Standard vus. 12a



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Mrs. Knapp US History
Unit 12: The Cold War

SOL Review

STANDARD VUS.12a


The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by


a) describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formation of the United Nations, and the Marshall Plan.
Essential Understanding

Wars have political, economic, and social consequences.



Essential Knowledge

Postwar outcomes

  • The end of World War II found Soviet forces occupying most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany.

  • Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British and French occupation. East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.

  • Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-government, and became a strong ally of the United States.

  • Europe lay in ruins, and the United States launched the Marshall Plan which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism.

  • The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.


STANDARD VUS.12b


The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by


b) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment of communism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe.
Essential Understanding

The Cold War set the framework for global politics for 45 years after the end of World War II. It also influenced American domestic politics, the conduct of foreign affairs, and the role of the government in the economy after 1945.

The Cold War was essentially a competition between two very different ways of organizing government, society, and the economy: the American-led western nations’ belief in democracy, individual freedom and a market economy, and the Soviet belief in a totalitarian state and socialism.

The U. S. government’s anti-Communist strategy of containment in Asia led to America’s involvement in the Korean and Vietnamese Wars. The Vietnam War demonstrated the power of American public opinion in reversing foreign policy. It tested the democratic system to its limits, left scars on American society that have not yet been erased, and made many Americans deeply skeptical of future military or even peacekeeping interventions. 


Essential Knowledge

Origins of the Cold War


The Cold War lasted from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989.

The United States and the Soviet Union represented starkly different fundamental values. The United States represented democratic political institutions and a generally free market economic system. The Soviet Union was a totalitarian government with a communist (socialist) economic system.

The Truman Doctrine of “containment of communism” was a guiding principle of American foreign policy throughout the Cold War, not to roll it back but to keep it from spreading and to resist communist aggression into other countries.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed as a defensive alliance among the United States and western European countries to prevent a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. Soviet allies in eastern Europe formed the Warsaw Pact and for nearly 50 years both sides maintained large military forces facing each other in Europe.

The communist takeover in China shortly after World War II increased American fears of communist domination of most of the world. Rather than strong allies, however, the communist nations of China and the Soviet Union eventually became rivals for territory and diplomatic influence, a split which American foreign policy under President Nixon in the 1970s exploited.

After the Soviet Union matched the United States in nuclear weaponry in the 1950s, the threat of a nuclear war that would destroy both countries was ever-present throughout the Cold War. America, under President Eisenhower, adopted a policy of “massive retaliation” to deter any nuclear strike by the Soviets.



The Korean War

American involvement in the Korean War in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of containment of communism.

After communist North Korea invaded South Korea, American military forces led a counterattack that drove deep into North Korea itself. Communist Chinese forces came into the war on the side of North Korea and the war threatened to widen, but eventually ended in a stalemate with South Korea free of communist occupation.

The Vietnam War


  • American involvement in Vietnam also reflected the Cold War policy of containment of communism.

  • Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the communist government of North Vietnam attempted to install through force a communist government in South Vietnam. The United States helped South Vietnam resist.

  • The American military buildup in Vietnam began under President John Kennedy. After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, the buildup was intensified under President Lyndon Johnson.

  • The scale of combat in Vietnam grew larger over the course of the 1960s. American military forces repeatedly defeated the North Vietnamese forces in the field, but could not force an end to the war on favorable terms by fighting a limited war.

  • The country became bitterly divided. While there was support for the American military and conduct of the war among many Americans, others opposed the war and active opposition to the war mounted, especially on college campuses.

  • After Johnson declined to seek re-election, President Nixon was elected on a pledge to bring the war to an honorable end. He instituted a policy of “Vietnamization,” withdrawing American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese.

  • Ultimately “Vietnamization” failed when South Vietnamese troops proved unable to resist invasion by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army, and President Nixon was forced from office by the Watergate scandal.

  • In 1975, both North and South Vietnam were merged under communist control.

Cuba


Cuba was also a site of Cold War confrontations.

Fidel Castro led a communist revolution that took over Cuba in the late 1950s. Many Cubans fled to Florida and later attempted to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. This “Bay of Pigs” invasion failed.

