Spolia in Fortifications: Turkey, Syria and North Africa



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Constantinople Byzantine, (Archives de l’Orient Chretien 4), Paris 1950. cf. pp. 252ff;

185 FOSS 1979, pp. 96-9; and cf. arguments in T.C.F. BLAGG, The reuse of monumental masonry in late Roman defensive walls, in J. MALONEY & B. HOBLEY eds, Roman urban defences in the West (CBA Research Report 51), London 1983, pp. 130-5;

186 S. JOHNSON, Late Roman fortifications, London 1983, passim, for a survey;

187 D. FIORANI, Tecniche costruttive murarie medievali: Il Lazio meridionale, Rome 1996. Pp. 87ff for reworking of spolia, and their use in defensive structures and churches;

188 D. PRINGLE, The defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest, 2 vols, Oxford 1981, p. 133;

189 RAVEGNANI, Castelli, cit., p. 55;

190 J.M. SPIESER, Thessalonique et ses monuments du 4e au 6e siècle. Contribution à l’étude d’une ville paléochretienne, Paris 1984 ( Bibliothèque de l’Ecole Française d’Athènes et de Rome 254),, p. 64; and see also J. M. SPIESER, Note sur la chronologie des remparts de Thessalonique, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, 98 (1974), pp. 707-19;

191 F. M. ULUHOGIAN, Demolizione delle mura ed espansione urbana, in C. DE SETA & J. LE GOFF, eds., La citta e le mura, Rome & Bari 1989, pp. 371-86; and L. PRINCIPI, Uccidere le mura. Materiali per una storia delle demolizioni in Italia, in ibid, pp. 387-417, for a mournful and very long catalogue of walls demolished since 1862;

192 C. FOSS, & D. WINFIELD, Byzantine fortifications: an introduction, Pretoria 1986, p. 133;

193 C. WILLIAMS, Hellenistic and Roman buildings in the mediaeval walls of Mytilene, in Phoenix Toronto, 38 (1984), pp. 31-70. See p. 34;

th The Beule Gate illustrated in J. TRAVLOS, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens, London 1971, figs 462-3, s.v. Nikias Monument. And cf. T. GREGORY, The fortified cities of Byzantine Greece, in Archaeology, 35 (19820, pp. 14-21; see especially p. 16;

194 cf. FRANTZ, The Athenian Agora, cit., p. 134: Tower W6 incorporated blocks from a monument to Attalos, by his Stoa (destroyed in the Herulian attack), which stood in front of the position the tower took; and the same Tower W6 incorporated 97 column drums from the same Stoa in its side wall, together with metopes, triglyphs, capitals, etc;

rd W. B. DINSMOOR, The Choragic Monument of Nicias, AJA 14, 1910, 459-484, believed (p. 484) that it must date from late Roman or even Byzantine times;

195 G. B. WAYWELL, The free-standing sculptures of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in the British Museum: a catalogue, London 1978, pl. 45.1;

196 F. KAUSS, Das Theater von Milet, (Milet: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, IV.1), Berlin 1973, plates 126-132; and cf. the remarks on the late city walls in A. VON GERKAN, Milet: Die Stadtmauern, (Milet: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, II.3) Berlin & Leipzig 1935, pp. 114-117; W. MULLER-WIENER, Mittelalterliche Befestigungen im suedlichen Ionien, in Ist. Mitt., 11 (1961), pp. 5-122. Pl.XIV.2 for a row of columns en boutisse in the east castle wall at Priene;

197 C. FOSS, Ephesus after Antiquity: a late antique, Byzantine and Turkish City, Cambridge 1979. P. 111ff for picture of the dark-age city, with a path across the abandoned agora, covered even then with debris a metre thick, leading to a north entrance made completely of spoils;

198 C. FOSS, Attius Philippus and the walls of Side, in Zeitschrift fuer Papyrologie und Epigrafik, 26 (1977), pp. 172-80;

199 C. ROUECHE, Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity, London 1989, p. 69; For an illustration of the Nymphaeum, cf. F. A. BAUER, Stadt, Platz und Denkmal in der Spaetantike. Untersuchungen zur Ausstattung des oeffentlichen Raums in den spaetantiken Staedten Rom, Konstantinopel und Ephessos, Mainz 1996, plate 30.3;

th cf. H. WINNEFELD, Alterthuemer von Pergamon, III.2: Die Friese des groszen Altars, Berlin 1910, pp. 1-6 for excavation notes; nevertheless A. CONZE et al, Alterthuemer von Pergamon, I..1: Stadt und Landschaft, Berlin 1912, p. 3; cf. FELLOWS, Journal, p.35: at Pergamum, the walls of the Turkish houses are full of relics of marble, with ornaments of the richest Grecian art;

