Spolia in Fortifications: Turkey, Syria and North Africa

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th F. SARRE, Reise in Kleinasien, Sommer 1895. Forschungen auz seldjukischen Kunst und Geographie des Landes, Berlin 1896. Pl. X LIV for spolia at Suverek, plate XLIV, pp.142ff for Egherdir, with plate LXI for its spolia-rich fortress;

114 MANGO, Antique statuary, cit., pp. 55-75; cf. p.75;

th A. CAMERON & J. HERRIN, editors, Constantinople in the early eighth century: the Parastaseis Syntomoi Chronikai, Leiden 1984. Pp. 45-6 for the author's antiquarian interests; p. 27 for the early 8th century date; pp. 29-30 for the book's strangeness: not a guidebook; certainly not comprehensive; and not a laudatio urbis either;

115 O. DE BUSBECQ, Travels into Turkey, London 1744. He went to Constantinople as Ambassador in 1554. P.49: Yet there are some valuable Relicks of old Monuments to be seen; but not so many as a Man would imagine, considering how many Constantine brought thither from Rome; and again SANDYS, Travails, p.27: I think there is not in the world an object that promiseth so much afar off to the beholders, and entred so deceiveth the expectation;

th C. FOSS, Cities, fortresses and villages of Byzantine Asia Minor, Aldershot 1996, ( Collected Studies series), p. 179;

116 MANGO, Antique statuary, cit., passim;

117 R. CHANDLER, Travels in Asia Minor, 1764-1765, London 1971, p. 97;

118 D. B. OECONOMIDES, Légendes populaires néo-helléniques sur les chateaux en ruines, in Pepragmena: Les fortifications depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’au Moyen Age dans le monde méditerranéen, Athens 1971, pp. 51-4: antique castles often considered the palaces of kings;

FELLOWS, Journal, cit., p. 25,  pp. 38-9;

119 e.g. C. MORRISSON, La découverte des trésors à l’époque byzantine, Travaux et Mémoires 8, 1981, pp. 321-43;

120 VRYONIS, Nomadization, cit., pp. 43-71;

121 Mémoires du Chevalier d’Arvieux, Envoyé extraordinaire du Roy à la Porte, 6 vols, Paris 1735; cf. I, p. 255, near Tyre in 1658: Ils ne songent qu’à détruire et à laisser tomber en ruine les édifices les plus beaux, les plus nécessaires et les plus respectables par leur antiquité;

122 M. SALINAS, Voyages et voyageurs en Algérie, 1830/1930, Toulouse 1989, pp. 161ff;

123 A. OOMLIL, La méthodologie d'Ibn Haldun dans ses prolégomènes, Doctorate, Paris IV - Sorbonne, n.d., pp. 2, 106ff;

124 IBN KHALDUN IV.2, ed. cit. vol II, pp. 239ff.;

cf. C.-F. VOLNEY, Les Ruines, ou Méditations sur les Révolutions des Empires, in his Oeuvres Complètes, Paris 1821, I., pp. 1-245;

. IBN KHALDUN IV.3; ed. cit. vol. II, p. 239;

125 C. BOURGEOIS, Les Vandales, le vandalisme et l’Afrique, Antiquités Africaines 16, 1980, pp. 213-228. Cf. p. 217 & note 4: they probably destroyed theatre, odeion and baths at Carthage so that they could not be turned into forts against them – although Genseric was against theatre per se; Sécurité et moralité, donc, mais pas vandalisme;

126 L. TEUTSCH, Das Roemische Staedtwesen in Nordafrika, Berlin 1962, for a survey and chronological account of Roman cities and forts in N. Africa; for a survey of North Africa before the coming of the French, cf. the plentiful remarks in MARMOL, Affrica, cit., passim, e.g. fol. 235v for Constantine, or fol. 211r for Sargel; cf. O. ZHIRI, L’Afrique au miroir de l’Europe: fortunes de Jean Léon l’Africain à la renaissance, Geneva 1991, pp. 165-172 for the context;

127 A. SIRAJ, L'image de la Tingitane. L'historiographie arabe médiévale et l'antiquité Nord-Africaine, Rome 1995, pp.241ff: Evolution des connaissances archéologiques chez les géographes arabes; ibid., pp.491ff for Tangier;

