St andrew’s and st bride’s high school national 5 history exam guide/study booklet



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ST ANDREW’S AND ST BRIDE’S HIGH SCHOOL

NATIONAL 5 HISTORY

EXAM GUIDE/STUDY BOOKLET




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In order to achieve an award at National 5 History, you must achieve or complete the following elements:



  • An assignment, to be submitted to the SQA for marking, in advance of the final exam. This is worth up to a total of 20 MARKS.

  • You must also pass 3 unit assessments, one for each unit of work that you have completed.

  • You must also complete the final exam.

Each of the elements above assesses the skills that you have learned in History and the knowledge that you have gained.

This study guide is designed to help you prepare for the FINAL EXAM.



You should use it in conjunction with the 3 KU Booklets you have been issued with.
The National 5 History exam

TIMING – The exam lasts for 1 hour and 45 minutes. In order to complete the exam in the time allocated you will have to learn to work QUICKLY and CONCISELY.

MARKS – The exam is out of a total of 60 MARKS.

SECTIONSThe exam paper is broken into 3 sections and you will choose the following options:

SECTION 1 – SCOTTISH HISTORY- The Era of the Great War

SECTION 2 – BRITISH HISTORY- The Atlantic Slave Trade

SECTION3 – EUROPEAN & WORLD HISTORY- Nazi Germany



EACH SECTION IS OUT OF 20 MARKS


  • A. Describe . . . (5 or 6 marks)

  • B. Explain the reasons why . . . (5 or 6 marks)

  • C. To what extent . . . . (8 marks)



  • D. Evaluate the usefulness of Source . . . (5 or 6 marks)

  • E. Compare the views of Sources . . . (4 marks)

  • F. How fully does Source . . . (5 or 6 marks)


QUESTION TYPES


No Source: A, B, C (KU)



Sources: D, E, F

(ES)

Each section will follow one of 3 different models.




  • 1 X 5 mark Describe question

  • 1 x 5 mark Explain question

  • 1 x 5 mark Evaluate question

  • 1 x 5 mark How fully question

.

  • 1 x 8 mark To what extent question

  • 1 x 6 mark Explain question.

  • 1 x 6 mark Evaluate question.





  • 1 x 5 mark Describe question

  • 1 x 5 mark Explain question

  • 1x 6 mark How Fully question

  • 1 x 4 mark Comparison question




The DESCRIBE question

The task in this question is to make 5 or 6 points from recalled knowledge that clearly help to answer the question that has been set. This question is worth 5 or 6 marks.



  • You will be given 1 mark for each accurate and relevant point.

  • You can be awarded a second mark for adding a developed point.

TIP – you should begin with a short introductory sentence.

TIP – each point should be in its own sentence.

TIP – you need to work quickly and concisely.

TIP – when you are selecting the points to put in your answer try to think about the most important information that you know to help you to answer the question.


Exemplar Q & A

From Section 2 – British

The Atlantic Slave Trade 1770-1807



Q. Describe the effects of the slave trade on African societies (6 marks)

A.... The Atlantic Slave Trade had a devastating effect on African Societies. Millions of enslaved people were taken from Africa. Experts have estimated that if there had been no slave trade the population of African in 1850 would have been 50 million instead of 25 million. Those taken were mostly strong young males and females and the loss of so many young people is likely to have hindered the economic development of Africa and worsened the effects of natural disasters such as famine and disease. The slave trade also encouraged conflict between tribes. Some African Kings became very rich through selling slaves to Europeans and some tribes went to war with neighbouring tribes for the sole purpose of capturing people to enslave. The demand for slaves soon became so great that prisoners of war were not enough. Raiding parties were organised to kidnap young Africans from rival tribes. Europeans also sold or exchanged merchandise such as cloth, guns or alcohol to African rulers and this trade of goods across Africa did lead to some improvements in transport networks to the coast.


Possible Describe Questions

Exam Tip: Attempt these questions using your notes. Then try the question under timed conditions from recall! 6 marks is the equivalent to 10.5 minutes, 5 marks is the equivalent to 8.75 minutes.
Section 1 – SCOTTISH- The Era of the Great War, 1910 – 1928

  • Describe the trench conditions experienced by Scots on the Western Front.

