Ssush10 25. What was Reconstruction?



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25. What was Reconstruction?

    1. What were the different Reconstruction plans?

    2. What role did the national government play?

    3. How effective was Reconstruction?





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  1. How did American business & industry change after the Civil War?


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  1. How did industrialization during the Gilded Age change America?

    1. How did industrialization change workers’ lives?

    2. How did industrialization change peoples’ lives in the West?

    3. How did industrialization change immigration to the USA?


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  1. What was the Progressive Era?

    1. How did the Progressives change American cities?

    2. How did the Progressives change American government?

    3. How did the Progressives change the lives of African-Americans & women?
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New forms of business organization:

  • Trusts—forming boards of trustees to oversee a business rather than a single person (the word trust became synonymous with monopoly)

  • Monopoly—a company that dominates and allows no other forms of competition

  • Vertical & horizontal integration—ways of forming a monopoly (see chart)

  • Financing—big businesses used stock sales to grow their companies; JP Morgan became one of the richest men in the work by loaning money to companies







26. After the Civil War (during an era called the Gilded Age), the USA experienced an industrial revolution which led to the rise of powerful monopolies

  • Railroads—America’s 1st “big business” led to a huge demand for oil, iron, and steel

Oil—Dominated by John Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Co.
Steel—Dominated by Andrew Carnegie

Insert standard oil image here

Electricity—replaced steam power as a new form of power for American factories; Developed by Thomas Edison & Nicola Tesla








25. Reconstruction refers to the era after the Civil War (1865 to 1877) when the national government worked to allow Southern states to re-enter the USA and to help African-Americans transition to freedom

President Andrew Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan

  • Often called “Presidential Reconstruction”

  • Allowed Southern states to quickly reenter the USA; States had to swear oaths of allegiance to the USA, create a new state constitution, & outlaw slavery by ratifying the 13th Amendment

  • In effect from 1865 to 1867

  • Seen as weak because it did little to protect Southern blacks from whites

Congress’ Reconstruction Plan

  • Often called “Radical Reconstruction” replaced Johnson’s plan in 1867

  • The South was divided into 5 military zones so Congress could protect Southern blacks

  • Southern states had to ratify both the 13th and 14th Amendments to re-enter the USA

  • Lasted until 1877 when President Hayes ordered troops out of the South (“corrupt bargain”)




Ways the national government helped blacks:

  • 13th Amendment ended slavery

  • 14th Amendment granted all former slaves rights as American citizens

  • 15th Amendment gave black men right to vote

  • Freedman’s Bureau—created schools and job opportunities for former slaves in the South

How effective was Reconstruction?

  • Southern whites created black codes to keep blacks from voting or competing for jobs

  • The KKK terrorized & lynched (hanged) blacks

  • Most former slaves were sharecroppers (tenant farmers) & were in debt to white landowners

  • President Johnson was impeached for interfering with Congress’ Reconstruction Plan






28. The Progressive Era (1900 to 1920) was a time when reformers tried to fix the social & political problems of the Gilded Age

Important Progressive Reforms:

  • Child labor laws were created

  • States governments gave citizens more control through the initiative (citizens can create laws), referendum (citizens can vote on laws), & recall (citizens can expel government leaders)

  • 16th amendment created the 1st income tax

  • 17th amendment allowed for citizens (not state legislatures) to directly elect their U.S. senators

  • 18th amendment made alcohol illegal (prohibition)

  • 19th amendment gave women the right to vote

The Failure of Progressive Reforms for Blacks:

  • After Reconstruction ended in 1877, whites created Jim Crow laws (poll taxes, grandfather clauses) to segregate (legally separate) blacks

  • The Supreme Court protected segregation in Plessy v Ferguson (“separate but equal is OK”)

  • Booker T Washington hoped to end segregation by helping blacks get education & job training

  • WEB DuBois hoped to end segregation by helping form the NAACP

  • But, Jim Crow era did not end until 1954

Who were the reformers?

  • Middle-class whites who believed that American could be improved (“progress”)

  • Muckrakers” were journalists who exposed government corruption, improper business practices, unhealthy working and living conditions of the poor



Technological Advances:

  • The transcontinental railroad allowed for easier movement into the west & for western farmers & ranchers to make more money

  • American factories produced more iron, steel, oil , railroads than all other countries combined

  • Steel and electricity allowed for the 1st skyscrapers, subways, & military (especially naval ships)

  • People moved to cities (urbanization) looking for jobs; American cities grew very large





27. The new inventions made the USA one of the most advanced countries in the world, cities grew as people moved looking for new jobs, & the gap between the rich and poor grew




Working Conditions

  • Workers were paid very little & child labor was a problem

  • Poor workers lived in tenement apartments in slums

  • Samuel Gompers formed a union called the American Federation of Labor (AFL) to help skilled workers only

Immigration

  • Job opportunities brought “new immigrants” to America from Southern & Eastern Europe and China

  • Nativists tried to restrict these immigrants with Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) & Immigrant Quota Act (1924)

Western Farmers & Indians

  • The railroad allowed miners, farmers (homesteaders), & ranchers to move West

  • Indians were moved into reservations, forced to assimilate (live like whites), or fought whites (Battle of Wounded Knee; Sand Creek)






  1. How did U.S. foreign policy change at the beginning of the 20th century?

    1. Why was the Spanish-American War in 1898 a turning-point in U.S. history?

    2. H
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      ow did American influence in Latin America change under the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1908)?



