Spolia in Fortifications: Turkey, Syria and North Africa



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Studies in the historical geography and topography of Syria, Frankfurt-am-Main 1994, pp. 327-8 for marble disks with heraldic devices in the cervanserae of Khan Shaikhun (14th century), and p. 335 for inscribed disks flanking inscription on the cervanserai at Khan El 'Asal. J. PRAWER, Histoire du Royaume Latin de Jerusalem, 2 vols, Paris 1975, II, plate VIII for the bridge built by Baibars at Jisr Jendas, near Lydda, in 1273: a central inscription is flanked by opposed lions in relief and, below, two protruding column shafts each side;

267 L. TODISCO, Scultura antica e reimpiego in Italia meridionale, I: Puglia, Basilicata, Campania, Bari 1994, p. 501; cf. pp. 373-422: L’antico nel campanile normanno di Melfi, including plenty of lions;

268 L. TODISCO, Il leone "custos iusticie" di Bari, in Xenia, X (1987), pp. 129-51; that is, an antique lion reworked for display (and with new inscription) sometime between late 11thC and 1150;

269 DE THEVENOT, Relation, pp. 214-6: contre la mur qui est battue de la mer il y a aussi trois demy lions sortans de la muraille depuis la teste iusqu’a la moitie du corps;

270 A. ALTUN, Anadolu’da Artuklu Devri Turk Mimarisi’nin Gelismesi, Istanbul 1978, pp. 215ff. For Ic Kale; pp. 228ff for the fortress tower of Ulu Bedeb Burcu;

271 O. Aslanapa, Yuzyillar Boyunca Turk Sanati (14. Yuzyil), Istanbul 1977, pp. 40, 133;

272 G. ONEY, Anadolu Selcuklu Mimarisinde Susleme ve el Sanatlari {Architectural decoration and minor arts in Seljuk Anatolia), Ankara 1978, p. 37: Ulu Camii, Diyarbakir; p.13: Gok Medrese, Sivas; p.14: Ince Minareli Medrese, Konya; p.19: Cifte Minareli Medrese, Erzerum; p.23: Karatay Medresesi, Konya. See also A. GABRIEL, Monuments turcs d’Anatolie, I, Paris 1931, pp. 19-30;

273 YEGUL, Baths and bathing, p. 315;

274 For romanization of the Turks, cf. on Istanbul fountains I.H. Tanisik, Istanbuler Cesmeleri, 2 vols, Istanbul 1943 & 1945. The author catalogs 404 fountains in vol 1, and 381 in vol 2!!

275 LEAKE, Journal, cit.;

276 A. W. LAWRENCE, A skeletal history of Byzantine fortification, in Annual of the British School at Athens, 78 (1983), pp. 171-227: cf. 204ff & plates 16-17 for spolia in the walls of Ankara. C. FOSS, Late antique and Byzantine Ankara, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31, 1977; pp. 62ff for the walls;

277 KINNEAR, Journey, p. 67;

278 PITTON DE TOURNEFORT, Relation d’un voyage du Levant, 3 vols, London 1717, III. opp.p. 311 for view of Ankara;

279 KINNEAR, Journey, p.69, pp. 71-2;

280 cf. FOSS, Byzantine fortifications, pp. 134f;

281 L. JAMES, Pray not to fall into temptation and be on your guard: pagan statues in Christian Constantinople, in Gesta, XXXVI (1996), pp. 12-20; cf. p.16: statues were carefully arranged in the seventh-century city wall next to the main south gate all face outwards;

282 e.g. Les Periples de Syrie et d’Armenie in Archives de l’Orient Latin, II, Paris 1884, pp. 329ff. see p. 350 for Korykos, and also for Elaiussa;

283 A. W. LAWRENCE, A skeletal history of Byzantine fortification, in Annual of the British School at Athens, 78 (1983), pp. 171-227; pp. 177ff. for Korykos. He illustrates the use of column shafts as stretchers in the tower walls, and as decoration, plates 8b, 9a; FOSS, Byzantine Fortifications, p. 221, for building periods of 5th/6th, 9th and 13th centuries; R. W. EDWARDS, The fortifications of Armenia Cilicia, Washington 1987, pp. 161ff., for early 12th century;

th FOSS, Byzantine fortifications, pp. 150ff & p. 294, fig. 29;

284 E. HERZFELD & S. GUYER, Miriamlik und Korykos. Zwei christliche Ruinenstaetten des Rauhen Kilikiens (Monument Asiae Minoris Antiqua 2), Manchester 1930, pp. 90-207; pp. 173-5 & figs 183-6 for the spolia in the land castle;

