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Student Guide

Teacher Guide

Communism and Containment

By


Dennis Durbin

STUDENT INFORMATION GUIDE



Scenario



In May a researcher in the Pentagon was conducting routine work to declassify military documents. The worker was astounded to find a file detailing a research experiment begun in 1945. Reading the documents sent a chill through the young man even as he quickly notified his superior. The lights in the Pentagon were on late that night as level after level of admirals, generals and assorted brass were brought into the picture. At eleven o’clock the president of the United States was called and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were summoned to inform the President on the details of the situation.


Student Guide

Teacher Guide
The following documents provide some basic information.
To: General Nathan Blake, United States Army
From: George Marshall, Chief of the Army
Date: March 2, 1945
Subject: Code-named “Patriot”
General,
You are directed to immediately begin a program to insure that the American way of life will be maintained in case of a threat to the established government of the United States. Should any event (for example war) overtake and change our present from of authority, this program must be in place to provide a means to reestablish the American system. All funds necessary to implement this program will be made available.
In the interest of national security this program will be considered “Top Secret” and information will be on a need to know basis only.
Signed,
George Marshall

To: George Marshall, Army Chief of Staff


From: General Nathan Blake
Date: September 6, 1954
Subject: “Patriot” program
Sir,

As per your directions I have used the funds from congress to implement a program that meets the perimeters mentioned in your orders of March 2, 1945.


There is now a running operation that will insure the American way of life in the event of a hostile situation with the communist countries. This operation has been code named “Patriot”.
This operation is now self-sufficient and will continue until terminated by the office of the president.
Signed,
Nathan Blake

Additional documents detailed that General Blake was responsible for the “Patriot” program. Working in secret, as did his friend, General Leslie Groves, (who was in charge of the Manhattan Project) Blake coordinated a research program that used advanced technology to place one thousand men and women in stasis. For their safety all technology was automated using prototype atomics to power the systems. The volunteers were then placed deep within mineshafts in the mountains of Utah.



Student Guide

Teacher Guide

The program was to have been monitored by a special office in the Department of War. However, after World War II this department was merged with others and a new Department of Defense was formed. Key information was lost in the change over and the Patriot project was forgotten. Now, these “Rip VanWinkles” have been found.




The Problem

You and your team have been selected by the presidential task force to educate the newly awakened people. When they went to sleep the United States had just won the war and alone controlled the use of atomic weapons. The Soviet Union was a major competitor of the United States and there was much concern that the Soviets were trying to take over the world with their communist system of government. They were perceived as a serious threat to America.


One important thing to consider: When the volunteers were buried a number of experimental weapons developed for possible war use were placed in sealed caves. These weapons pose a real threat to the current world situation should they fall into the wrong hands or worst yet, be made operational. It is imperative that your team presents a comprehensive, complete and informative reeducation plan to the “sleepers”. Failure to successfully do so could endanger the world if the “sleepers” decide to act on their own.


The Task

Your team is to provide a brief but complete history of the past 50 years for the sleepers, emphasizing the Truman Doctrine.



The Process

Your team is to cover the key points of the Truman Doctrine from 1945 to 1990. These points should include but are not limited to:



  • a timeline of the years from 1945 to 1999

  • “Hot and cold” wars (ex. Korea)

  • the Marshall Plan

  • NATO

  • containment

  • the Berlin/Germany situation,

  • the Cuban missile crisis

  • the arms race

  • the collapse of the Soviet Union

  • the status of communism today

You must present these points in a clear manner and explain their success and/or failures in the years since 1945. Detail is essential. Remember these “new” Americans are bright and will challenge what you say unless you can support your information with facts. In many ways the future rests with the ability of your team to bring these people into the 1990’s.


It will be essential to work as a team to complete your objectives successfully on this assignment. Your team may work in whatever way you feel is most effective, but organization is very important. Without organization you will overlook areas of study that are necessary to brief the “sleepers”.
Student Guide

Teacher Guide

Your group will need to be divided into selected areas of investigation for each member. Individuals will need to study: what the Truman doctrine was, the Marshall Plan and who it effected, the creation of NATO and it's purpose, how containment was put into practice, the question of the Berlin/Germany situation, the arms race and the Cuban missile crisis, and finally, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the status of Russia today.


These areas will need to be researched in depth using whatever sources are necessary. A variety of Internet sources are listed below.

To be successful in this project your team must research the questions from a variety of sources. It is recommenced that extensive use is made of the Internet and its resources. Suggested links are given below. Before you will be allowed to work directly with the “Sleepers” you will first have to present your completed program to all the other teams involved in the reeducation program. Your presentation should include written, visual, and audio sources. Each member of your team must be a part of the formal presentation to the evaluation committee.