  • Describe the use of new technology during WW1.(Gas/Tanks/Airplanes/Heavy Artillery etc)

  • Describe the military tactics used on the Western Front

  • Describe the ways that women’s lives changed during the First World War.

  • Describe the use of propaganda during WW1.

  • Describe how the government became more involved in the everyday lives of Scottish people during WW1

  • Describe the impact of rationing during WWI.

  • Describe how conscientious objectors were treated during the First World War.

  • Describe the impact of D.O.R.A on the Scottish people.

  • Describe the effects of high casualties and deaths on Scottish Society.

  • Describe the impact of the war on fishing and agriculture in Scotland.

  • Describe the impact that war had on Scottish industry up to 1918

  • Describe the economic difficulties faced by Scotland after 1918.

  • Describe the new light industries introduced in 1920s

  • Describe how women suffrage societies campaigned for the vote.

  • Describe the impact of the war on Scottish politics.

  • Describe what happened during the Rent Strikes in 1915

  • Describe the extension of the franchise after 1918 ( ie- who was given the vote?)

  • Describe the impact of the Liberal government’s “home fit for heroes” initiative on post war housing.


Section 2 – BRITISH- The Atlantic Slave Trade

  • Describe how the Triangular Trade System operated.

  • Describe the effects of the slave trade on British ports

  • Describe the effects of the slave trade on African societies

  • Describe how slaves were captured in West Africa

  • Describe the conditions in slave factories on the west coast of Africa

  • Describe the conditions for slaves during the Middle Passage

  • Describe what happened to captured Africans when they arrived in the West Indies

  • Describe the living and working conditions for slaves on the plantations

  • Describe the impact of the slave trade on the Caribbean islands

  • Describe the methods used by abolitionists to gain support for their case.

  • Describe the methods of the anti-abolitionists (supporters of slave trade)



Section 3 – EUROPEAN AND WORLD- Hitler and Nazi Germany

  • Describe the problems facing Germany at the end of WW1.

  • Describe the Spartacist Revolt of January 1919

  • Describe the effects of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany

  • Describe the political problems faced by the Weimar Republic between 1919 and 1923

  • Describe the economic crisis of 1923 and its effects on German society

  • Describe the terms of the Weimar Constitution

  • Describe the main events of the Munich Putsch of 1923 and its results.

  • Describe the economic problems of the Weimar Republic between 1919 and 1933

  • Describe the events that led to Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany in January 1933

  • Describe the events that allowed Hitler to consolidate his power by August 1934.

  • Describe the characteristics of the National Socialist Government

  • Describe how the Nazis used intimidation and fear to increase their control over Germany.

  • Describe the treatment of the opposition in Nazi Germany.

  • Describe the treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany

  • Describe the use of Propaganda in Nazi Germany

  • Describe how the Nazis tried to improve the German economy.

  • Describe the ways in which Nazi education and youth policies tried to indoctrinate the youth of Germany.

  • Describe the role of women in Nazi Germany.

  • Describe the impact of militarism in Nazi Germany


The EXPLAIN question

The task in this question is to make 5 or 6 key points from recalled knowledge that clearly answers the question that has been set. This question is worth 5 or 6 marks.



  • You will be given 1 mark for each accurate and relevant point.

  • You can be awarded a second mark for adding a developed point.

TIP – you should begin with a short introductory sentence, using the stem of the question to focus your answer.

TIP – each point should be in its own sentence.

TIP – you need to work quickly and concisely.

TIP – each point must show the causal relationship ( ie because… reason why explained not just described)

Exemplar Questions and Answer

From Section 1 – Scottish

Q. Explain the reasons why there was a high casualty rate during WW1

There are a number of reasons why there was a high casualty rate during The Great War. The defensive advantages of the trench meant that soldiers had to cross no-man’s land whilst under heavy machine gun and rifle fire. The machine gun could actually fire 600 bullets in one minute which made it almost impossible to escape from. The Barbed wire was also responsible for many casualties as it slowed attackers down; meaning defending troops such as at the battle of the Somme, July 1st 1916 could kill large numbers of men quickly. Another reason for the high casualty rate was due to the heavy artillery used on the western front as these modern guns fired shrapnel shells which when detonated would release shards of metal on the soldiers. Also the fact that heavy artillery was fired from a distance gave the attackers the advantage of surprise and made retaliation difficult.