285 RAMUSIO, Delle Navigationi, cit., vol II.98r ff for Viaggio di M. Josafa Barbaro nella Persia, begun in 1471. Fol 100r & 100v for description of the Land and Sea Castles at Korykos;

286 S. HILL, Byzantine Churches, pp. 116ff;

287 R. W. EDWARDS, Two new Byzantine churches in Cilicia, in Anatolian Studies, 32 (1982), pp. 23-32 for illustrations;

288 BEAUFORT, Karamania, p. 241;

289 Illustrations in EDWARDS, Fortifications, 26a, 27b;

290 HERZFELD & GUYER, Meriamlik, pp. 178-9, on spolia and column shafts;

291 DESCHAMPS, Le Crac, p. 45;

292 MARSHALL, Warfare, cit., p. 103;

293 D. PRINGLE, King Richard I and the walls of Ascalon, in Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 116 (1984), pp. 133-47; Matthew of Paris Chron. Maj (4) p. 143;

V. GUERIN, Description geographique, historique et archeologique de la Palestine, I: Judee, vol II, Paris 1869, pp. 138-9;

294 Cited in P.DESCHAMPS, Le Crac des Chevaliers, Paris 2 vols, 1934, p. 44; perhaps the same castle, lapidibus quadratis exstructum, prope quod rudera supersunt Palatii illius, quod Samsonis robore ludibrio Philistinorum axpositi, by Christophori FUERER, Itinerarium Aegypti, Arabiae, Palaestinae, Syriae, aliarumque regionum Orientalium, Nuremberg 1620, p. 47;

th AEGIDIUS VAN EGMONT, Travels, II, pp. 312-3;

295 cf. J.C.M. LAURENT, Peregrinatores medii aevi quatuor, Leipzig 1864, p. 167; cited in P.DESCHAMPS, Le Crac des Chevaliers, Paris 2 vols, 1934, p. 69;

296 ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, Croisades, III, from Ibn Khallican's Life of Saladin, pp. 421-2;

297 A.H.S. MEGAW, The Castle of the 40 Columns at Paphos, in Pepragmena: Les fortifications depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’au Moyen Age dans le monde méditerranéen, Athens 1971, pp. 65-70;

298 T. GREGORY, The fortified cities of Byzantine Greece, in Archaeology, 35 (1982), 1, pp. 14-21; cf. pp. 17-18;

299 DE TOURNEFORT, Relation, vol I, p. 211, who describes the statues and bas-reliefs in the town gate, which bears a date of 1445;

th Ibid., vol I, p. 238;

300 The travels of the late Charles Thompson, containing his observations on France, Italy, Turkey in Europe, 3 vols, Reading 1744, I, p. 309;

301 Captain D. SUTHERLAND, A tour up the straits from Gibraltar to Constantinople, London 1790, pp. 149-50;

th A LUTTRELL, The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos, 2.II: The later history of the Maussoleion and its utilization in the Hospitaller castle at Bodrum, Aarhus 1986, pp. 115-222;

302 LUTTRELL, op.cit., p. 150.

303 B. ARBEL & A. LUTTRELL, Plundering ancient treasures at Bodrum (Halicarnassus): a commercial letter written on Cyprus, January 1507, in Mediterranean Historical Review, II.1 (June 1996), pp. 78-86;

304 BORSOOK Travels, p. 169, note 169;

th W. GODELEVAEUM, Aulae Turcicae Othomannicique Imperii, Descriptio, Basle 1564, pp. 126-7: aes abduxit, ex quo Colossus factus fuerat, deiectus, cum cauus esset, inter sculpta saxa collocatus era - but what were the sculpta saxa and were they carried off as spolia as well?