128 DOZY & DE GOEJE, Description, cit., p. 133;

th E. FAGNAN, Extraits inédits relatifs au Maghreb, Algiers 1924 (reprinted in Islamic Geography, 141, Frankfurt-am-Main 1993), pp. 9, 155;

129 Sheikh ET-TIDJANI, Voyage dans la Régence de Tunis pendant les années 706, 707 et 708 de l'Hégire (1306-1309), trans A. Rousseau, Paris 1852, reprinted as vol.. 186 of Islamic Geography, Frankfurt-am-Main 1994, p. 254 note 1;

th FALBE, Danish Consul-General: cf. Service Historique de l'Armee de Terre,Vincennes, France [hereafter SHAT] MR 1675: description du Plan de Tunis et de Carthage,, MS 1832, fol.165ff; this provides a comprehensive militgary and naval assessment of the fortifications around Tunis;

130 RAMUSIO, Delle Navigationi, cit., vol II.98r ff for Viaggio di M. Josafa Barbaro nella Persia, begun in 1471; cf. fol 100v where Appresso questo monte e un theatre nel modo di quel di Verona, molto grande, circondato di colonne d’un pezzo con li suoi gradi intorno;

131 BEAUFORT, Karamania, cit., p. 248: sketch-plan of Pompeiopolis, and description of the remains of the city at pp. 259ff; Beaufort's MS is in PRO ADM7/847, with the ancient cities keyed to his charts; Mersin is at p. 137;

th cf. Kherbat RumanRoman remains – as a toponym in Syria: I. PENA, The Christian Art of Byzantine Syria, Eng. Trans. London 1997, p. 28;

th J. B. S. MORRITT, A Grand Tour. Letters and journeys 1794-6, ed. G. E. Marandin, London 1985, p. 135;

th For the general context cf. S. MCGRAIL, The shipment of traded goods and of ballast in antiquity, in Oxford Journal of Archaeology, VIII.3 (1989), pp. 353-358, table 1;

132 H. OMONT, Missions archéologiques françaises en Orient aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, 2 vols, Paris 1902, consecutively numbered. As well as fishing expeditions for antiquities, usually by command of the King, a lot of manuscripts and natural history items were brought back;

1037ff: Memoire by LE MAIRE, Consul at Tripoli 1705-6. Cf. p.1045: at Lepcis j’ay tiré d’un seul temple plus de 200 collonnes ou morceaux, de 18 pieds de long et de 21 poulces de diamettre. Il y en a une trantene à la porte de la Conférence a Paris; elles sonts toutes vertes et blanches ondées et de marbre greq; les autres sont sur le port à Toulon;

133 Paris, Archives Nationales, Marine B/4/122 Levant: Relation de ce que j'ai vu a Athènes, by L. Taulane, Athens, commanding Le Sultane, 20 May 1774 - an exclusively archaeoloogical account addressed to the Minister of War; he regrets he cannot report in detail on the Parthenon, because it is in le chateau, on l'on ne permet pas d'entrer depuis le commencement de la guerre; instead, he views it through a telescope;

OMONT, Missions archéologiques, cit., pp.1126ff;

134 - and led to chronic problems: cf. PRO WO106/63, for Colonel F. R. Maunsell's Notes on the Geography of Asia Minor, dated 23rd August 1917, to which the War Trade Intelligence Division points out that in malarial valleys this is not a natural state of things, but is a result of the suspension of proper irrigation works, and caused mainly by the breaking down and cessation of the system of irrigation employed by the ancients, which systems became blocked up…. (NB Maunsell had produced a Military Report on Eastern Turkey in Asia for the War Office in 1893);

135 FELLOWS, Journal, cit., pp.192-3: the very heavy deposits in the aqueducts have furred up water supply to an opening or bore left not larger than a quill; these were probably rendered useless during the existence of the town;

136 BEAUFORT, Karamania, cit., MS in PRO ADM7/847, p. 125;

S. STUCCHI, Architettura Cirenaica, Rome 1975, pp. 234-5, pp. 333-4 & notes; pp. 363, pp. 558-9 & fig. 577; p.483 for second quote;

137 WILLIAM OF TYRE, Hist. Rerum Transmarin., J-P Migne, PL CCI, Paris 1903,- XX.19 (cols 796-7) for a description of the earthquake in 1179, with, at Antioch, which were ad statum mediocrem reparari;

138 C. FOSS, Survey of medieval castles of Anatolia, I: Kutahya (BAR Int. Series 261), Oxford 1985; cf. p.82: 9thC. He believes that, generally, the better the spoils, the earlier the wall - 7th or 8th century;