200 GIVE FULL REF!! GIBB 1962, pp. 448-9;

201 A. CONZE, Altertuemer von Pergamon, I.2: Stadt und Landschaft, Berlin 1913, pp. 299ff & Plates 62-64; these dated to Manuel I Comnenus (1148-1180);

202 PRINGLE, Byzantine Africa, passim;

203 ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, Croisades, vol IV, Baldrici Episcopi Dolensis Historia Jerosolimitana, IV, 51F, anno 1098: they build at Antioch a castellum et de lapidibus ipsis quos de sepulturis dehumatorum abstraxerant munire deliberaverunt - although not clear whether these are modern graves (i.e. to insult the Turks), or antique ones reused for the stone;

204 cf. F. KOLB, editor, Lykische Studien 2: Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Polis Kyaneai Kampagne 1991, Bonn 1995, Tafel X & p. 69;

205 F. KOLB, editor, Lykische Studien 3: Die Siedlungskammer von Kyaneai Sommer 1992, Bonn 1996, pp. 21ff: Ein Dreitoriger Ehrenbogen in Kyaneai;

206 C. J. CLASSEN, Die Stadt im Spiegel der Descriptiones und Lauden urbium in der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur bis zum Ende des zwoelften Jahrhunderts, rev. ed. Hildesheim etc 1986. Pp. 26ff: for praise of Rome and Constantinople. First mediaeval eulogy is of Milan, imitated from that of classical cities, which he dates to pre-738 (cf. p. 37);

207 Cited in A. W. LAWRENCE, Greek aims in fortification, Oxford 1979, p. 120;

208 T. LEGGIO, Le fortificazioni di Rieti dall'alto medioevo al rinascimento (Quaderni di Storia Urbana e Territoriale, 4), Rome 1989, p. 14: in 1311 the contract for the construction of (some new) city walls at Rieti stipulated that the outer face be lapides aptati, i.e. squared, and the inner face lapides non aptati, i.e. unworked;

209 R. GINOUVES & R. MARTIN, Dictionnaire méthodique de l’architecture grecque et romaine, I, Matériaux, techniques de Construction, Techniques et Formes du décor, Rome 1985, pp. 95ff, pp. 126ff & plates 18-26, pp. 34-7 for varieties;

210 F. E. WINTER, Greek fortifications London 1971, 78ff., 91. J-P ADAM L’architecture militaire grecque, Paris 1982, pp. 8ff. offers a convincing suite of analyses and photographs of the beautifies of various styles of Greek defence;

th L. KARLSSON, Fortification towers and masonry techniques in the Hegemony of Syracuse, 405-211 BC, in Acta Instituti Romani Regni Sueciae XLIX, Stockholm 1992: pp. 96-101 for bevelled edges and drafted margins, with a survey and references.

211 SARADI, Kallos, p. 40: the walls of Antioch are the ornament which provides security (panegyric of Anastasius by Procopius of Gaza);

212 WINTER Greek Fortifications, pp. 190-1;

213 G. ROSADA, Mura e porte. Tra architettura funzionale e simbolo, in Civilta dei Romani; Il rito e la vita privata, Milan 1992, pp. 124-39;

214 L. BACCHIELLI, La porta di Augusto a Fano nella cultura antiquaria locale, in Atti e Memorie Deputazione di Storia Patria per le Marche 93 (1988), pp. 43-63 - reinterpreted by Giuliano & A. da Sangallo il Giovane with garlands and bucrania, as well as a pediment: so had they seen antique gates thus decorated? For the Torre di Boezio, which had spolia integrated into its structure, cf. C. MACCABRUNI, Pavia; La tradizione dell’antico nella citta medievale, Pavia 1991. Indeed, in the time of Opicinus, Roman funerary statues were in evidence on the gates of the city, as they are today at Spello;

215 V.MORTET, Recueil, I.128, Vita Sancti Odilonis, Abbot of Cluny, first half of 11th century, of whose work with marble solitus erat gloriari, ut jocundi erat habitus, ‘invenisse se ligneum et relinquere marmoreum’. The same point is made about he building of Saint Benoit sur Loire, ibid., I.38, 1005/1030, when Abbot Gauzelin brings in columns, and Scabellum pedum, marmor porfireticum. Altaria edtiam repperiens lapidea, effecit marmorea – and rebuilds the narthex, which was in brick, in marble – thereby attracting the brick/marble reference;