  1. What was America’s role in World War 1 (1914 - 1919)?

    1. Why did the USA enter World War 1?

    2. How were people affected by the war?

    3. W
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      hat role did the USA play in ending World War 1?



  1. W
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    hy were the 1920s called the “Roaring Twenties”?




  1. How did the federal government respond to the devastating effects of the Great Depression?

    1. What caused the Great Depression?

    2. C
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      ompare and contrast the responses of Presidents Hoover & Franklin Roosevelt to the Great Depression




Reasons for U.S. entry into World War I:

  • WW1 began in 1914 between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) vs. Allies Powers (England, France, Russia, etc)

  • Americans were committed to isolationism but from 1914 to 1917, the USA was drawn into war due to German unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmerman Telegram

  • The most important factor that brought the USA into WW1 was violation of freedom of the seas

Fighting Total War at Home and Abroad:

  • The USA played a minimal role in WW1 on the battlefront from 1917 to 1918

  • But, American manufacturing produced the war supplies the Allies needed to win the war

  • The USA used total war to make sure troops had needed supplies by converting all factories to making war supplies, rationed goods, drafted soldiers & used propaganda to make sure people supported the war


30. The USA broke from its policy of isolationism to join World War I (due to violations of freedom of the seas) and played an important role in the peace processes (Fourteen Points & League of Nations).




The Treaty of Versailles & League of Nations:

  • When the war ended in 1918, the USA played a key role in the peace process, led by President Wilson’s Fourteen Points who hoped to create a League of Nations to avoid future wars

  • The strong reservationists & irreconcilables in the Senate refused to allow the USA to join the League for fear of pulling the U.S. into a war

  • The USA never joined the League or signed the Treaty of Versailles which made the peace agreement very weak & contributed to WW2

Changes in America Due to World War I:

  • Because women played a key role in helping win the war (working in factories & rationing goods), the 19th Amendment was passed giving women the right to vote (suffrage)

  • Many blacks escaped sharecropping & Jim Crow in the South by moving to the North (Great Migration) during the war to get factory jobs

  • The USA became very wealthy by to selling war supplies to the Allies, which began a decade of prosperity called the “Roaring Twenties







Reasons for U.S. Expansion

  • As land in the West began to fill up, many Americans began to look overseas for new sources of raw materials & markets to sell U.S.-made goods (called imperialism)

  • Many believed they should share their “superior” culture with the rest of the world

  • Anti-imperialists fought this trend, defended foreign cultures, and hoped America would stay true to isolationism

Causes and Effects of the Spanish-American War

  • The USA helped Cuba gain independence from Spain in 1898 due to newspaper reports of Spanish mistreatment of Cubans (yellow journalism) & the explosion of USS Maine which most Americans blamed on Spain

  • The war lasted only 100 days (“a splendid little war”) due to superior American navy & made a national hero of Teddy Roosevelt & his Rough Riders

  • The USA gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the war; Filipinos resented American annexation & began a war with the USA until 1902

  • The USA considered itself a world power after defeated Spain (a European power)


29. After winning the Spanish-American War, the USA emerged as a world power & strengthened its influence over Latin America





U.S. Influence in Latin America:

  • As president, Teddy Roosevelt supported a revolution against Colombia in order to build the Panama Canal in 1903

  • He used “big stick diplomacy” to expand American protection of Latin America & issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine to keep European nations out of the region










Causes of the Great Depression

  • By the end of the 1920s, factories made too many goods (over-production) & Americans were buying less (under-consumption)

  • Many were buying stocks on-the-margin

  • In October 1929, many were financially ruined when the stock market crashed; banks failed when too many people rushed to repay debts

Effects of the Great Depression

  • 25% of Americans were unemployed & those with jobs were paid much less than in the 1920s

  • President Hoover hoped people would help each other (volunteerism) & did not think it was the government’s job to intervene (laissez-faire)

  • Millions lost their homes & farms & moved to cardboard shanties nicknamed Hoovervilles


32. The Great Depression (sparked by a stock market crash in 1929) led to a shift in the role of the national government from laissez-faire (under Hoover) to active involvement and social welfare (under Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs)