Possible EXPLAIN Questions

Attempt these questions using your notes. Then try the question under timed conditions from recall! 6 marks is the equivalent to 10.5 minutes, 5 marks is the equivalent to 9 minutes.

Section 1 – SCOTTISH

The Era of the Great War, 1910 – 1928

  • Explain the reasons why many Scots joined up in WWI.

  • Explain the reasons why there were so many casualties in the First World War

  • Explain the reasons why Scots were so unhappy with the implementation of the D.O.R.A.

  • Explain why rationing had to be introduced in 1918

  • Explain why conscription was introduced in 1916

  • Explain why many of Scotland’s heavy industries declined after WWI.

  • Explain the reasons why women gained the vote in 1919.


Section 2 – British

The Atlantic Slave Trade

  • Explain the reasons why Britain became involved in the slave trade

  • Explain the reasons why the profits made from triangular trade were so high

  • Explain the reasons for the success of British ports involved in the slave trade.

  • Explain the reasons why it was difficult for slaves to resist during the middle passage

  • Explain the reasons why resistance was difficult for slaves on the plantation.

  • Explain why the Society for the Abolition of Slavery was set up.

  • Explain the reasons why the need for the slave trade declined in Britain by the late 18th century.

  • Explain why many people continued to support the slave trade.

  • Explain the reasons for the abolition of the slave trade in 1807.



Section 3 – European & World

Hitler and Nazi Germany


  • Explain why many Germans hated the Treaty of Versailles

  • Explain the reasons why the Spartacist Revolt failed

  • Explain why the period of 1924-1929 is called the Golden Age of the Weimar Republic

  • Explain the reasons why Hitler was able to increase his control over Germany in 1933/34.

  • Explain why many Germans supported the Nazi Party in the early 1930s

  • Explain the reasons why Hitler was able to become Chancellor in 1933

  • Explain the reasons why it was so difficult to oppose the Nazis


The TO WHAT EXTENT question

The task in this question is to write about a number of different FACTORS before making a clear JUDGEMENT in your CONCLUSION which is based on the EVIDENCE that you have presented. This question will appear once in your paper and is worth 8 marks.



  • Up to 5 marks are awarded for each accurate and relevant point of knowledge.

  • Up to 1 mark is awarded for SHOWING BALANCE– (Include other factors) use PARAGRAPHS!

  • Up to 1 mark is awarded for making a valid JUDGEMENT or overall CONCLUSION which answers the question.

  • Up to 1 mark for a reason (EVIDENCE) being provided in support of the conclusion.

TIP – you need to consider different FACTORS. This will give your answer BALANCE. You must always start with the isolated factor in the question.


Exemplar Questions and Answer

From Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany

To what extent was the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic due to economic factors?(8 marks)

The unpopularity of the Weimar republic was due to economic factors to a reasonable extent. However other factors played a part.

The Weimar government was blamed for agreeing to pay the reparations which were part of the Treaty of Versailles. These were set at £ 6.6 billion and meant that the economy really didn’t stand a chance. The government was also blamed for causing the severe hyperinflation of 1923 by encouraging a policy of passive resistance while continuing to print money to deal with the French occupation of the Rhur Valley. Middle class people were hit the worst by hyperinflation and many were humiliated because they fell into poverty as people lost their savings and pensions. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 completely destroyed the German economy as it was dependent on loans from America. This led to the great depression and many people blamed the government for the mass unemployment it created.

However there were also other reasons for the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic. There was continuing anger towards the ‘November Criminals’ who signed the armistice in November 1918 and against those who had signed the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919. It was believed by many Germans that the army had been “stabbed in the back” by the Weimar politicians who had agreed to these. In addition, the Weimar politicians were seen as weak and indecisive because of the nature of coalition governments. The Weimar government could not prevent outbreaks of violence such as the Spartacist rising and the Munich Putsch which made them look weak. Many Germans were tired of democracy and were attracted to extremist parties like the Nazis on the right or the Communists on the left who offered extreme solutions to these problems.

Overall, economic factors were very important in making the Weimar Republic unpopular because they created problems which were too big for any government to solve. However other factors such as the weak coalition governments also played a part.