139 DUVAL, L'état actuel des recherches, cit., pp.150ff;

140 W. J. HAMILTON, Research in Asia Minor, Pontus and Armenia. With some account of their antiquities and geology, 2 vols London 1842, p. 99;

141 Anonymous author of the de re strategica, ed. H. KOECHLY & W. RUESTOW, Griechischer Kriegsschriftsteller, II, Leipzig 1885 (cf. X.3) recommends the use of already-cut stone when it is available;

142 P. LOCK, The medieval towers of Greece: a problem in chronology and function, in B. ARBEL et al., editors, Latins and Greeks in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204, London 1989, pp.129-145; cf. p.130;

143 J. E. LOPEZ PEREIRA, Marmoles romanos de la iglesia de Santiago de Alfonso III. Determinacion de su procedencia, MM 34, 1993, 275-81. Such use of spolia may have been as common in Spain as in Italy: cf. M. MAYER, A. ALVAREZ & I. RODA, Los materiales lapideos reaprovechados en construcciones medievales en Cataluna: La ciudad de Barcelona y su entorno, in BARRAL I ALTET, Artistes, II, pp. 530-558;

144 ENLART, Royaume de Jérusalem, cit., see I.37;

145 J. M. KINNEAR, Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia and Kurdistan in the years 1813 and 1814, London 1818. p.39: At Kutayah, I found a woman washing linen on a handsome block of ash coloured marble, with an eagle in alto relievo admirably executed at the top, and underneath it the inscription No.4 (in Greek);

146 HAMILTON, Research in Asia Minor, cit., p. 107, at Ghiediz, with mud houses;

147 H. SARADI-MENDELOVICI, Christian attitudes toward Pagan monuments in late Antiquity and their legacy in later Byzantine centuries, in DOP, 44 (1990), pp. 47-61;

148 R. G. GOODCHILD & J. B. WARD PERKINS, The roman and byzantine defences of Lepcis Magna, in PBSR, XXI (1953), pp. 42-73,. 51 & fig. 3: 62 & fig. 7: in the Severan Piazza, the foundations of a late gateway have been found, incorporating Roman columns laid horizontally. Authors reckon it could be Byzantine but, as there is no characteristic Byzantine mortar, it might be early Islamic;

149 Catalogue of examples in L. CABALLERO ZOREDA & J. C. SANCHEZ SANTOS, Reutilizaciones de Material Romano en Edificios de Culto Cristiano, in Antiguedad Y Cristianismo, Murcia 1990 (Monografias Historicas sopre la Antiguedad Tardia, VII), pp. 431-485: cf. pp. 456ff. for groups of pagan altars reused, e.g. in Mactar, Tunisia;

150 Aix-en-Provence, France, Centre des Archives d/Outre-Mer [hereafter CAOM], 54.S.1-2, liasse 9097: letter of 12 November 1910 from the administrator of the commune mixte of Ain-El-Ksar, Algeria, to the Prefect: les indigènes utilisent les dalles du mausolée berbère du Madracem pour leurs sépultures. So he will do his utmost to ensure a ce que les restes antiques soient respectés et qu’aucune pierre ne soit distraite des monuments berbères ou romains existants sur le territoire. There is a good change that the marbles for this mausoleum were themselves spolia from roman sites;

151 SHAT 39: March 1800 account of a voyage from Cyprus to Constantinople by M. Tromelin; cf. fol 16v;

152 ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, Croisades, cit., NOUR EL-DIN & SALAH EL'DIN, Livre des deux Jardins, on the capture of Laodicaea, IV, p. 361;

153 F.V.J. ARUNDELL, A visit to the Seven Churches of Asia, with an excursion into Pisidia, London 1828, pp. 157-8; LEAKE, Journal, cit., p. 40, find similar reuse at Aksehir, including at the tomb of Nureddein Hoja an open colonnade … from some ancient Greek building;

154 L. BREHIER, Histoire anonyme de la première Croisade, Paris 1924, p. 96: in front of Antioch, 8th March 1098, the Crusaders built a fort over a Turkish graveyard de lapidibus scilicet quos abstraximus de tumulis Turcorum;

155 ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, Croisades, cit., Guiberti Abbatis Gesta Dei per Francos, 181D: same 1098 fort building, and now its fractis sepulchris and lapidibus quos fractis gentilium sarcofagis tulerunt;