Your team should consist of from 5 to 7 students. Each student should select an area to investigate. These areas may include:

  • the era of McCarthyism

  • instances of domestic communism and blacklisting

  • the Truman Doctrine

  • the Berlin Wall

  • the Korean War

  • the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis

  • “Mutual assured destruction” doctrine

  • the Vietnam War

Be sure to keep good notes as you work. List resources used and identify what you will need to use in your presentation. Begin your investigation with the resources listed below. You are not limited to these, but they are a good place to start.


It is not necessary to reinvent everything you will use in your team presentation. When you find a useful item in your investigation, borrow it.
Remember that the success of your team is critical to the future!

Glossary of Useful Terms




Atomic- Of an atom or atoms, of atomic energy or atomic bombs
Declassify- To make secret or restricted documents, codes, etc., available to the public
General George Marshall- Military leader, diplomat-General of the Army rank in World War II.
General Leslie Groves-Selected to head the security aspects and military involvement during the development of the first atomic bomb

Student Guide


Teacher Guide

Joint Chiefs of Staff- Selected generals and admirals that head each of the armed forces
Manhattan Project- Begun to develop the first working atomic bomb. Initially named for the work being carried out in Manhattan, NewYork
Rip Van Winkle-Hero of a story. He falls asleep for many years and awakens to find the world a very different place
Soviet Union- Political union of countries under communist rule.
Stasis-To be moved outside the effects of time. Suspended animation.

Resources

The resources listed here are a starting place. Feel free to expand the list as your team sees fit. The first part of each resource line gives you a good idea of what you will find at each internet site. Each site contains useful information. Some sites contain photos, some audio and video, some original source documents.


A final part in your research may ask you to evaluate at least one source. A form is available to use. A completed form may be part of your evaluation process.

The Truman Library http://www.trumanlibrary.org/

The Marshall Plan http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9705/28/marshall.plan/

The Marshall Plan http://cgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/1997/dom/970609/world.unity_and_div.html

The Cuban Missile Crisis http://www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/cuba_mis_cri.html

The Cuban Missile Crisis http://hyperion.advanced.org/11046/

The Cuban Missile Crisis http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9710/28/missile.crisis/

The Berlin Wall http://www.berlin1989.com/

The Berlin Wall http://www.letsfindout.com/subjects/places/berlin-wall.html

The Berlin Wall http://members.aol.com/johball/berlinwl.htm

The Berlin Wall http://userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/BIW/wall.html

The Cold War http://www.slip.net/~dbutdorf/1950s/cold.html

The United States in the 1950"s http://www.slip.net/~dbutdorf/1950s/index.html

Paranoia and Prosperity http://www.slip.net/~dbutdorf/1950s/par.html

NATO http://www.centraleurope.com/ceo/special/nato/natoorig.html

Test Ban Treaty http://www.ucsusa.org/arms/evolution.html

The Korean War http://www.koreanwar.org/

The Korean War http://mcel.pacificu.edu/as/students/stanley/home.html

Video- 1945-1989: The Cold War (California Instructional Technology Clearinghouse)


Student Guide


Teacher Guide

Evaluation

You and your team members will be evaluated on the quality and quantity of your presentation as it relates to reeducating the sleepers. Your research and presentation must reflect an accurate portrayal of the events surrounding the Truman Doctrine, its effects and impact on the past 50 years of United States history. The objectives are listed below.
Student Objectives
To be successful your team must complete the following:

A timeline of the important events of the cold war period from 1945 to 1990

A map showing the areas of cold war activity

A photo gallery of major leaders during the cold war period (notebook format)

A paper that explains/ discusses the events listed in the process section (5 to 10 pages)

A multimedia presentation of your findings (length to be determined by teacher/team)

A bibliography

(Optional: A source evaluation for a selected source used)




Learning Advice

You will gather a tremendous amount of information during your team research. It is important to stay organized. You should keep all your information in a folder. You should write down ideas and evidence, and share these with your group. You should provide positive feedback to other members of your group. You must be careful to spend an appropriate amount of time reading the information at each website before deciding to print the information. This is an important investigation and you should be truthful.


When you begin your research it might be useful to label several folders with the major areas of your research. That is; Truman doctrine, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, etc. As you begin to gather data you can place it into the correct folder. Next, review this information to see if you need additional research or you are ready to work with your data. The better you organize your information, the easier you will find this assuagement.

Student Guide
Teacher Guide
Reflections

In thinking about the results of your investigations and research in should have come to your mind that events of the past 50 years could have impacted the present in many different ways. Have your team consider and discuss the following questions.


Could the United States and Russia ended World War II on a happier note? Might it have been possible for the two countries to develop a better working relationship that would have avoided the arms race?
What might have happened if the United Nations had been more effective in working for peace between the super powers?
What would your team suggest to prevent the long Cold War struggle?
If the struggle for world political control had gone to the communist system, can your team suggest three ways in which your life today might have been effected/influenced?