In 1962, the Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba, instigating the Cuban Missile Crisis. President Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles and for several days the world was on the brink of nuclear war. Eventually, the Soviet leadership “blinked” and removed their missiles.


Impact of the Cold War at home


The fear of communism and the threat of nuclear war affected American life throughout the Cold War.

During the 1950s and 1960s, American schools regularly held drills to train children what to do in case of a nuclear attack, and American citizens were urged by the government to build bomb shelters in their own basements.

The convictions of Alger Hiss, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for spying for the Soviet Union, and the construction of nuclear weapons by the Soviets using technical secrets obtained through spying, increased domestic fears of communism.

Senator Joseph McCarthy played on American fears of communism by recklessly accusing many American governmental officials and citizens of being communists based on flimsy or no evidence. This led to the coining of the term McCarthyism, or the making of false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association.

The Cold War made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election during the period.

The heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War benefited Virginia’s economy proportionately more than any other state, especially in Hampton Roads, home to several large naval and air bases, and Northern Virginia, home to the Pentagon and numerous private companies that contract with the military.



STANDARD VUS.12c


The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by


c) explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War.
Essential Understanding

A strong military was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often at great personal and family sacrifice, yet they did their duty.
Essential Knowledge

American military forces during the Cold War


In President John Kennedy’s inaugural address, he pledged that the United States would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” In the same address, he also said, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”

During the Cold War era, millions of Americans served in the military, defending freedom in wars and conflicts that were not always popular. Many were killed or wounded. As a result of their service, the United States and American ideals of democracy and freedom ultimately prevailed in the Cold War struggle with Soviet communism.

President Kennedy, a World War II veteran, was assassinated in 1963 in Dallas, Texas, in an event that shook the nation’s confidence and began a period of internal strife and divisiveness, especially spurred by divisions over U.S. involvement in Vietnam.

Unlike veterans of World War II, who returned to a grateful and supportive nation, Vietnam veterans returned often to face indifference or outright hostility from some who opposed the war.

It was not until several years after the end of the war that the wounds of the war began to heal in America, and Vietnam veterans were recognized and honored for their service and sacrifices.

STANDARD VUS.12d


The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by


d) explaining the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War, including the role of Ronald Reagan.

Essential Understanding


Both internal and external pressures caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Essential Knowledge

Internal problems of the Soviet Union


Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States

Rising nationalism in Soviet republics

Fast-paced reforms (market economy)

Economic inefficiency

Gorbachev “glasnost” and “perestroika” (openness and economic restructuring)

Role of President Reagan

Challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union; for example, speech at Berlin Wall (“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”)



Increased U.S. military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union

Postwar Outcomes

  • Soviet forces occupied most of Eastern and Central _________ and the eastern portion of ____________.

  • Germany was divided into _______ and ________ Germany. West Germany became ________________ and resumes self-government after a few years of American. British, and French occupation.

  • East Germany remained under the domination of the ____________ and did not adopt democratic institutions.

  • Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a ______________ form of government, resumed self-government, and became a strong ally of the United States.

  • Europe lay in ruins and the United States launched the _________________ to rebuild Europe and prevent the spread of communism.

  • The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to ____________________

__________________________________________________________________________.
Cold War (Lasted 45 Years After World War II)

  • Influences American domestic policies, the conduct of foreign affairs, and role of government in the economy

  • Was a competition between two very different ways of organizing government, society, and the economy

    • American-led western nations’ belief in ____________, individual __________, and market economy

    • Soviet belief in a ___________________ state and _______________

  • United States government’s anti-Communist strategy of _________________ in Asia led to America’s involvement in the ______________ and ______________ Wars



Origins of the Cold War


  • Lasted from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union in _____

  • United States and Soviet Union represented starkly different fundamental values

  • The United States represented democratic political institutions and a generally free market economic systems

  • The Soviet Union was a _______________ government with a communist (socialist) economic system

  • Truman Doctrine of “________________________” (not to roll it back but to keep it from spreading and to resist communist aggression into other countries)

  • The communist takeover in China shortly after World War II increased American fears of _____________ domination of most of the world