R.R. HOLLOWAY, The spolia of the Arch of Constantine, in Quaderni ticinesi di Numismatica, XIV (1985), pp. 261-73; for a census of the spolia, P.PENSABENE & C. PANELLA, Reimpiego e progettazione architettonica nei monumenti tardo-antichi di Roma, in Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia, LXVI (1993-1994), pp. 111-283; cf. pp. 174ff;

L. LAZZARINI et al., Determination of the provenance of marbles used in some ancient monuments in Rome, in N. HERZ & M. WAELKENS, editors., Classical marble: geochemistry, technology, trade, Dordrecht 1988, pp. 399-407; see pp. 405-6. They also note spolia in a prominent position, with symbolic function, in the mid-3rd century rebuilding of the portico in summa cavea of the Colosseum, and on Diocletian's Arcus Novus and the Temple of Romulus;

156 L. TARTAGLIA, editor, Eusebio: Sulla Vita di Constantini, Naples 1984, iii.31, giving his instructions to Bishop Macarius for work at Jerusalem;

157 SARADI, Kallos, cit., cf. p. 42, the reference in the CTh 15,1,16 for the year 365 to "ornamenta urbium ac decora marmorum" to the Emperor Zenon's instructions in CJ8,10,12,6b that structures set between columns of porticoes in Constantinople should be covered up with sheets of marble to give them beauty;

158 TARTAGLIA, Eusebio, cit., iii.54;

159 M. DONDERER, Irreversible Deponierung von Grossplastik bei Greichen, Etrusker und Roemern, in Jahresheft Oest. Arch. Inst in Wien, 61 (1991/2), pp. 192-275 - including an extensive catalog (pp. 234-75) by type;

160 PODESTA, Annali, cit., pp. 101ff, Favolosi opinioni delle Turchi circa l’origine di Costantinopol; cf. R. HENRY, editor, Photius: Bibliotheque, 8 vols, Paris 1959-1991, vol V. p. 184 for Philostratus’ description of the island at Gadees, at the end of Europe, where Les colonnes intérieures du temple sont faites d’or et d’argent fondus dans un alliage … leurs chapiteaux portent des inscriptions en caractères qui ne sont ni de l’égyptien ni de l’indien ni d’aucune autre langue a quoi on puisse les comparer;

161 The Life of the renowned Pierre d’Aubusson, Grand Master of Rhodes, London 1679 (according to the preface, written by William Caoursin), p.136: the Tower of S. Nicholas on Rhodes harbour (in fact Venetian in later 15th century) was built in the 15th century by Muhavias, a great Souldier … he built this tower so high, that the top of it touch’d the Heavens, and the foundations reached to the center of the Earth;

162 J.M. CUOQ, Recueil des sources arabes concernant l’Afrique Occidentale du VIIIe au XVIe siècle (Bilad Al-Sudan), Paris 1985. p.144: Ibn al-Djazzar (died c.400/1008), in his Livre des Merveilles, recounts that the Fortunate Islands to the extreme west of the Mahreb is an idol on the Island of Laghus and also un temple construit en marbre et avec des verres coloriés, as well as fantastic beasts;

163 CHUVIN, Chronicle, cit., p. 55;

th J. D. GRAINGER, The cities of Seleukid Syria, Oxford 1990, p.199, emphasizes the artificiality of the cities of Seleukos I which, after the Islamic takeover, rapidly slid down into ruin and desertion and decay. They were valued for their fortifications at times, but not as cities;

164 C. FOSS, Late antique and Byzantine Ankara, in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31, 1977, 27-87; see p. .27;

165 CHRISTIE, The archaeology of Byzantine Italy, cit., p. 265;

166 A. WALMSLEY, Byzantine Palestine & Arabia: urban prosperity in late antiquity, in N. CHRISTIE & S.T. LOSEBY, editors, Towns in transition: urban evolution in late antiquity, Aldershot 1996, pp.126-58, sees prosperity and substantial growth (trade, pilgrims) until the 6th century;

167 W. MUELLER-WIENER, Mittelalterliche Befestigungen im suedlichen Jonien, in Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 11 (1961), pp. 5-122: see 36 fig 8 for the placement of the castle on the temple;