305 cf. Luigi Mayer’s drawing of 1797, reproduced in S. LLOYD, Ancient Turkey. A traveller’s history of Anatolia, London 1989, p. 170;

306 G GUALANDI, Sculture di Rodi, in Annuario della Scuola Archeologica di Atene, 54 (1977), pp. 7-259: see cat. 3; p. 42, n. 2; and p. 19, & n. 3;

307 G. B. WAYWELL, The free-standing sculptures of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in the British Museum: a catalogue, London 1978, p. 57;

J. JEPPESEN & A. LUTTRELL, The Maussolleion at Halikarnassus (Reports of the Danish Archeological Expedition to Bodrum), II, the written sources and their archaeological background, Aarhus 1985, pp. 167-8;

th BEAUFORT, Karamania, pp. 97-8;

308 J. M. SPIESER, La christianisation des sanctuaires paiens en Grece, in Neue Forschungen in griechischen Heiligtuemern, Tubingen 1977, pp. 309-20 – on the avoidance of systematic destruction of temples, and their conversion into Christian use if in good condition; F. GANDOLFO, Luoghi dei santi e luoghi dei demoni: il reuso dei templi nel Medioevo, in Santi e demoni nell’Alto Medioevo Occidentale, Spoleto 1989 (Settimane del CISAM XXXVI), II, pp. 885-916; J. VAES, Christliche Wiederverwendung antiker Bauten. Ein Forschungsbericht, in Ancient Society 15-17, 1984-6, pp. 305-67 with large bibliography;

309 HILL, The Byzantine Churches, pp. 252ff;

310 R. CORMACK, The temple as the cathedral, in C. Rouech‚ editor, Aphrodisias Papers. Recent work on architecture and sculpture..., Ann Arbor 1990, pp. 75-88;

311 GASSI, Scultura architettonica, pp. 90ff for reuse of spolia in Southern Asia Minor;

th El-Bekri, Description, cit., p. 87;

DOZY & DE GOEJE, Description, cit., p. 112;

312 D. FRENCH, editor, Studies in the History and Topography of Lycia and Psidia in memoriam A.S. Hall, Ankara 1994, p. 57ff & Plates 4.5 – 4.7;

313 K. WULZINGER et al, Das islamische Milet, ((Milet: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899, III.4), Berlin & Leipzig 1935, pp. 11ff.;

314 S. MULAYIM, Anadolu Turk Mimarisinde Geometrik Suslemeler, Ankara 1982;

315 Correspondance du Maréchal Clauzel, ed. G. ESQUER, 2 vols Paris 1948 & 1949 (Governor 1835-37); cf: I; p. 340; writing also to the Minister from Algiers on 14 December 1835;

th SHAT MR1313 item 5: 27th July 1802, General GOURGAUD, Projet d'expédition contre la Régence d'Alger;

316 SHAT MR 1317, item 38, by Capitaine Fournier, 19 March 1845;

317 SHAT 1H891, Capt. De Genie BOUTAULT, Mémoire militaire sur Bougie, 25 January 1837, p. 1;

318 Correspondance du Maréchal Clauzel, ed. G. ESQUER, 2 vols Paris 1948 & 1949 (Governor 1835-37), His eye is clearly on the use of spolia for fortification, at II.299, again writing to the Minister on 1st December 1836 about Guelma: Il reste a Guelma de nombreuses ruines de construction romaine, et notamment l’enceinte de l’ancienne citadelle est assez bien conservé pour permettre d’y établir en toute sureté contre les Arabes un poste militaire;

319 e.g. SHAT MR1317, item 57, Lieut L. H. BARTEL, Etudes sur l'histoire de la ville de Bougie, July 1847;

320 P-A FEVRIER, Approches du Maghreb Romain: Pouvoirs, Differences et Conflits, 2 vols, Aix-en-Provence 1989 & 1990, p. 84-9: Ideologies et depassements, on 19thC attitudes to Algeria. The parallels with what the Romans experienced are again underlined;

321 SHAT MR 1317 item 83;

322 J-F. GUILLAUME, Les mythes fondateurs de l’Algerie Francaise, Paris 1992, pp. 43ff., 159ff., 187ff;

323 N. DJALLOUL, Les installations militaires et la defense des cotes tuinsiennes a la periode moderne (XVI-XIXe), Memoire de D.E.A., Sorbonne- Paris IV, October 1982, p. 15, citing Marcais;

324 F. LEMASSOU, Geographie urbaine du Maghreb Al-Aqsa d'apres les voyageurs-geographes et les indices archeologiques (VIIe - Xve siecles), thesis, Sorbonne - Paris IV, n.d. (1980s?); S. M'GHIRBI, Les voyageurs de l'occident musulman du XIIe au XIVe siecles, Tunis 1996, pp. 128ff for their accounts of towns and their walls, concluding with pp. 141ff: Les villes: parametre d'appreciation du pays;

EL-BEKRI, Description, cit., p. 136;

th The idea is not new: Yaqubi, who visited the region south of Kairouan in 893AD, writes of une vaste region remplie de villes et de citadelles, but now half-desert. Cf. J. HOPKINS, Sousse et la Tunisie medievale vues par les geographes arabes, Cahiers de Tunis 8, 1960, 83-96: cf. pp. 85ff;

