| Step One:
Use the highlighted information in the following article to explain note-taking/citation procedures to students. The comment boxes suggest what the note card would look like, but teachers should choose the note-taking procedures with which they are most comfortable to impart to their students.
Violent Video Games Are Linked to Real-World Violence
Popular Culture, 2011
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Violent Video Games Are Linked to Real-World Violence
"A year of [violent video] game-playing likely contributes to making [children] more aggressive than they were when they started."
In the following viewpoint, Amanda Schaffer, a staff writer for the Internet magazine Slate, claims that research links playing violent video games to increased aggression in young people. Schaffer contends that numerous studies of various kinds establish this connection, and while none proves a causal relationship between video game violence and real-world violence, they do indicate that playing these games is a risk factor for young people to act out aggression in real-life situations. Schaffer maintains that better-targeted research is needed to pinpoint which games contribute to aggressive behavior and to identify what types of individuals might be more vulnerable to the violent content of these games.
As you read, consider the following questions:
As Schaffer reports, what are the three types of studies that researchers use to connect video game violence to real-world violence?
As the author explains, what effects did researchers Craig Anderson and Karen Dill note in the outcome of the study they performed on 210 undergraduate students in 2000?
What "intuitive" connections does Schaffer say exist between violent video game content and increased levels of aggression in young people?
On The Daily Show on Thursday, April 26, [2007,] Jon Stewart made short work of the suggestion that the Virginia Tech shooter, Cho Seung-Hui, might have been influenced by violent video games. (Cho may or may not have played the popular first-person-shooter game Counter-Strike in high school.) A potential videogame connection has also been dangled after past killings, to the irritation of bloggers. The reports are that shooter Lee Boyd Malvo played the game Halo before his sniper attacks around Washington, D.C., and that Columbine killers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold loved Doom. Does the link between video games and violence hold up?
Pathological acts of course have multiple, complex causes and are terribly hard to predict. And clearly, millions of people play Counter-Strike, Halo, and Doom and never commit crimes. But the subtler question is whether exposure to videogame violence is one risk factor for increased aggression: Is it associated with shifts in attitudes or responses that may predispose kids to act out? A large body of evidence suggests that this may be so. The studies have their shortcomings, but taken as a whole, they demonstrate that video games have a potent impact on behavior and learning. Sorry, Jon Stewart, but you needn't be a fuddy-duddy to worry about the virtual worlds your child lives in.
The Methods of Measuring Aggression
Three kinds of research link violent video games to increased aggression. First, there are studies that look for correlations between exposure to these games and real-world aggression. This work suggests that kids who are more immersed in violent video games may be more likely to get into physical fights, argue with teachers, or display anger and hostility. Second, there is longitudinal research (measuring behavior over time) that assesses gaming habits and belligerence in a group of children. One example: A study of 430 third-, fourth-, and fifth-graders, published this year  by psychologists Craig Anderson, Douglas Gentile, and Katherine Buckley, found that the kids who played more violent video games "changed over the school year to become more verbally aggressive, more physically aggressive," and less helpful to others.
Finally, experimental studies randomly assign subjects to play a violent or a nonviolent game, and then compare their levels of aggression. In work published in 2000, Anderson and Karen Dill randomly assigned 210 undergraduates to play Wolfenstein 3-D, a first-person-shooter game, or Myst, an adventure game in which players explore mazes and puzzles. Anderson and Dill found that when the students went on to play a second game, the Wolfenstein 3-D players were more likely to behave aggressively toward losing opponents. Given the chance to punish with blasts of noise, they chose to inflict significantly louder and longer blasts than the Myst kids did. Other recent work randomly assigned students to play violent or nonviolent games, and then analyzed differences in brain activation patterns using fMRI [functional magnetic resonance imaging] scans, but the research is so far difficult to assess.
Each of these approaches has its flaws. The first kind of correlational study can never prove that video-game playing causes physical aggression. Maybe aggressive people are simply more apt to play violent games in the first place. Meanwhile, the randomized trials, like Anderson and Dill's, which do imply causation, necessarily depend on lab-based measures of aggression, such as whether subjects blast each other with noise. This is a respected measure, but obviously not the same as seeing whether real people hit or shoot each other. The longitudinal work, like this year's elementary-school study, is a useful middle ground: It shows that across the board, playing more-violent video games predicts higher levels of verbal and physical aggression later on. It doesn't matter why the kids started playing violent games or whether they were already more aggressive than their peers; the point is that a year of game-playing likely contributes to making them more aggressive than they were when they started. If we had only one of the three kinds of studies, the findings wouldn't mean much. But taken together, the body of research suggests a real connection.
Desensitizing Children to Violence
The connection between violent games and real violence is also fairly intuitive. In playing the games, kids are likely to become desensitized to gory images, which could make them less disturbing and perhaps easier to deal with in real life. The games may also encourage kids (and adults) to rehearse aggressive solutions to conflict, meaning that these thought processes may become more available to them when real-life conflicts arise, Anderson says. Video games also offer immediate feedback and constant small rewards—in the form of points, or access to new levels or weapons. And they tend to tailor tasks to a player's skill level, starting easy and getting harder. That makes them "phenomenal teachers," says Anderson, though "what they teach very much depends on content."