168 K. ANDREWS, Castles of the Morea, Amsterdam 1978 for details;

169 M. WAELKENS, editor, Pierre éternelle du Nil au Rhin: carrières et préfabrication, exhibition, Brussels, 1990, 53-72. M. WAELKENS, Technique de carrière, préfaçonnage et ateliers dans les civilizations classiques (monde grec et romain). Cf. N. ASGARI, Objets de marbre finis, semi-finis et inachevés du Proconnèse, pp. 106-26: p. 109: production slowed down in the Byzantine period, and resumed again only in the 18th-19th centuries;

th J.-P. SODINI, La sculpture médio-byzantine: le marbre en ersatz et tel qu’en lui-meme in MANGO & DAGRON editors, Constantinople, pp. 289-311;

th cf. Ferrara, in UGGERI, Il reimpiego dei marmi antichi, cit., p. 612;

170 MAYER, ALVAREZ & RODA, Los materiales lapideos, cit.: in the discussion, R-H Bautier cites a notorial act from the early 14th century at Venice, when Marco Polo (cousin of the traveller) concludes a contract promising to transport a Greek temple - colonnes, plaques et ornements sculptés, de Nègrepont à Venise – but gives no reference;

. MS of BEAUFORT, Karamania, in PRO ADM7/847, pp.34ff;

th FELLOWS, Journal, cit., p. 47: at Assos, in one place I saw thirty Doric capitals placed up in a line for a fence – and he draws the sally port in the walls, and praises them highly; pp.137ff. for Aizanoi;

171 J. CHRISTERN, Der Aufriss von Alt-St-Peter, in Roemische Quartalschrift fuer christenliche Altertumskunde und Kirchengeschichte, 62 (1967), pp. 133-83; see pp. 172-5 for the aesthetics of the layout of the nave and some of the aisle columns;

172 RAMUSIO, Delle Navigationi, cit., vol. II, 78ff, Viaggio d’un mercante che fu nella Persia: the quibla of the main main mosque at Tauris has square vaults, lequali sono sostenate da colonne di marmo, ch’e di tanta finezza, e cosi lucente, ch’assomiglia al cristallo fino, e sono tutte d’una medesima longhezza, e grossezza;

173 E. BORSOOK, The travels of Bernardo Michelozzi and Bonsignore Bonsignori in the Levant (1497-98), in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 36 (1973), pp. 145-97;

th FOSS, Ephesus, p. 521;

th A. FARRINGTON, The Roman Baths of Lycia: an architectural study, Ankara 1995, p. 119.

174 F. YEGUL, Baths and bathing in classical antiquity, Cambridge MA & London 1992, pp. 314-349 for late antiquity and early Byzantium;

175 B. C. P. TSANGADAS, The fortifications and defense of Constantinople, New York 1980, p. 17. F. KRISCHEN, Die Landmauer von Konstantinopel, I, Berlin 1938, plates 41-44; and vol II, Berlin 1943, pp. 39-60 for a description and analysis;

176 C. MANGO & R. SCOTT, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor, Oxford 1997, p. 572;

177 A. FAILLER, editor, Georges Pachymeres, Relations Historiques, 2 vols, Paris 1984. Born Nicaea 1242, and in Constantinople from 1261. Cf. II.31;

178 SHAT. MR1616, p. 55;

179 S.VRYONIS, Byzantine Constantinople and Ottoman Istanbul: evolution in a millenial imperial iconography, in I.A. BIERMAN et al editors, The Ottoman City and its Parts: urban Structure and Social Order, New Rochelle NY 1991, pp. 13-52; cf. pp. 33-4;

MANGO & SCOTT, Theophanes, cit., p. 572;

180 MANGO, Antique statuary, cit., p. 75;

181 WILLIAM OF TYRE, Hist. Rerum Transmarin., J-P Migne, PL CCI, Paris 1903. I.10 (col 226) on an earlier undated recapture of Jerusalem by "the Turk", when subvertebant calices et vasa divinis obsequiis mancipata pedibus conculcantes, confringebant marmora - which could mean either that they defaced the marbles ( = "affect") or carried them away ( = "exhaust").

182 TSANGADAS, The fortifications, cit., p. 17;

183 A. VAN MILLINGEN, Byzantine Constantinople: the walls of the city and adjoining historical sites, London 1899, pp. 59-73;

th220 R. KER PORTER, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, ancient Babylonia, etc etc, during the years 1817, 1818, 1819 and 1820, 2 vols, London 1821 & 1822. pp. 740-1;

184 cf. R. JANIN,
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