Possible TO WHAT EXTENT Questions

Attempt these questions using your notes. Then try the question under timed conditions from recall! 8 marks is the equivalent to 12 minutes. DO NOT SPEND LONGER THAN THIS!!!!!!

Section 1 – SCOTTISH

The Era of the Great War, 1910 – 1928


  • To what extent did developments in new technology help to break the stalemate on the Western Front?

  • To what extent does poor military tactics explain why casualty figures were so high in WWI?

  • To what extent does the use of propaganda explain why so many men enlisted to fight in the First World War?

  • To what extent does poor management explain why many of Scotland’s heavy industries declined after WWI?

  • To what extent do the Suffragette campaigns explain why women were given the vote in 1919?

  • To what extent did women’s contribution to the war effort explain why women were given the vote in 1919?


Section 2 – BRITISH

The Atlantic Slave Trade

  • To what extent was the failure of resistance on the middle passage due to the poor physical state of the enslaved people?

  • To what extent was the abolition of the slave trade due to the work of William Wilberforce?


Section 3- EUROPEAN AND WORLD HISTORY

Hitler and Nazi Germany

  • To what extent was the unpopularity of the Weimar Republic due to economic factors?

  • To what extent was Hitler’s success in 1933 due to violence and intimidation?

  • To what extent did German’s benefit from Hitler’s economic policies?

  • To what extent were the Nazis able to maintain their hold on power after 1933 due to propaganda?



The EVALUATE THE USEFULNESS question

The task in this question is to make a series of judgements about the value or usefulness of the source. This question is worth 5 or 6 marks. You should comment on the following:




USE THE 5 W RULE (Who, When, Why, What, What’s left Out)… this is the same as origin, purpose and content

You must start by answering the question in a topic sentence - you must state clearly how useful or reliable you think the source is: very useful, reasonably useful or partly useful as evidence of …………….


e.g. Source A is very useful as evidence of the problems facing Scots soldiers in the trenches during WW1?
Next you must justify your opinion as to its usefulness/reliability by using the 5 W Rule-


  1. Who wrote the source?

It is not enough to just state it is useful because Mr SO and So wrote it. This will get you no marks. You must explain how the fact that it was written by Mr So and So affects its usefulness.


e.g. was it written by an eyewitness- someone who experienced it first hand? OR was it written by someone who is likely to be biased? OR was it written by someone who was well-informed/an expert/a historian?

Eg

Source A is useful because it was written by George Brown- a soldier from Glasgow who fought in ww1 and therefore experienced the trenches first –hand.

OR-

Source B is useful because it was written by Ian Matthieson- a historian who would have access to a wide number of resources and will have carefully researched the conditions in the trenches.


  1. When was the source written?

State when it was written, whether it is a primary or secondary source and whether this adds to its usefulness/reliability.


Eg

It is also useful because it is a primary source written in 1915 when Scots soldiers were fighting in the trenches in WW1 ( relate this part to what ever the question is)

OR

Although the person who wrote it is a primary source who fought in the trenches; it was not written down until he/she wrote their memoirs in 1937 therefore we would have to be careful in case certain details have been forgotten, left out or exaggerated. (BUT DON’T SAY IT IS NOT USEFUL)

OR

It is a secondary source published in 1967 and written with the benefit of hindsight which makes it more useful to us and will therefore be a more balanced viewpoint

(You can always say this about a secondary source)


  1. Why was the source written? (Purpose)

Was it written to gain support for a cause? Was it written to influence people against something? Was it written to support a government’s policy? Was it written to give an honest and accurate account of something? Was it written as a personal account? (ie a diary/ autobiography)



Eg. The source is also useful because it was recorded in his diary to record his own personal experience. It is therefore unlikely to be biased as there is no reason for anyone to lie in a diary?


  1. What’s in the source? (Content)

What information does the source give us in relation to the question - is it detailed information? Is it accurate/truthful information? Does the source contain exaggeration? Is the source biased? (write 2-3 sentences on this)


e.g. The source is factual and gives useful information on the problems Scots soldiers in the trenches faced. It mentions that many were living on rations of Bully Beef and had to live with the fear of the machine gun fire. Another useful piece of information the source gives is..............