Critics counter that some kids may "use games to vent anger or distract themselves from problems," as psychiatry professor Cheryl Olson writes. This can be "functional" rather than unhealthy, depending on the kid's mental state and the extent of his game playing. But other studies suggest that venting anger doesn't reduce later aggressive behavior, so this thesis doesn't have the most solid support.
When video games aren't about violence, their capacity to teach can be a good thing. For patients suffering from arachnophobia, fear of flying, or post-traumatic stress disorder, therapists are beginning to use virtual realities as a desensitization tool. And despite the rap that they're a waste of time, video games may also teach visual attention and spatial skills. (Recently, a study showed that having played three or more hours of video games a week was a better predictor of a laparoscopic surgeon's skills than his or her level of surgical training.) The games also work for conveying information to kids that they will remember. Video games that teach diabetic kids how to take better care of themselves, for instance, were shown to decrease their diabetes-related urgent and emergency visits by 77 percent after six months.
Better Research Is Needed
Given all of this, it makes sense to be specific about which games may be linked to harmful effects and which to neutral or good ones. Better research is also needed to understand whether some kids are more vulnerable to video-game violence, and how exposure interacts with other risk factors for aggression like poverty, psychological disorders, and a history of abuse. Meanwhile, how about a game in which kids, shrinks, and late-night comics size up all these factors and help save the world?
Schaffer, Amanda. "Violent Video Games Are Linked to Real-World Violence." Popular Culture. Ed. David Haugen and Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from "Don't Shoot: Why Video Games Really Are Linked to Violence." Slate. 2007. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 11 June 2013.
Gale Document Number: GALE|EJ3010377250
Once students understand how to take notes, show them how to generate an outline with citations. Feel free to use the example below:
A. Violent gaming can lead to aggression
1.May not be the sole cause of the violent behavior but is a risk factor (Schaffer, 2011, p. 1)
2.While not everyone who plays games is aggressive or commits crimes, evidence does exist to support (Schaffer, 2011, p. 1)
Recent mass-killings attributed to violent video games
DC Sniper played Halo just before (Schaffer, 2011, p. 1)
Columbine shooters immersed in playing Doom (Schaffer, 2001, p.1)
B.Three types of research
1.Correlative studies, longitudinal studies, experimental studies (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2
2.Correlative studies show relationships
Relationship between students who play violent video games show real-world aggression (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
Fights, arguments with teachers, angry/hostile behavior (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
3.Longitudinal study measures behavior over time
Study published in 2007 by Craig Anderson, Douglas Gentile, Katherine Buckley (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
Kids immersed in violent video games changed over the course of a year
“ ‘Become more verbally aggressive, more physically aggressive’ and less helpful to others.” (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
4.Experimental study recorded observations of those who played violent and non-violent games
Non-violent video game, Myst & violent video game, Wolfenstein 3-D (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
W3D players found more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior towards opponents (Schaffer, 2011, p.2)
Opportunity to punish with noise – louder and longer blasts than Myst students chose (Schaffer, 2011, p.2)
5.Overall findings of studies supports negative impact of violent video-gaming
Students who play violent video games over a period of time are more aggressive than when they started (Schaffer, 2011, p.2)
Level of aggression increases regardless of where the level is when they start (Schaffer, 2011, p. 2)
Once students have completed their outline and are ready to move to the drafting stage, show them how to generate a draft of the paragraph(s).
Negative Impact of Violent Video Games
Violent video gaming can lead to aggression in adolescents. While the gaming may not be the sole contributing cause to a young person’s violent behavior, it most certainly is a risk factor for it. Additionally, of course, not everyone who plays games such as Modern Warfare, Halo, and Doom is going to go out and commit mass murder or other crimes, but evidence does suggest that violent gaming may have been a contributing factor in some of our nation’s recent mass killings. For example, reports claim that the DC Sniper was playing Halo just prior to his rampage and that the Columbine shooters were immersed in a culture of playing Doom (Schaffer, 2011, p. 1).
The three types of research that determine the impact of violent video gaming on people such as Lee Boyd Malvo (the DC Sniper) or Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris (the Columbine killers) include correlative studies, longitudinal studies, and experimental studies. A correlative study, a study intent on showing relationships between two variables, supported that there is, in fact, a relationship between students who play violent video games and their demonstration of real-world aggression. This aggression is displayed through hostile behavior including physical fights with others as well as arguments with teachers. Furthermore, a longitudinal study, one that measures behavior over a period of time, was published in 2007 by Craig Anderson, Douglas Gentile, and Katherine Buckley. This study suggests that the behavior of students who are immersed in violent video games changes over time. During the course of one school year, these violent gamers became “‘more verbally aggressive, more physically aggressive’ and less helpful to others” (Schaffer, 2011, p.2). The last of the three, the experimental study recorded observations of those who played violent versus those who played non-violent video games. The findings of the experimental study showed that those who played the non-violent video game Myst were less likely to exhibit aggressive behavior than their counterparts who played Wolfenstein 3-D. When given the opportunity to punish opponents with noise, those who played Wolfenstein 3-D consistently chose louder and longer blasts of sound than those who played Myst. Overall, the findings of these studies support the fact that violent-gaming breeds aggressive behavior. Regardless of the level of aggression when the players started, those who engaged in violent video games over a period of time ended up displaying more aggressive behavior than they did at the start of the study (Schaffer, 2011, p.2).