216 ADAM, L’architecture militaire grecque, 24-5, 31 and figs 44-5;

217 For a review, cf. F. E. WINTER, Problems of tradition and innovation in Greek fortifications, in Fortifications et défense du territoire en Asie Mineure Occidentale et Méridionale, Table Ronde Istanbul 1993, Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 96 (1994), pp. 29-52;

218 H. SARADI, Kallos, p.49;

219 Y. TABBA, Survivals and archaisms in the architecture of Northern Syria c.1080-c.1150, in Muqarnas 10, Leiden 1993, pp. 29-41, citing the palaces of Khirbat al-Makjar and Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi, as well as the E gate to the mosque at Cordoba, AD 987;

220 Cited in N. CHRISTIE, The survival of Roman settlement along the Middle Danube: Pannonia from the fourth to the tenth century AD, in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, XI.3 (1992), pp. 317-339; cf. p. 335;

221 I. HOGG, The history of fortification, London 1981, p. 74;

222 J. LACAN, Les Sarrazins dans le Haut Moyen Age français, Paris 1965, pp. 163ff & plates XXIV-XXVI;

223 A. CADEI, I castelli federiciani: concezione architettonica e realizzazione tecnica, in Arte Medievale, VI.2 (1992), pp. 39-67; the author explains the bugnato in Swabian Imperial residences in Germany and Alsace as imports from the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, such as Korykos;

224 C. N. JOHNS, The Citadel, Jerusalem: a summary of work since 1934, in Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities, Palestine, 14 (1950), pp. 121-190, reprinted as VII in D. PRINGLE, editor, Three Middle Eastern Castles frrom the time of the Crusades, Aldershot 1998;

225 S. LLOYD & D. STORM RICE, Alanya, (Occ. Papers Brit. Inst. Archaeol. Ankara, 4) London 1958 mention (pp. 14-15) the lines of classical column-drums in (the early 13thC) Kizil Kule and footnote;

226 K. A. C. CRESWELL, Early Muslim architecture, 2 vols, Oxford 1932 & 1940. I, p. 31 for use at Medina; I, p.36 for Kufa; I, pp. 58-9 for the Dome of the Rock; and I, pp. 79-80 for Byzantine usage and methods;

227 A CONZE, Pergamum: Stadt und Landschaft (Altertuemer von Pergamon Band 1 Text 2), Berlin 1913, p. 306 & pl. 62.2;

228 A. GABRIEL, Une Capitale Turque: Brousse/Bursa, Paris 1958, pp. 23ff & plate X.5; and cf. p.28 note 4 for spolia in Turkish gates and walls (now destroyed) such as Saltanat Kapisi, plate X.4;

229 FAGNAN, Extraits, p. 52; cf. P. Bodereau, La Capsa antique, la Gafsa moderne, Paris 1907, pp.195ff for the military history of the city and its five forts;

230 L. MARINO, Chastel abatuz est demi refez: nota sulla fabbrica dei castelli d’epoca crociata in Terra Santa, in Castellum, 27/28 (1987), pp. 17-33. Cf. p. 25, note 20: Maqrisi recounts that Baybars could not take Caesarea because Louis IX had fortified it so well, usando per le murature colonne di granito, da rendere praticamente inutile ogni lavoro di mina;

231 A. DJEMAL PASCHA, Alte Denkmaeler aus Syrien, Palaestina und Westarabien, Berlin 1918, plate 39 & p. 87: the shafts are balanced size for size, and colour for colour;

232 cf. A. RABAN, The Harbours of Caesarea Maritima. Results of the Caesarea Ancient Harbour Excavation Project 1980-85, 2 vols, Oxford, BAR, 1989, figs III.119, pp. 124-5, 129-30. The discussion of the Crusader Wall and Square Tower (pp. 181ff) makes it clear they believe the Crusaders did indeed use this technique. Also L. I. LEVINE & E. NETZER, Excavations at Caesarea Maritima 1975, 1976, 1979, Final report, Jerusalem 1986, pp. 178ff for The archaeological finds and their relationship to the history of the city;

233 K. A. C. CRESWELL, Fortification in Islam before AD 1250, in Proceedings of the British Academy, XXXVIII (1952), pp. 89-125; cf. pp. 113-114;

