Studies of Society and Environment Elaborations of core learning outcomes using a geographical perspective and geography learning outcomes



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Place and Space


Elaborations of core learning outcomes using a geographical perspective and geography learning outcomes.

The following elaborations are examples only of what students know and can do, and should not be considered prescriptive or exhaustive.
Key concept: Processes and environments

Key process: Creating





Level 5

Level 5

Level 6

Level 6

Learning outcome

Core PS 5.2

Students design strategies for evaluating environmental impacts of a proposed project highlighting relationships within and between natural systems.



Geography PS 5.2

Students identify different types and patterns of settlement in Australia and other regions of the world and examine the physical and social factors operating within these settlements.



Core PS 6.2

Students create proposals to resolve environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region.



Geography PS 6.2

Students perform a role-play centred around an environmental issue where the values of the participants are revealed.



Students know:
Processes and environments

relationships within and between natural systems

dependence and interdependence

hydrological cycle

food webs

ecosystems

addition of an element to a system

non-native plants and animals e.g. toad/rabbit, water hyacinth, marine organisms found in ballast water

wastes or run-off from gardens, sewerage, industry, etc and impact on water quality e.g. Moreton Bay

chemicals into land, air ,water systems e.g. fertilisers, herbicides, pesticides, fluorocarbons

removal of an element from a system

natural predators e.g. dingos from wildlife reserves, impact of calicivirus in arid lands, clearfelling of forests

projects impacting on natural systems

Mining proposal (e.g. Uranium mine at Jabiluka)

Tourist resort

Canal development (including impact upon original wetland environments)

Urban subdivision

Agricultural development (piggery, feedlot)

sand replenishment programmes

examples of environmental impact statements related to their local/regional/state environment


patterns of settlement in Australia and other regions of the world

types of settlement: hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis, megalopolis

functions of settlement: mining, tourism

urbanisation

suburbanisation: urban sprawl, urban consolidation

rural decline

squatter/shanty settlements

typical village patterns in SE Asia



physical and social factors

topography

nature of hinterland (agricultural and so on)

demographic characteristics (age, employment status, occupation, religion, level of education, home ownership)

household income

ethnicity

cultural influences/traditional lifestyle


environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region

global warming e.g. Pacific islands, Bangladesh, coastal regions of Australia and rising sea levels

tourism e.g. Bali and cultural and environmental degradation, destruction of Great Barrier Reef

resource management e.g. use of the Asian rainforest for timber in Australia

population issues e.g. China’s One Child Policy; population densities, poverty and impact on natural environment

trade e.g. the ethical considerations in the trade for wildlife, clothing and other consumer goods

endangered fauna e.g. panda, orang-utan, bilby


suggested environmental issues

development project: Mining venture, tourist resort, canal development, land clearing.

maintenance of biodiversity versus economic needs of community.

disappearing rainforests in Indonesia, for example.

Australia’s response to Global Warming.

urban development or the protection of rich agricultural lands.

waste minimisation or waste management


Students can:
Create


design strategies for evaluating environmental impacts

identify a project – local, regional, national or global

gather evidence from a range of sources

brainstorm a range of possible environmental impacts

develop criteria and strategies to evaluate projects by determining the impact upon the environment (natural & social)

consider strategies developed by other agencies

create alternative strategies to address the problems which become apparent


use maps, photographs etc. to identify types and patterns of settlement

show in a table form types and patterns of settlement

show difference between a pattern of an Australian city and another world city

show differences between different types of settlement e.g. hamlet, village, town, city



create proposal to resolve issue

follow the Geographic Inquiry process to ensure informed understanding as a means of resolving an issue e.g.What area of Asia is covered by rainforest? Where is rainforest being harvested for timber for Australia? Why is Australia importing this timber? How does this impact on the local environment and what are the long term consequences? What alternatives are there? What action can we take to help resolve the issue?

create a report on findings and expressing proposals for action, e.g. written report, seminar, multi-media presentation, web-page


perform a role-play centred on an environmental issue

examples of types of role plays:



  • a local council meeting

  • a community consultation meeting

  • a class debate

follow guidelines for effective role-play:
Step 1: Overview of issue
Step 2: Identify stakeholders
Step 3: Having been issued with stimulus material outlining the views of different stakeholders, students (in groups) can develop their character/s
Step 4: Conduct role-play (create the physical layout of the role-play within the classroom) Issue name tags and so on
Step 5: Debriefing by identifying the conflicting values and recognising the tentative nature of conclusions drawn from such a role-play



Elaborations of core learning outcomes using a geographical perspective and geography learning outcomes.

