Constitution of 1787


27. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Hamilton’s Vision: Hamilton called for an authoritarian government, and as treasury secretary he enhanced national authority through a program of national mercantilism. Hamilton instituted policies that fully funded the Confederation’s debt, which both protected the United States’ credit and gave enormous profits to speculators who had bought up depreciated securities, and assumed the states’ war debts, which both eased states’ finances and put money into the pockets of well-to-do creditors. Hamilton’s other major financial policies included the creation of the Bank of the United States to handle government funds and lend stability to the national economy.
Jefferson’s Vision: Speaking as a southern planter, Jefferson embraced the Enlightenment spirit of optimism and expressed a democratic vision of an agricultural nation based on small, independent farmers. He believed the independent yeoman farm families, unlike urban laborers and other wageworkers, had the economic and political independence to sustain a republican policy.

PTS: 1 REF: The Political Crisis of the 1790s


28. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Constitutionality: Madison and Jefferson argued that Hamilton’s proposals exercised powers that the federal government did not have according to the Constitution. They particularly objected to the national bank as unconstitutional.
Concentration of Wealth: Madison and Jefferson believed that a central bank would enlarge the national debt, force the government to increase taxes, and gradually impoverish independent yeoman farmers. Hamilton, they argued, wanted to reimpose an English-style mixed government in America and was beginning by empowering the moneyed elite.
Damage to Yeomen: The centralization of capital would encourage manufacturing, which would create a class of exploited wage earners and undermine a republican government supported by a free and independent people.

PTS: 1 REF: The Political Crisis of the 1790s


29. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Summary of Conflict: In 1792, the First French Republic went to war against a British-led coalition of monarchies. The fighting disrupted European farming, and wheat prices inflated dramatically. Chesapeake and Middle Atlantic farmers took advantage of the crisis to sell their wheat overseas. Simultaneously a boom in the export of raw cotton boosted the economies of Georgia and South Carolina.
Economic Motivations: Although many Americans favored the French Republic, Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in order to ensure that Americans could continue to trade with all of the European belligerents. As neutral carriers, American merchant ships could pass through Britain’s naval blockade of French ports. Americans reaped tremendous economic benefits.

PTS: 1 REF: The Political Crisis of the 1790s


30. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Economic motives: Easterners moved westward to speculate on lands for a profit, to purchase independent farms for their growing families, to pay debts, and to establish new cotton plantations. The wheat and cotton boom made farming quite profitable in this period, and many Americans were eager to benefit and improve their standards of living.
Other motives: Easterners also moved for other reasons. Some Southerners sought land in the free territory in the Northwest because of their opposition to slavery. New Englanders flowed out east to leave their crowded regions and gain access to unsettled land in the West.

PTS: 1 REF: A Republican Empire Is Born


31. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Causes of War: The British ministry imposed a naval blockade and seized American vessels carrying sugar and molasses from the French West Indies. It also searched American merchant ships for British deserters and impressed American sailors to replenish its own forces. Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited American ships from leaving their home ports until France and Britain stopped restricting American ships, but this policy weakened the entire economy and hurt farmers as well as merchants.
Republicans’ Position: Republican war hawks from the South and West saw Britain as the primary offender, pointing to its efforts to revive the Western Confederacy as well as its interference in shipping. These political leaders, including Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of South Carolina, pushed the new Republican president toward war, hoping to acquire territory in British Canada and Spanish Florida. Madison declared war on Britain in June 1812 despite the sharply divided Congress.
Federalists’ Position: New England Federalists opposed the war because of the tax and tariff increases and national conscription of state militiamen that came with it. They opposed Virginia’s Republican domination of the presidency and proposed constitutional changes that would make it more difficult for the president to declare war. Some Federalists considered secession from the Union due to their objections to the war.

PTS: 1 REF: The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics


32. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
South/West versus Northeast: The war exposed tensions between the Federalists and the Republicans, but it also exposed new regional tensions. The newly settled West joined with the South in support of the war because people in that region hoped it would end Britain’s efforts to bolster the Native Americans there and help them gain new territory for the expansion of both small farms and cotton plantations. Northeasterners, who had no vested interest in the acquisition of new land but who favored industry and the interests of free labor, shippers, and merchants, opposed the war. These regional differences ultimately divided the Republican Party and caused the Federalist Party to crumble.

PTS: 1 REF: The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics


33. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
The Federalists’ Agenda: Federalists called the Hartford Convention due to their strong opposition to the War of 1812, which they perceived as a Republican cause. They initially hoped that the convention could lay the foundation for a radical reform in the Constitution that would end Virginia’s domination of the presidency. At the meeting, however, some Federalists called for secession.
Convention’s Impact: Ultimately, the convention had no impact on the Constitution. Soon afterward, the war turned in the Americans’ favor and the British sought peace negotiations to end it. Undercut by their lack of support for the war, which looked unpatriotic, the Federalist Party crumbled.

PTS: 1 REF: The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics


34. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Positive Outcomes: The United States successfully severed the alliance between the Native Americans in the West and the British. The British grudgingly recognized American sovereignty in the West. The British recognized American neutrality and acknowledged their respect for the United States, ending a long period of American diplomatic subservience to Britain. The war, and especially Andrew Jackson’s victory at the battle of New Orleans, secured the Americans’ national honor and redeemed its battered pride.
Neutral Outcomes: In the end, the United States did not prevail militarily over the British. Indeed, the war was very nearly a military disaster that returned U.S. territory to its former colonial ruler. The Treaty of Ghent retained the prewar borders of the United States and dashed the hopes of those who had wanted to obtain Florida and Canada.

PTS: 1 REF: The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics


35. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Impact on Artisans and Farmers: The lives of artisans and farm families became dependent on the prosperity of the market and suffered during downturns like the Panic of 1819. The market economy increased trade in regional and national markets and fostered the development of an outwork system and the expansion of household production for market sale. In rural America, farmers worked harder and longer, and not only for self-consumption or barter in a local economy, as they had done before 1800.

PTS: 1 REF: The Capitalist Commonwealth


36. ANS:

Answer would ideally include:
Impediments to the Development of a Market Economy: As a large and undeveloped nation, the United States lacked an efficient transportation system, and it needed to raise large amounts of revenue to fund infrastructure improvements, including roads and canals.

Use of Government to Promote a Market Economy: Promoters successfully petitioned state legislatures for assistance. Based on the legal precedents set forth by the John Marshall Supreme Court, state legislatures granted special charters, rights, and laws to private companies to promote economic growth and the market economy. These companies used legal privileges such as the power of eminent domain to force the sale of private land, which allowed them to build roads, bridges, mill dams, and canals. Later state governments awarded charters to other private businesses including ironing mining, textile manufacturing, and banking companies.

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