Study Guide New Conflagrations: World War II and the Cold War



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Study Guide - New Conflagrations: World War II and the Cold War

Bentley chapter 36 Part I





  1. World War II as total war: In total war, civilians become legitimate targets


  1. Invasion of Poland (September 1939): This marks the official beginning of WWII – Both France and England had a military alliance with Poland – so, when Poland was attacked, both Britain and France declared war on Germany


  1. Blitzkrieg: “Lightening war” – The blitzkrieg is based on the armored tank column with close air support – the columns “live off the land” thereby not having to depend on supply lines to slow them down


  1. phony war: Between September and May of 1940 is known as the “phony war” – “siztkrieg”


  1. German invasion of France (May 1940) – Within six weeks France falls to the German bliztkrieg – How did they do it? The French built the “Maginot Line” but the Germans implement Schleiffen plan II and run through Belgium


  1. Battle of Britain (June-September 1940) – The English are outnumbered 10 to 1



  1. German invasion of Soviet Union (Summer 1941): So, after the Battle of Britain is scaled-down, Hitler focused his attention of an invasion of the Soviet – In the Summer of 1941 Hitler unleashed Operation Barbarossa – a blitzkrieg against Russia – By the fall of 1941 Hitler was over 500 miles into Russia



  1. scorched earth – After Stalin regained his nerve he ordered a “strategic retreat” which is known as “scorched earth”




  1. siege of Leningrad


  1. Battle of Stalingrad 1943 – This is the most decisive battle of the European theater during WWII – Stalingrad is located on the Volga River – and this river is the gateway to the Caucuses region of the Soviet Union – What resource? Oil – After this battle, the Red Army goes on the offensive



  1. Allied forces in North Africa: English and the Americans focus on North Africa and the Middle East first – The oil fields and the Suez were considered more vital than even the liberation of France during the opening phases of the war



  1. Western Front? In Europe, the western front was finally opened in France during June 1944 (Normandy invasion portrayed in Saving Private Ryan)


  1. rebuilding of Red Army: Soviet industry moved behind the Urals and war production rebuilt the Red Army infrastructure – including the best tank of WWII – Russian T-34



  1. Soviet casualties – At least 20 million killed (this number has risen since the fall of the Soviet Union and the release of state records – most now set the number at 27 million)


  1. War in Asia and the Pacific: This is all about imperial control of Asian colonies between the Europeans/Americans and the Japanese



  1. Japanese strategy – was to expand into East Asia so that they could gain European colonies that would bring them key resources for continued industrial output – The key resource is oil – most of the oil is located in Indonesia (controlled by the Dutch)



  1. Japanese occupation of Indochina – The French controlled Indochina when the Japanese marched in 1941



  1. Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh



  1. break down of relations between U.S. and Japan --- The Japanese call their plan to expand the “East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere” – the breakdown reaches crisis once the Japanese enter Vietnam (the American cut off oil and scrap iron supplies)



  1. Pearl Harbor & Pearl Harbor syndrome



  1. Battle of Midway (June 1942)



  1. “island hopping”



  1. Fire bombings: This is an aspect of “total war.” It was the intentional policy of the American and British government to burn entire civilian populations with so called “incendiary bombs” -- Over 60 Japanese cities (In Europe The firebombing campaign included the German Medieval city of Dresden)



  1. politics of the atomic bomb


  1. Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 1945)



  1. Holocaust



  1. Who won World War II?


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