325 OMONT, Missions archeologiques, 1037ff: Memoire by Le Maire, Consul at Tripoli, 1705-6, p. 1038: Leaving from the Gulf of Derna, and going into Cyrenaica, he remarks on the huge number of ruined cities, cisterns, castles etc., and concludes from these facts that ce pais la estoit fort peuple…;

326 P. SILLIERES, Les voies de communication de l’Hispanie meridionale, Paris 1990, 197. Not surprisingly, the toponyms are similar ton those found in Italy: estrada, carriera, via antigua (pp. 216ff);

th MARMOL, Affrica, cit., fol 253r: Desde esta Ciudad hasta Costantina va un camino todo derecho y empedrado de grandes piedras negras, como los que se veen en Italia, y en Espana hechos por los Romano;

327 CABALLERO ZOREDA & J. SANCHEZ SANTOS, Reutilizaciones, for lists of reuse by type;

328 LEO AFRICANUS, Description de l’Afrique, p.264: between Sucaicada and Constantine se void un chemin pave de pierre noire, comme on en void aucuns en Italie, qui sont appellees Chemins de Rome, grand argument pour se persuader que cette cite [i.e. Sucaicada] ait ete edifiee par les Romains;

th SHAT Genie Art.8.1, Philippeville (i.e. ancient Russicada), Carton 1: 1839-40, Mémoire sur les travaux à exécuter en 1839, p.4: La reconstruction du pont romain sur l’Oued-Beni-Melech est de toute nécéssité les piles du pont romain sont encore en tres bon état On traverse actuellement l’Oued El Cantaa sur un pont romain qui a survécu au temps et qui ne demande qu’une légère réparation; – and two more Roman bridges to put right over ravines beyond Beni-Melech (p.4);

329 SHAT Genie 8.1, Guelma, Carton 1, 1837-47: Capitaine NIEL, Reconnaissances du Camp de Guelma, prefers Drean to Guelma, because Il eut donc bien mieux valu s’etablir sur la route meme que d’aller chercher au loin des ruines qui d’ailleurs sont difficiles a defendre a cause de l’immense carriere qui est aupres et des tas de pierres derriere lesquels on peut s’embusquer a demi portee de fusil;

330 SHAT Genie art 8.1, Bougie, Carton 1: 1833-1840: cf. Apostilles du Directeur, Projets Generaux pour 1834, for rebuilding the whole of the Roman enceinte, as well as forts in the vicinity, and cisterns as well;

331 SHAT Genie Art 8.1, Algerie, 1837-1840, Armee d’Afrique, Itineraire de Setif au Camp de Fondouck, p. 1: Setif’s citadel n’est pas de premiere construction, elle a ete relevee en partie avec des materiaux ayant deja servi, l’enceinte est en belles pierres de taille qui toutes portent des trous de louves, les tours etant voutees en briques. Ces voutes n’existent plus;

332 e.g. at Guelma: cf. SHAT Genie 8.1, Guelma, Carton 1: 1837-1847, Apostille Generale, projets pour 1845, p.2; and Projets pour 1850 and 1851, in Genie 8.1, Guelma Carton 2, for details of refurbishment for water and dry goods storage;

333 J. BIREBENT, Aquae Romanae: recherches d’hydraulique romaine dans l’est algerien, Algiers 1964; he is also enthusiastic, p.8, about reusing antique wells, run-offs, cisterns and canals where possible, because of the much lower cost;

SHAT MR1317, DE MONTREDON, Notes sur la ville de Bougie, 5 April 1838, pp.10-11;

334 Journal des Debats, 31 October 1839; and then on 13 November 1839: “Trois mille francais avaient penetre la ou les Romains n’avaient jamais porte leurs aigles;

335 P. GENTY DE BUSSY, De l’etablissement des Francais dans la Regence d’Alger, et des moyens d’en assurer la prosperite, Paris 1835, p.6;

336 SHAT MR 1317, item 48, Lieut. F. JANIN, 18 August, 1846, Dj. Bou-Thaleb/Setif: Itineraire de l'expedition … en Mai 1846, p.38;

337 The first words of vol I of La formazione de l’Impero Coloniale Italiano, Milan 1938-9, are precisely Roma e ritornata in Africa;

