Geocentric Theory – the earth centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution – a major change in European thought starting in the mid-1500s in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accept beliefs. It came as a result of the Renaissance and the Age of European Exploration
Heliocentric Theory – the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Galileo – determined that Jupiter had moons and that falling planets accelerated at a fixed rate
Isaac Newton – English scientist who explained the law of gravity
Robert Boyle – 1st to use the scientific method in chemistry and formulated a low that described the properties of gases under pressure
Scientific Method – a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Kepler – proved that math laws govern all the motions of the planets, he stated that planets move around the sun in an elliptical pattern and not a circular pattern
How did the Renaissance and the Age of European Exploration help pave the way for the Scientific Revolution?
The Renaissance inspired a spirit of curiosity; scholars began to question ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of years; the printing press spread new ideas quickly. The curiosity and questioning led to scientific questioning and the Church stopped being the only authority as people became interested in both the physical as well as the spiritual world.
The Age of European Exploration inspired navigators to create new tools and instruments to enable them to travel further and faster. They wanted to know more about the earth and questioned old beliefs. The long voyages led to research in astronomy and mathematics. As scientists looked more closely at the world around them, they made discoveries that did not match ancient beliefs.
People and Terms:
Enlightenment – a new intellectual movement in the 1700s that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems, the application of the scientific method to an understanding of life
Social Contract – the argument by which people define an organized society or government which was believed by Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes – favored an absolute monarch because people need to give up freedoms in order to have an orderly government. He believed that people are basically greedy and selfish and that the society can’t exist without the social contract
Philosophes – one of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment who believed in progress for society
Montesquieu – he proposed a separation of powers to keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government as the best way to protect liberty
Rousseau – wrote the Social Contract, he believed that each person has to sacrifice some personal freedoms or desires for the good of society as a whole and the only good government is one which is formed by the general will of the people (majority)
Wollstonecraft – she believed in equal educations for girls so women could fully participate in public life. Education would give women the tools they need to participate in public life
Beccaria – criticized abused of justice, believed that laws exist to preserve social order, argued for speedy trials and no capital punishment or torture
Leviathan – written by Hobbes to express his idea of how society need strict control to impose order and force obedience
Explain the differences between Locke and Hobbes in terms of their views on human nature and the role of the government.
Locke believed that rights belonged to people at birth: Life, liberty and property. He believed that the government was to protect the people natural rights. If the government doesn’t do that then the people should overthrow it. He favored a democracy where the power of the government comes form the consent of the governed or the majority.
Hobbes believed that people are basically greedy and selfish and the society can’t exist without control. He believed that there needed to be a social contract where people would give up their freedoms in exchange for an orderly society. He favored an absolute monarchy because society needs strict control to impose order and force obedience.
Voltaire criticized the church and French government, believed in tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech.
Montesquieu believed that they best way to protect liberty is separate a government into three branches as a separation of powers so that each branch serves as a check to the other branches as a system of checks and balances
Rousseau believed that each person has to sacrifice some personal freedoms or desires for the good of society as a whole; the only good government is one which is formed by the general will of the people.
Beccaria believed that laws exist to preserve social order. He argued for speedy trials and punishments, which fit the crime, not capital punishment or torture.
Wollstonecraft believed in equal education for boys and girls so women could fully participate in public life. She felt that only education would give women the tools that they need to participate in public life.
Salon – social gatherings of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
Baroque – a style of art which dominated European art of the 1600s and early 1700s characterized by a grand ornate design which cold be seen in elaborate palaces such as Versailles and in numerous painting
Neoclassical – a new style of art where artists and architects worked in a simple and elegant style that barrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome in the late 1700s
Enlightened despot – monarchs who embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit
Diderot’s Encyclopedia – he created the encyclopedia which included the views of the Enlightenment which angered both the French government and the Catholic Church. Their censors banned the work but Diderot continued publishing it.
Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven – three composers in Vienna, Austria, who ranked among the greatest figures of the classical period in music which was a new, lighter, and more elegant style of music.
Henry Fielding – an English author who wrote Tom Jones which told the story of an orphan who travels all over England to win the hand of his lady
Frederick The Great – King of Prussia, called himself “ the first servant of the state” and thought that his goal was to serve and strengthen his country, which was an attitude that appealed to the philosophes
Joseph II – the most radical royal reformer, he introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press, supported freedom of worship, abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash. Many of his reforms were undone after his death
Catherine the Great – admired by the philosophes, read the works of the philosophes and exchanged letters with Voltaire.
What was the new style of art that became popular during the Enlightenment, who were some of the composers, what new writing style developed and how did the arts differ from earlier art?
Neoclassical – It differed from the Baroque style that it was now simple, elegant style that borrowed ideas and themes of classical Greece and Rome rather than being grand, ornate, elaborate.
Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven – classical music emerges which is lighter and more elegant. Bach and Handel had dominated the music with dramatic organ and choral pieces.
18th century writers had a new style. Novels now had careful crafted plots, suspense and exploration of characters’ thoughts and feelings. It was popular with the middle class audiences and written in the everyday language
Who were three enlightened despots that we read about, what countries were they from, and what did they actually accomplish? In what ways were they less than true reformers?
Frederick the Great of Prussia – Granted religious freedom, reduced censorships, improved education. He reformed the justice system and abolished torture. He did not end serfdom to keep the nobles loyal. He called himself the “first servant of the state” and his was his goal to serve and strengthen his country.
Joseph II of Austria – was the most radical royal reformer. He introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press. He supported freedom of worship for the Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews. He abolished serfdom and ordered peasants to be paid cash for their labor. The nobles resisted and many of his reforms were undone when he died.
Catherine the Great of Russia – She was most admired by the philosophes. She sought to reform Russia on the ideas of Montesquieu and Beccaria. She tried to allow religious toleration, abolish torture and capital punishment, but it didn’t happen. She did not end serfdom as it needed the support of the nobles.