234 L. BREHIER, Histoire anonyme, p.39;

235 M. H. CHEHAB, Tyr à l'époque des Croisades, II: Histoire sociale, économique et religieux, 2 vols, Paris 1979, II.2 for damage to the walls of Tyre in 1157 (as well as the citadel at Aleppo, and Acre and Tripoli) and again in 1170;

236 E. MAMBOURY & Th. WIEGAND, Die Kaiserpaelaste von Konstantinopel, Berlin & Leipzig 1934. Column shafts in Plate XII, west Sea Palace; Plate XIV, Bucoleon Palace; Plate XV, later spolia wall at the Western Sea Palace, with entablatures as well. cf. Plate XX, for the use of column shafts to preserve foundations against the sea (with up to three courses of spolia shafts in places);

237 VAN MILLINGEN, Byzantine Constantinople, cit., p. 78ff for the Gate of Rhegium, or the Porta Rhousiou (of the Red Faction). Van Millingen only gives one illustration, but notes that there are seven shafts employed to form the lintel, posts and sill of the gateway are covered with red wash, as though to mark the entrance with the colour of the Red Faction.

238 SHAT Genie Article 14: Constantinople; Carton 1764-1911: Anonymous Environs de Constantinople, en Europe, recu le 15 Thermidor An II, fol 13: a l’angle près des sept tours toute cette partie de l’enceinte a été autrefois réparee avec des colonnes et des pierres d’entablement d’anciens édifices grecs et romains que les Turcs n’ont pas respectés, on les voit sur les parements de la muraille;

th FAILLER, Georges Pachymères, Relations Historiques, V.10, where the Emperor builds a port at Blanga, on the Propontis, d'énormes pierres, presumably from nearby Euluthera;

th M. GAUDEFROY-DEMOMBYNES, editor, Voyages d’Ibn Jobair, V, Paris 1951, p. 125;

239 N. CHRISTIE & A. RUSHWORTH, Urban fortification and defensive strategy in fifth and sixth century Italy: the case of Terracina, in Journal of Roman Archaeology, I (1988), pp. 73-88, and fig. 7;

240 R. CARPENTER & A. BON, The defenses of AcroCorinth and the lower town (Corinth: results of excavations conducted by the American School of Classical Studies in Athens, III part II), Cambridge MA 1936, p. 196: for making decoration of necessity, cf. the repairs to the "third line wall" at Acrocorinth, fig. 135;

241 FOSS, Cities, fortresses, p. 317 and fig 30;

242 J. CROW & S. HILL, The Byzantine fortifications of Amastris in Paphlagonia, in Anatolian Studies, XLV (1995), pp. 251-65;

243 W. W. WURSTER, Alt-Aegina (H. WALTER, editor) Die spaetroemischer Akropolismauer, Mainz 1975, plates 1-3 & beilage 2;

244 cf. H. KOHL et al, Baalbek, II, Berlin & Leipzig 1925, pp. 3-11 for an outline of Baalbec in the Middle Ages;

245 P. DESCHAMPS, La Défense du Comte de Tripoli et de la Principaué d’Antioche, (Les Chateaux des croisés en Terre Sainte, II), 2 vols, Paris 1973, p. 214;

246 Background in A. BRYER Nicaea, Byzantine city, in History Today, XXI.1 (1971), pp. 22-31; for a study of the walls, see A. M. SCHNEIDER, Die Stadtmauer von Iznik (Nicaea) Istanbuler Forschungen 9, Berlin 1938; and also FOSS, Byzantine Fortifications, pp. 79ff.. For a the use of spolia in Islamic Iznik, cf. K. OTTO-DORN, Das islamische Iznik (Ist. Forsch. 13), Berlin 1941. An equally short account appears as The city walls of Nicaea, Antiquity 12, 1938, pp. 437-43, where he suggests (p.439) that the cladding of some towers and curtains with blocks of fine marble occurred after the Arab incursions and depradations of 727, probably also the ramparts were covered with marble and then crenellated - but he doesn't say why. A longer treatment is A. M. SCHNEIDER & W. KARNAPP, Die Stadtmauer von Iznik (Istanbuler Forschungen 9), Berlin 1938;

247 J. LEFORT, Les communications entre Constantinople et la Bithynie, in MANGO & DAGRON editors, Constantinople, pp. 207-218, Cf. p. 217: Tous les chemins menaient donc à Nicée, qui est aujourd’hui bien a l’écart, mais qui etait au Ive siècle et resta pendant tout le moyen age le principal noeud des communications avec l’Asie – and Justinian restored the palace at Nicaea, and a bath;