President Franklin Roosevelt replaced Hoover in 1933 & began a new strategy to end the depression called the New Deal. For the 1st time, the national government ended laissez-faire & became directly involved (social welfare) by creating jobs & enacting long-term forms to prevent another depression


Relief—parts of the New Deal created jobs to immediately help unemployed people find work:


  • Civilian Conservation Corps

  • Works Progress Administration

  • Public Works Administration

Recovery—parts of the New Deal tried to end the depression:


  • National Industrial Recovery Administration

  • Agricultural Adjustment Act

  • (The New Deal did not end the depression…WW2 did)

Reform—parts of the New Deal tried to fix major problems:


  • Tennessee Valley Authority gave cheap electricity to South

  • Social Security helped older Americans with retirement

  • Wagner Act protected unions







The Roaring Twenties & Consumerism

  • When WW1 ended, people were ready to spend the money they made in factories during the war

  • Factories, like the Ford Motor Co., perfected mass-production making goods very cheap

  • The demand for new cars, kitchen appliances, radios led to high consumerism, lots of factory jobs, & a very healthy economy in the 1920s

New Forms of Entertainment

  • In the 1920s, workers made more money but worked fewer hours than every before, giving people lots of leisure time

  • Radio shows, Hollywood movies, sports like baseball were popular forms of entertainment

  • Cars & cheap transportation allowed people to enjoy weekend vacations for the first time




31. U.S. industrial production in World War 1 led to decade of affluence in the 1920s during which Americans bought mass-produced consumer goods & enjoyed new forms of entertainment



The Jazz Age & New Cultural Expressions

  • In the 1920s, blacks experienced a cultural movement called the Harlem Renaissance, defined by jazz music (Louis Armstrong), black-inspired literature (Langston Hughes)

  • Many young women in the cities (flappers) enjoyed new freedoms by drinking, smoking, going to nightclubs, wearing knee-length skirts

The Red Scare & Other Fears in the 1920s

  • The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia & growing socialist movement in America, led to a fear of communism called the Red Scare

  • Americans responded by weakening unions, creating new immigration restrictions, & deporting “radical” foreigners (led by the Palmer Raids)

  • Rural Americans were threatened by cities & enacted the 18th Amendment (prohibition of alcohol), restored the KKK to attack immigrants, & went to church







  1. What was America’s role in World War 2 (1941 - 1945)?

    1. Why did the USA enter World War 2?

    2. How were people affected by the war?

    3. H
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      ow did World War 2 change warfare?




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  1. What was the Cold War?

    1. How did the Cold War impact Americans at home?

    2. How did the Cold War impact American foreign policy?





  1. What was the Civil Rights movement (1945 – 1970)?


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  1. How did the 1960s change American society?

    1. How did the 1960s impact African-Americans?

    2. How did the 1960s impact women?

    3. How did the 1960s impact the environment?


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The Cold War

  • The Cold War was not a war at all; instead it was a rivalry between the 2 world superpowers after World War 2: the USA and Soviet Union

  • The American government is based upon democracy (the people vote) & its economy on capitalism (free market & competition)

  • The government of the Soviet Union (USSR) ruled as a dictatorship & controlled all parts of the economy (communism)

Containing Communism in the 1940s

  • After WW2, the USSR forced Eastern European nations (Soviet satellites) to turn communist

  • USA created a Containment policy to keep the USSR from turning the world to communism

    • Marshall Plan--$ to Western European nations to rebuild after WW2 (& not turn communist)

    • Truman Doctrine—military supplies to Greece & Turkey to defend themselves from USSR

    • NATO—an alliance to democratic countries


34. After WW2, the USA & Soviet Union struggled to spread their influence (democracy vs. communism) throughout the world during the Cold War


Cold War Events in 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, & 1980s

  • Under Mao Zedong in 1949, China became the 1st Asian country to turn to Communism

  • The USA responded by sending the U.S. military to defend democratic forces in South Korea (1950-1953) & Vietnam (1954-1973)

  • Both the USA & USSR developed nuclear missiles capable to destroying entire countries (Cuban Missile Crisis in 1961)

  • The Cold War ended in 1991 when Communism ended in Eastern Europe & the USSR broke apart

McCarthyism and the Red Scare:

  • In the 1950s, American fears of Communism led Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarty to hold investigations of Communist spies in the U.S. government (McCarthyism)

  • The Soviets launched the 1st made-made satellite (Sputnik) in 1957 which led many to fear that the USSR was more advanced

  • In the 1950s, the U.S. government emphasized math & science in schools & formed NASA & began a space race to get to the moon first







Reasons for U.S. entry into World War 2:

  • Americans remained isolated when WW2 broke out in 1939 between the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) & the Allies Powers (England, France, USSR, etc.)