The following elaborations are examples only of what students know and can do, and should not be considered prescriptive or exhaustive.
Place and Space

Key concept: Stewardship

Key process: Participating





Level 5

Level 5

Level 6

Level 6

Learning outcome

Core PS 5.3

Students participate in Geographical inquiries to evaluate impacts on ecosystems in different global locations.



Geography PS 5.3

Students use fieldwork to explain the rate of operation of physical processes.



Core PS 6.3

Students initiate and undertake an environmental action research project based on fieldwork.



Geography PS 6.3

Students identify the characteristics that make a natural environment unique and compare these with a list developed by someone who has had a long association with that environment.



Students know:
Stewardship

global locations

Asia-Pacific and other world locations

regions e.g. climatic, vegetation, agricultural

places of temporary significance



impacts on ecosystems

natural


tidal waves

drought e.g. Somalia

bush-fire e.g. Indonesia

earthquakes e.g. Japan

cyclones/hurricanes/typhoons e.g. Bangladesh

El Nino/La Nina e.g. Australia

human

mining e.g. Bougainville



logging e.g. Indonesia, Brazil

commercial fishing e.g. overfishing in Pacific Ocean

nuclear testing e.g. Bikini Atoll

primary and secondary industry e.g. cotton farming, aluminium/energy production, acid rain

population growth/concentrations e.g. million cities

scientific developments e.g. seed rights

human-natural interactions e.g. land degradation/ desertification/salinisation in fragile biophysical regions


physical processes

weathering

erosion

transportation



deposition

systems

fluvial


arid

coast


glacial

volcanic system



factors that influence the rate of operation

slope


vegetation cover

rainfall intensity

soil structure

water velocity

size of sediment

climate


environmental action research project

local, national or global environmental issue

action research process

problem identification

problem investigation

data evaluation

possible actions

predicted outcomes

action selection

action implementation

action evaluation

new problem identification

process revisited


natural environments

arid landscapes

tropical rainforests

grasslands

wetlands

polar regions

mountainous landscapes

characteristics

landforms

soils

climate


vegetation

wildlife


Students can:
Participate

participate in Geographical inquiries to evaluate

engage in a geographical inquiry

collaboratively identify a location and ecosystem

develop and apply key questions using the Geographical Inquiry



process framework

What and where are the issues or patterns being studied?

How and why are they there?

What are their impacts or consequences?

What is being done and what could be done to improve the situation?


participation in field exercises to determine the rate of operation of physical processes

a study of a local stream to identify physical processes

use topographic map to construct a precise map of the river. Use contours to construct a longitudinal profile of stream. Identify two or three sites along the stream

measurement of cross sectional area and water velocity so as to calculate discharge at sites along stream

use clinometer and tape measure to determine slope

examine photographic evidence of river bank/ riparian fringe

take samples of sediment at intervals along a cross section of the stream – measure the size and take photographic evidence of bed-load

take samples of water and use scientific laboratory to filter water for suspended sediment. Ask the school’s laboratory technician for assistance if needed

visit the local council to obtain peak discharges during rain periods (gauging stations are located along the stream to measure such discharge)

identify human influences that increase the intensity of physical processes on creek

field work can lead to action in the wider community. For example, the school could ‘adopt’ a part of the stream to monitor e.g. Toowoomba City Council’s ‘Adopt a part of the Creek Program’


initiate and undertake a project based on fieldwork

engage in a cooperative environmental action research project

share perceptions to identify an environmental issue, having local context available for field study

establish criteria to validate that an issue exists

engage in fieldwork data collection using a variety of methods and measurement instruments e.g. water and air quality test instruments, cross-sections, topographical maps, field sketches, tape measure, clinometer, sketch maps, capture/recapture method, vegetation quadrats, transects, questionnaires/surveys/ interviews, photographs


share informed points of view and consult with a person who has had a long association with the environment

research to inform themselves about the characteristics of the selected natural environment that make it unique

participate in video conferencing with individuals who have a long association with the environment

send e-mail/s to survey an individual or individuals who have had a long association with the environment (e.g. early settlers, Indigenous people, elderly)





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