  1. What’s left out?

What are the events of the time that this source is about? Setting the source in context usually means providing the background events to the source– this requires recall knowledge. (write 2-3 sentences on this)

(THE SOURCE WILL NEVER MENTION ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING ABOUT THE ISSUE IN QUESTION)
E.g. The source however fails to mention other problems that Soldiers in the trenches faced. For example it doesn’t say anything about how many men suffered from shell shock; a psychological condition which was caused by the constant noise of shelling.

Exemplar Q and A: From Section 3: Hitler and Nazi Germany

Source B was written by historians J.F. Corkery and R.C.F.Stone in Weimar Germany and the Third Reich, published in 1980


Government organisation of the workers gave opportunity for brainwashing them. In 1935 the Labour Service was established. This meant that every male between the ages of 18 and 25 had to do 6 months in public work camps. Camp discipline was semi-military. Camp leaders were given ranks. Men drilled with spades instead of rifles. The Labour Service was an opportunity to spread Nazi propaganda, building upon that already provided by the schools and Hitler Youth. Workers were urged to regard themselves as ‘soldiers of work’.



















QU.Evaluate the usefulness of Source B as evidence about militarism in Nazi Germany.

(You may want to comment on who wrote it, when they wrote it, why they wrote it, what they say or what has been missed out.) 6 marks

Source B is quite useful as evidence about militarism in Nazi Germany.

ORIGIN AND PURPOSE

The source is useful because it has been written by 2 historians- who are experts in the period and will have researched militarism in Nazi Germany thoroughly.(WHO)

Another reason the source is useful is because it is a secondary source – published in 1980 and is written with the benefit of hindsight. (WHEN)

The source is also useful because it has been written to inform people about the militarism of Nazi Germany which means it is unlikely to be biased.(WHY)



WHAT’S IN THE SOURCE

The content of Source B is also very useful as evidence of militarism. For example the source tells us that within the Public Work camps- “discipline was semi- military” Another useful example of militarism is the fact that while working, men “drilled with spades instead of rifles.” It also tells us that workers were to regard themselves as “soldiers of work”- which is useful in showing us how elements of militarism were part of everyday life.



WHATS LEFT OUT

However, Source B would have been more useful if it had mentioned the fact that schools were also run like army camps. Many textbooks used war references in their examples and subjects like PE- were favoured over academic subjects because Hitler wanted a fit generation of future soldiers- which is clearly linked to militarism.

Another point not made in Source B is the fact that young boys were prepared for army life in the Hitler youth where often they played war games and marched. The source would have been more useful if it had mentioned these points.



The COMPARISON question

The first task in a comparison question is to identify whether 2 historical sources agree or disagree. (OVERALL COMPARISON.) When you have done this your next task is to identify specific points of agreement or disagreement between both sources. These should be set out as a DEVELOPED COMPARISON. This question is worth 4 marks.



  • TIP – Begin your answer with an introduction which links to the question and states whether the sources agree or disagree. This is your overall comparison. OR (If you prefer you can do this last-as a mini conclusion)




  • TIP – You must then go on to make at least 2 developed comparisons. Firstly, identify a point of agreement or disagreement between both sources. Secondly, you should provide evidence from EACH SOURCE.


Exemplar Q and A- From British Section: The Atlantic Slave Trade
Source B is from evidence given to the Privy Council in 1789 on behalf of Liverpool’s slave traders.

Source B


The slaves’ quarters on board ship are fitted up as well as possible. I admit they are chained up. They have several meals a day, some, of their own country provisions with the best sauces of African cookery. After breakfast they have to wash themselves, while their quarters are perfumed with spices and lime juice. Before dinner they are entertained with singing and dancing in the manner of their country.



Source C is from a speech by William Wilberforce in 1789.


One slave captain told me he never leaves the African coast in daylight as the slaves become so upset. The pulse they are fed is nothing but coarse English horse beans. They get so little food and water. Some talk of perfumes and lime juice, but surgeons tell you the slaves are stowed so close that there is no room to step between them: the stench was often intolerable. The truth about the song and dance is that those miserable creatures are forced to dance by the terror of the lash and sometimes the use of it.
Source C


Compare the descriptions of the treatment of slaves on board ship given in
Qu. Compare the descriptions of the on board ship given in Sources B and C

(Compare the views overall and/or in detail.) 4 marks



THIS IS YOUR OVERALL COMPARISON—YOU CAN DO THIS AS AN INTRODUCTION OR A CONCLUSION
SAMPLE ANSWER:



YOU MUST COME UP WITH THE STATEMENT
Overall, the sources clearly disagree about the treatment of slaves on board the ships.