Grading Rubric


Attempted:

Insufficient knowledge of history, preparation of maps and charts are mission or weak. Biographies of key leaders have incorrect information. No primary source material. Presentation lacks preparation. Poster or multimedia provides few artifacts and little information.



Acceptable:

Provides main idea of nation's history but only in broad outline form with little detail. Map, charts and timeline presented but with some erroneous or unclear information. Primary sources are weak. Material provides main idea but only in broad outline from with little detail. Poster or multimedia and oral presentation shows main idea but little detail included. Errors are evident. Some research listed but not from a wide variety of sources. Resource evaluations included for some sources but information is not fully evaluated.


Admirable:

Report on history well organized, logical and focused with few errors. Maps and charts are clear and add to the presentation. Biographies of key leaders are interesting. Timeline challenges in an organized, logical and focused way with few errors. Some primary source information is included. Plan is well organized, logical and focused. Presentation is well organized and designed. Poster or multimedia includes commentary that enhances the content. Research comes from a wide variety of sources including primary sources. Resources information completed for each source used.


Teacher Guide

Awesome:

Strong analysis of the history- political divisions, shown through maps and charts that are rich in depth and precise in detail. Analyzes the challenges of political beliefs during the cold war period. Has primary source information from the countries people or governments. The presentation includes detailed information on how the nations dealt with each other. Powerful presentation supplemented with strong design, good use of color, and photos. Presentation highly organized and easy to follow. Exceptional facts and vivid descriptions are displayed in an interactive multimedia presentation or artistic group of posters. Research is analyzed thoroughly with a wide variety of sources included with several primary sources included.


Historical/Social Science Content Standards

Grade 11

Historical and Social /sciences Analysis Skills
Chronological and Spatial Thinking
1. Students compare the present with the past, evaluating the consequences of past events and decisions and determining the lessons learned
3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement
Historical Research, Evidence and Point of View
1. Students distinguish valid arguments from fallacious arguments in historical interpretations
2. Students identify bias and prejudice in historical interpretations
Historical Interpretation
1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic and political trends and developments
2. Students recognize the complexity of historical causes and effects
3. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present day norms and values
4. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events while recognizing that events could have taken other directions
Teacher Guide
United States History and Geography
Continuity and Change in the Twentieth Century
Students in grade eleven study the major turning points in American history in the 20th century. Following a review of the nation’s beginnings and the impact of the Enlightenment on U. S. democratic ideals, students build upon the tenth grade study of global industrialization to understand the emergence and impact of new technology and a corporate economy, including the social and cultural effects. They trace the change in the ethnic composition of American society; the movement towards equal rights for racial minorities and women; and the role of the United States as a major world power. An emphasis is placed on the expanding

role of the federal government and federal courts as well as the continuing tension between the individual and the sate. Students consider the major social problems of our time and trace their causes in historical events. They learn that the United States has served as a model for other nations and that the rights and freedoms we enjoy are not accidents, but the results of a defined set of political principles that are not always basic to citizens of other countries. Students understand that our rights under the U. S. Constitution comprise a precious inheritance that depends on an educated citizenry for their preservation and protection.




    1. Students analyze United States foreign policy since World War II, in terms of:




  1. the role of military alliances including NATO and SEATO in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War

2 the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including:

The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic communism and blacklisting

The Truman Doctrine

The Berlin Wall

The Korean War

The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis

“Mutual assured destruction” doctrine

The Vietnam War
3 the role of the Reagan Administration and other factors in the victory of the West in the Cold War


Student Objectives
To be successful your team must complete the following:

A timeline of the important events of the cold war period from 1945 to 1990

A map showing the areas of cold war activity

A photo gallery of major leaders during the cold war period (notebook format)

A paper that explains/ discusses the events listed in the process section (5 to 10 pages)

A multimedia presentation of your findings (length to be determined by teacher/team)

A bibliography

(Optional: A source evaluation for a selected source used)



Teacher Guide

Teacher’s Lesson Guide

Learning Advice

This lesson is based on the premise that students will have access to computers/programs and internet connections.