  • By 1940, the Allies were desperate for help so the USA began the Lend-Lease Act to provide them war supplies (but the USA did not fight)

  • A
    33. When the USA entered World War 2 (after the attack on Pearl Harbor), the government used total war at home and on the battlefront to win the war
    fter the Pearl Harbor attack by the Japanese in 1941, the USA joined WW2

Using Total War at Home to Win the War:

  • The national government created new agencies (bureaucracies) to convert factories to make war supplies, drafting soldiers, rationing resources (like gas & food), & propaganda

  • Women (“Rosie the Riveter”) & blacks gained jobs in factories making war supplies

  • Thousands of Japanese-Americans were placed in interment camps because Americans feared they would help Japan (not the USA) in WW2







Unlike the first world war, WW2 was fought on two continents (called theaters) in order to defeat the German Nazis & Italian Fascists in Europe and the Japanese in the Pacific


Fighting in the European Theater:

  • The USSR (led by Stalin) successfully fought Germany on the Eastern Front after the key battle of Stalingrad

  • England, France, & the USA led the D-Day invasion at Normandy on the Western Front

  • The Allies defeated Italy (led by Benito Mussolini) and Germany (led by Adolf Hitler) by May 1945

Fighting in the Pacific Theater:

  • The USA used island-hopping to take strategic islands under Japanese control in the Pacific after the key battle of Midway

  • Despite Allied success in the Pacific, the Japanese military refused to surrender

  • In 1945, President Truman gave the order to drop atomic bombs (developed in a secret plan called the Manhattan Project) on Hiroshima & Nagasaki which forced Japan to surrender & ended World War 2







Reasons for Reforms in the 1960s

  • Near the end of the civil rights movement, African-Americans could vote more freely & were no longer segregated, but blacks were not completely equal because they were not paid the same as whites & had a difficult time getting jobs

  • Women earned the right to vote in 1920, but were not paid the same as men & thought of mainly as “housewives” even though millions of women had been in the workforce since of WW2

Black Power

  • Martin Luther King, Jr’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was dedicated to non-violent protest, used sit-ins to desegregate restaurants, freedom rides to register black voters

  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was formed to assist the SCLC but by the late 1960s moved towards Black Power & was willing to used violence to gain equality for African-Americans




Feminist Movement

  • Feminists in the 1960s wanted equality for women

  • Betty Freidan wrote the Feminine Mystique (1963) in which she challenged women to do more than be boring suburban housewives

  • The National Organization for Women (NOW) was formed in 1966 fought unsuccessfully for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) that would have made sexual discrimination illegal

Environmentalism

  • In 1962, Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring about the negative effect of pesticides on humans & the environment; This book began the environmentalism movement.

  • In 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was formed to oversee the human & corporate impacts on the Earth

  • On April 22, 1969 environmentalists held the first Earth Day for environmental awareness


36. In the 1960s, African-Americans fought for equal economic opportunities (“Black Power”), women fought for social equality, & environmentalists tried to protect the Earth’s resources






The Need for a Civil Rights Movement:

  • Jim Crow laws and Supreme Court decisions like Plessy v Ferguson (1896) legally segregated blacks in America in public restaurants, schools, hotels, movie theaters, trains, buses, etc.

  • Grandfather clauses, literacy tests, poll taxes, & fear of being attacked made it almost impossible for most blacks to vote in the South

Early Successes of the Civil Rights Movement:

  • The 1st successful attempt to end segregation came when President Truman integrated the U.S. military in 1948

  • The leading group behind pushing for civil rights in the 1940s & 1950s was the NAACP which relied on using the judicial system (courts) to gain rights for blacks

  • In 1954, NAACP argued against segregation in public schools in the Brown v the Board of Education case; the Supreme Court agreed & forced schools to be integrated

  • In 1957, Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas refused to allow 9 black children to attend school; President Eisenhower forced the school to integrate




35. During the Civil Rights movement from 1945 to 1970, African-American leaders successfully ended segregation in America & fought for equality




The Civil Rights movement found a leader in Martin Luther King, Jr. (MLK)

  • In 1955, blacks in Montgomery, Alabama challenged the city’s segregated bus system by boycotting the buses; This was the 1st successful attempt at nonviolent resistance

  • MLK led a March on Washington where he gave the “I Have a Dream” speech encouraging the government to grant true equality to African-Americans

  • Despite these successes, the government was reluctant to act until the president saw white police officers violently attack peaceful protesters in Birmingham, Alabama

  • President Lyndon Johnson pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation by making it illegal to discriminate against anyone based on their skin color; The Voting Rights Act of 1965 protected African-Americans’ right to vote by ending poll taxes, literacy tests, & grandfather clauses





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