The sources clearly disagree on the amount the slaves are fed:

Source B says “ they had several meals a day”

Source C completely disagrees when it says “they get so little food and water.”


NEXT YOU MUST QUOTE FROM EACH SOURCE TO BACK THIS STATEMENT UP



( THIS IS WORTH 2 MARKS)
Another point the sources disagree about are the conditions the slaves are held in:

Source B tells us that the “ slave quarters are fitted up as well as possible”

Source C completely disagrees when it says “the slaves are stowed so close that there is no room to step between them.”

( THIS IS WORTH 2 MARKS)
The sources also clearly disagree on the quality of food the slaves were fed:

Source B “ the Best of African Cookery” Source C completely disagrees when it says “nothing but coarse English horse beans.”



( THIS IS WORTH 2 MARKS)
The sources also disagree on the smell onboard the ship:

Source B “ quarters are perfumed with spices and lime juice.”Source C completely disagrees when it says “the stench was often intolerable.”



( THIS IS WORTH 2 MARKS)

The sources also disagree about the reasons why slaves would often dance onboard the ships:

Source B “ entertained with singing and dancing.” Whereas Source C tells us they were “ Forced to dance with the terror of the lash.”



( THIS IS WORTH 2 MARKS)

Obviously you only need 2 of the developed comparisons above to achieve 4/4!!!



-


The HOW FULLY question

TIP – begin your answer by making a judgement. ALWAYS begin your answer to this type of question in the following way:



  1. Source X explains / describes…(refer to question)to some extent, but not fully.

OR

Source X partly describes....(refer to question..)

OR

Source X describes ...(refer to question) reasonably fully
(B)Write a paragraph to explain the relevant points/detail the source does contain. You should be looking to comment on at least 3 points from the source/ they must be related to the words of the question . Don’t just quote either quote and explain OR paraphrase.


What’s in the Source?
e.g. The source correctly mentions the fact that many young men joined up because they were “looking for an adventure”. This was common if they wanted to escape the boredom of every day life.
Try to do this 3 times-

e.g. Another accurate reason the source identifies which explains why soldiers joined up is ………………….

(C) Write a paragraph to explain the relevant points/detail the source does NOT contain. You should be looking to comment on at least 3 points of recall here (from your own knowledge)/ they must be related to the words of the question

What’s NOT in the Source?
e.g. “However there are lots of reasons not mentioned in the source which would explain why Scots joined up.( NOW TRY TO MAKE 3 POINTS OF RECALL)

The source does not describe the fact that lots of soldiers believed that the war would be over by Christmas and therefore were worried that they might miss out on the action if they waited.
Another reason why Scot’s joined up that source X fails to mention is...........

Exemplar Q and A

From The Era of the Great War, 1910-1928

Source A describes some of the ways the Government controlled everyday life in Britain during the war.

Source A

The Defence of the Realm Act allowed the Government to introduce whatever restrictions were necessary to protect the country during the war. British Summer Time was introduced to give more daylight working hours. Pub opening hours were limited to prevent drunkenness. High casualties on the Western Front eventually led to conscription. People who believed in 1914 that life in Britain would not be affected much were quickly proved wrong. Even newspapers were censored.
Q. How fully does Source A describe how the Government controlled everyday life in Britain during the First World War? (Use Source A and recall) (5 marks)
A. Source A describes some of the ways that the Government controlled people’s lives in WWI but it does not give a full account.

Source A mentions government control through the introduction of British Summer Time which was a way of trying to increase working hours. Another point the source mentions is the way that the Government increased their control over people by restricting pub opening hours to stop drunkenness. Another method of Government control mentioned in the source was the censorship of newspapers and other forms of communication.

However, other forms of Government control are not mentioned in the source. The government controlled the supply of food and other materials through a rationing scheme. The source also fails to mention that the Government also controlled the lives of people in the city by imposing a blackout to protect cities from air raids.

Overall, the source describes some forms of Government control but not all of them.






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