You might want to have the presentations given to panel of students from another class. These students would be able to ask questions and “play” the part of the sleepers.
This is a step by step lesson sequence. All lessons are based on 50-55 minute class periods that meet daily. Note taking should be discussed and its use made mandatory for all teams.
The time sequence may be condensed if some assignments are done as homework or research outside the classroom.
The teacher obviously knows their students and their abilities and should adapt this section to fit the situation.
The source evaluation form follows this section. If it is decided to use the form its purpose should be discussed and clearly understood.
Time Frame

Day 1

Team Assignments and Identifying Challenges- 1 period
The class is divided into groups of five to seven students. The scenario is presented to all groups and questions are answered regarding expectations. Within each group a chairman and secretary is selected. Minutes of team meetings must be taken. Research assignments are made. Team expectations are approved.
Day 2-6

Initial Investigative Research- 5 periods
Research should be done on an individual basis. Class time in the computer lab and/or library center must be provided. Students should be reminded to take accurate notes as they work. Sources should be noted to document their investigation.
Day 7-8

Team Organization- 2 periods
The team should meet to review all researched data. This data should be assessed to decide how it meets the needs of the assignment. The beginnings of the timeline and the photo gallery can be initiated. After data is reviewed, additional areas of research can be assigned.
Day 9-11

Final Research - 3 periods

Teacher Guide

During the last days of research, data will be gathered to fill in any areas found weak during the team organization periods. Again, sources should be listed. By the end of this period, all needed information should be ready to develop into the required presentations.



Day 12-15

Presentation Preparation- 4 periods
Students are now to use their data to prepare the necessary presentations. Each student is to have impute into each area of presentation. Assignments are made as to who will present to their fellow students. Technology needed for presentations will be provided and a time will be set aside to practice. Secretary is to take notes during the meetings.
Day 16-18

Teams Presentations- 3 periods +
Each team will present their information to the class as a group. Grading rubrics will be used to assess each presentation.
Adaptations for Special Needs Students
Depending on your class size and language makeup, you may slow down, speed up or eliminate parts of this lesson to fit your students needs. If your students are new to internet and computer usage, it may be

necessary to adapt several sections of the lesson to fit the knowledge level and /or technology you have at your site. Should you have students of limited English abilities it may be necessary to spend some initial time in vocabulary development.




Student Source Evaluation Form
Critical Evaluation Survey: Secondary School Level

What Web browser are you using?


________________________________________________
URL of Web page you are evaluating:
http://_______________________________________________________________
Name of the Web page you are evaluating: __________________________________
Teacher Guide

Technical and Visual Aspects of the Web Page
Does the page take a long time to load? YES / NO
Do the pictures add to the page? YES / NO / NOT APPLICABLE
Is the spelling correct on the page? YES / NO
Are there headings and subheadings on the page? YES / NO
If so, are they helpful? YES / NO
Is the page signed by the author? YES / NO
Is the author's e-mail address included? YES / NO
Is there a date of last update? YES / NO
If so, is the date current? YES / NO
Is the format standard and readable with your browser? YES / NO
Is there an image map (large clickable graphic w/ hyperlinks) on the page? YES / NO
Is there a table on the page? (You may have to look at the source code to tell.) YES / NO
If so, is the table readable with your browser? YES / NO

If you have graphics turned off, is there a text alternate to the images? YES / NO


On supporting pages, is there a link back to the home page? YES / NO
Are the links clearly visible and explanatory? YES / NO
Is there a picture or a sound included?
If so, can you be sure that a picture or sound has not been edited? YES / NO
If you are not sure, should you accept the information as valid for your purpose? YES / NO


Content
Is the title of the page indicative of the content? YES / NO
Is the purpose of the page indicated on the home page? YES / NO
When was the document created? ____________________________
Is the information useful for your purpose? YES / NO

Teacher Guide
Would it have been easier to get the information somewhere else? YES / NO
Would information somewhere else have been different? YES / NO
If so, why? ____________________________________________
Did the information lead you to other sources that were useful? YES / NO
Is a bibliography of print sources included? YES / NO
Is the information current? YES / NO
Does up-to-date information matter for your purpose? YES / NO
Does the information appear biased? YES / NO
Does the information contradict something you found somewhere else? YES / NO
Do most of the pictures supplement the content of the page? YES / NO / NOT APPLICABLE


Authority
Who created the page? ___________________________________________
What organization is the person affiliated with? _________________________

Has the site been reviewed by an online reviewing agency? YES / NO


Does the domain (i.e. edu, com, gov) of the page influence your evaluation of the site? YES / NO
Are you positive that the information is true? YES / NO
What can you do to prove that it is true? _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Are you satisfied that the information is useful for your purpose? YES / NO
If not, what can you do next?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Can you get a printed version of the information? YES / NO


Narrative Evaluation

Teacher Guide

Looking at all of the data you have collected above while evaluating the site, explain why or why

not this site is (or is not) valid for your purpose. Include the aspects of technical content,

authenticity, authority, bias, and subject content.


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

CRITICAL EVALUATION OF A WEB SITE: SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL

©1996 Kathleen Schrock (kschrock@capecod.net)

Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators -- http://discoveryschool.com/schrockguide/



Credits:
Dennis Durbin

Special Projects Director

Porterville High School

dddurbin@porterville.k12.ca.us







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