  • Rather than strong allies, however, the communist nations of China and the Soviet Union eventually became rivals for territory and diplomatic influence, a split which American foreign policy under ____________________ in the 1970s exploited

  • After the Soviet Union matched the United States in nuclear weaponry in the 1950s, the threat of a __________________ that would destroy both countries was ever-present throughout the Cold War

  • America, under President Eisenhower, adopted a policy of “massive retaliation” to ___________________________________________________



Alliances


  • NATO (______________________________________________________) – alliance among United States and western European countries

  • _____________________ -- alliance with Soviet countries in eastern Europe

  • Both sides maintained large military forces facing each other in Europe



Impact of the Cold War at Home


  • Fear of communism and the threat of ______________ affected American way of life

  • During the 1950s and 1960s American schools held drills for possible nuclear attacks and American citizens were urged to build _________________

  • Alger Hiss and _______________________________________ were convicted of spying for the Soviets; the construction of nuclear weapons by the Soviets using technical secrets obtained through spying increased domestic fears

  • _________________________________________ recklessly accused American government officials and citizens of being communists based on flimsy or no evidence

  • ______________________ -- making false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association

  • The Cold War made foreign policy a major issue in every _____________________ election during the period

  • The heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War benefited ____________ economy proportionately more than any other states, especially in Hampton Roads, home to several large naval and air bases, and Northern Virginia, home to the ____________ and numerous private companies that contract with the military



Cold War Confrontations


Korean War

Vietnam War

  • 1950s America entered ______________________________

  • After North Korea (communist) invaded South Korea, America led counterattack that drove deep into ________________

  • Communist Chinese forces came into the war on the side of ____________

  • Eventually ended in a stalemate with __________________ free of communist occupation

  • American involvement reflected the _____ War policy of containment of communism

  • In the early 1960s America became involved with South Vietnam under President _____________

  • North Vietnam (communist) tried to forcefully install a communist government in South Vietnam and the United States helped the ________ resist

  • Under President _____________ the buildup intensified; American forces repeatedly defeated North Vietnamese forces in the field, but could not end the war by fighting a limited war

  • Opposition mounted in the United States against the war, especially _________________

  • President ________ was elected on a pledge to bring the war to an honorable end. He instituted a policy of “________________” by withdrawing US forces while replacing then with South Vietnamese forces and maintaining aid

  • Vietnamization ultimately failed when South Vietnam could not resist ________ supplied North Vietnam

  • President Nixon was forced from office by the _________________________

  • By 1975 North and South Vietnam were merged under communist control

Cuba




  • Site of Cold War confrontation

  • Fidel Castro led a communist revolution that took over Cuba in the late 1950s with many Cubans fleeing to __________

  • Later these Cubans tried to overthrow Castro in the _________________ invasion but failed

  • In 1962 the Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba instigating the ____________________________

  • President Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles as the world waited while on the brink of a _________________

  • Eventually the Soviet leadership “blinked” and removed their _____________





American Military Forces During the Cold War


  • Millions of Americans served in the military defending freedom in wars and conflicts that were not always popular

  • Many were killed or wounded and with their service, the United States and American ideals of _____________ and _____________ prevailed in the Cold War struggle with Soviet communism

  • President Kennedy, a World War II veteran, was assassinated in _________ in _______________ in an event that shook the nation’s confidence and began a period of internal strife and divisiveness, especially spurred by divisions over United States involvement in ______________

  • Unlike veterans of World War II, who returned to a grateful and supportive nation, Vietnam veterans returned to face indifference or outright __________ from some who opposed the war

  • It was not until several years after the end of the war that the wounds of the war began to heal in America, and __________________ were recognized and honored for their service and sacrifices



Problems of the Soviet Union


  • Increasing expenses for the Soviet military to compete with _____________________

  • Rising _________________ in the Soviet Republics

  • Fast-paced reforms (market economy)

  • Economy inefficiency

  • “____________” and “________________” (openness and economic restructuring) as expressed by Gorbachev

  • _____________________________ increased military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union

  • Reagan challenged the moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union – for example, speech at Berlin Wall (“__________________________________________”)



Quotes From President John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address


  • (The United States will) “…pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the _________________________.”

  • “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your ____________.”


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