C. FOSS, Nicomedia and Constantinople, in MANGO & DAGRON, Constantinople, pp. 181-190;

248 SCHNEIDER, Die Stadtmauer von Iznik, plates 35-6, 42; and pp. 36-43;

249 DE BUSBECQ, Travels, p. 59.

th Quoted by VRYONIS, Nomadization, p. 71;

250 KINNEAR, Journey, pp. 29-30: The outer port is apparently the work of a later age than the other, and consists of three blocks of white marble finely carved, which in all probability belonged to some temple or church, since the ground is strewn with similar materials;

th Arguments in FOSS, Byzantine fortifications, p. 132;

251 M. BUYUKKOLANCI, Fragmente der Bauplastik des Artemisions von Ephesos: Funde den Grabungen der Johanneskirche in Selcuk, Jahresheft des Oest. Archaeologische Instituts in Wien 62, 1993, pp. 95-104;

252 FELLOWS, Journal, p.206;

253 General account in MUELLER-WIENER, Mittelalterliche Befestigungen, pp. 89ff;

th R. CHANDLER, Travels in Asia Minor, 1764-1765, London 1971, p. 76;

Relation d'un voyage du Levant, 2 vols, Paris 1717; cf. vol II, p 513;

254 Charles TOMPSON, Travels through Turkey in Asia, the Holy Land, Arabia, Egypt, 3rd edition, 2 vols, London 1767, I.71;

255 LAWRENCE, A skeletal history, p. 203;

th Voyage remarquable de Guillaume de Rubruquis, envoie en Ambassade par le roi Louis IX en différentes parties de l’Orient, l’An MCCLIII, in P.BERGERON, Voyages faits principalement en Asie dans les XII, XIII, XIV et XV siècles, I, The Hague 1735, col.147: he found French, Genoese and Venetian merchants there, trading in alum;

256 KINNEAR, Journey, pp. 219ff;

257 SARRE, Reise in Kleinasien: plates XVII for Konia, XLIV for Suverek, LXI for Egherdir;

258 I.H. KONYALI, Konya Tarihi, Konya 1964, p. 133ff, pp.146ff;

259 T. TALBOT RICE, The Seljuks in Asia Minor, London 1961, p. 153ff

260 J-P ROUX, La sculpture figurative de l’Anatolie Musulmane, in Turcica, 24 (1992), pp. 27-90. Includes inventory at pp. 85-89; p. 43ff for the walls of Diyarbakir. Important iconographic program, difficult to date, but he estimates 10th and 11th centuries: p. 45;

th Claude CAHEN, Pre-Ottoman Turkey. A general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c.1071-1330, London 1968. p. 201; p. 262-3: nobody has yet studied Seljuk debt to Armenian and Byzantine military architecture. A fierce review of this book by J.M. Rogers, Recent work on Seljuk Anatolia, in Kunst des Orients VI, 1969, pp. 134-169, with a bibliography at pp. 165ff;

261 Y. TABBA, Survivals and archaisms in the architecture of Northern Syria c.1080-c.1150, in Muqarnas 10, Leiden 1993, pp. 33ff;

262 J. MITCHELL, The display of script and the uses of painting in Longobard Italy, in Testo e Immagine nell'Alto Medioevo, Spoleto 1993 (Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo XLI), pp. 887-951. See pp. 895ff for the monumental inscriptions at Tempietto sul Clitunno and the Palace Chapel of Duke Arechis II at Salerno;

263 WILLIAM OF TYRE, Hist. Rerum Transmarin., J-P Migne, PL CCI, Paris 1903. I.2 (col 215): Exstant porro in eodem templi aedificio, intus et extra, ex opere Musaico, Arabici idiomatis litterarum vetustissima monumenta, quae illius temporis [i.e. of Titus!] esse creduntur;

264 O. L. ASLANAPA, Kirim ve Kuzey Azerbaycan’da Turk Eserleri, Istanbul 1979, pp. 92ff , for the Kasir Mausoleum at Nahcivan, dated 1162, which has a five-foot-high brick kufic inscription; pp. 50ff & pp. 36ff for Baku; pp. 14-15 for the two turbes at Bahcesaray, 14thC and 15thC respectively;

265 E. HERZFELD, Materiaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum, Deuxieme Partie, Syrie du Nord: Inscriptions et monuments d'Alep, 3 vols, Cairo 1954-5-6: cf.plates X, XI, XXIII, CLXXIII;

266 J. SAUVAGET,
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