338 G. ESQUER, editor, Correspondance du Marechal Clauzel, 2 vols Paris 1948 & 1949 (Governor 1835-37): see the letter from the Goveror General, Tlemcen on 23 January 1836, with account of the Mascara Expedition, I, p. 423, which transcribes an inscription, and notes a usable Roman water conduit;

339 SHAT MR1317, item 49, p.5;

340 DE MONTREDON, Notes, p.1;

341 SHAT MR1317, items 33 & 34, dated 2 April 1844; the same officer writes in much the same vein in his Renseignements statistiques du Biskra, ibid., item 32, with a final section dedicated to Itineraires anciens, Positions et noms modernes;

342 SHAT MR1316 item 88, E. de MAGNY, 16 August 1851, Apercu sur la sub-division de Tlemcen;

SHAT MR 1317, unnumbered item SO WHAT IS THIS??;

343 G. ESQUER, Correspondance du general Drouet d’Erlon, Gouverneur-general des possessions francaises dans le nord de l’Afrique, 1834-35, Paris 1926. Letter of 24 February 1835, Minister of War to the Governor General;

344 [LE DUC DECAZES, president], Proces-verbaux et rapports de la Commission nommee par le Roi le 7 juillet 1833, pour aller recueillir en Afrique tous les faits propre a eclaircir le gouvernement sur l’etat du pays et sur les mesures que reclame son avenir, 2 vols, Paris 1834: cf. Seance 11 February 1834, p. 455;

345 SHAT Genie 8.1, Milianah, Carton 1, 1840-1844: Memoire sur la place de Miliana ?1840, pp.20-21;

346 SHAT Genie art 8.2, Tebessa: Plan d’ensemble de la Place, 22 October 1856, shows the Roman enceinte with its towers, and the smaller French one projecting from it. The new enceinte is extended by 1896, and a railway line and station appear to the north;

347 SHAT Genie Art. 8.1, Setif: Carton 1: 1839-44 for the Byzantine enceinte, well under half the size of the Roman one. A report by Commandant NIEL, 30 May 1839, underlines that it would take 2-3 months to make the Byzantine enceinte good: On aurait a deplacer et a remonter sur le mur des pierres de dimensions enormes et qui exigeraient des chevres sure des bigues et beaucoup de pinces de grandes dimensions;

348 SHAT Genie Art. 8.1, Medeah, Carton 1: 1831-1844, Apostilles du Directeur, 1842, p.1: Si les materiaux don’t on dispose le permettent Les parties neuves d’enceinte que l’on ferait se relieraient aux parties anciennes au moyen de murs en pierres seches; and cf. the Etat Estimatif for 1843, p.1;

349 SHAT MR1317, item 3: LAPENE: Tableau historique, militaire, commercial et politique de Bougie, 1837, pp.7ff;

350 SHAT Genie Art. 8.1, Tlemcen: Carton 1: 1840-45, Projets pour 1843, Apostilles du Directeur, p.11: en raison des maconneries existantes que l’on peut utiliser;

351 L. C. FERAUD, Histoire des villes de la province de Constantine, Constantine 1872, pp. 93ff;

352 SHAT MR 1317, item 68, 11 December 1847: Memoire sur l'itineraire de Bathna a El Kantara, p.5;

353 SHAT MR 1317, item 12, Lieut de FONTNOUVELLE, Etudes sur la subdivision de Setif, 3rd August 1850, p. 2;

354 SHAT MR 1317, item 52, dated 19 April 1847: Travail topographique et militaire: environs de Bougie;

355 SHAT MR 1317 item 24, p. 9;

356 SHAT MR861, Histoire de l’Algerie, 2e partie: Occupation restreinte, depuis la Conquete jusqu’a la prise de Constantine, Sept 1830 a Oct 1837, p. 26: La richesse du sol de la Metedja, vaste plaine inculte depuis douze siecles, mais propre a beaucoup de production fait naitre le projet d’y organiser une ferme experimentale;

357 Perhaps first observed on the ground around Carthage, by Falbe, Danish Consul-General: cf. SHAT MR 1675: Description du Plan de Tunis et de Carthage, MS 1832, fol.160v;

358 Cited from De l’etablissement des legions de colons militaires dans le Nord de l’Afrique, Paris 1838, by P. AZAN, editor, Par l’epee et lar la chaume. Ecrits et discours de Bugeaud, Paris 1948, p. 54;

359 SHAT Genie 8.1 for Guelma, Carton 1837-1847: Capitaine en Chef GRAILLET,
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