Spartan society to the battle of leuctra 371 bc syllabus principal Focus

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Principal Focus: The investigation of key features of Spartan society to the Battle of Leuctra 371 BC, through a range of archaeological and written sources and relevant historiographical issues.
Percentage of course time: 25%

H 1.1 describe and assess the significance of key people, groups, events, institutions, societies and sites within their historical context

H 2.1 explain historical factors and assess their significance in contributing to change and continuity in the ancient world

H 3.1 locate, select and organise relevant information from a variety of sources

H 3.2 discuss relevant problems of sources for reconstructing the past

H 3.3 analyse and evaluate sources for their usefulness and reliability

H 3.4 explain and evaluate differing perspectives and interpretations of the past

H 3.6 plan and present the findings of historical investigations, analysing and synthesising information from a range of sources

H 4.1 use historical terms and concepts appropriately

H 4.2 communicate a knowledge and understanding of historical features and issues using appropriate oral and written forms.

Students learn about:
1 The geographical setting

the geographical setting, natural features and resources of ancient Sparta

significant sites: Sparta
2 Social structure and political organisation

the issue of Lycurgus (the Great Rhetra)

roles and privileges of the two kings

government: ephorate, gerousia, ekklesia

social structure: Spartiates, perioeci, ‘inferiors’, helots

role of the Spartan army

control of the helots: the military, syssitia, krypteia

artisans, helots

educational system: agoge

role and status of women: land ownership, inheritance, education

3 The economy

land ownership: agriculture, kleroi, helots

technology: weapons, armour, pottery

economic roles of the periokoi (‘dwellers around’) and helots

economic exchange: use of iron bars, trade
4 Religion, death and burial

gods and goddesses: Artemis Orthia, Poseidon, Apollo

myths and legends: Lycurgus and the Dioscuri

festivals: Hyakinthia, Gymnopaedia, Karneia

religious role of the kings

funerary customs and rituals

5 Cultural life

art: sculpture, painted vases, bone and ivory carving

architecture: Amyklaion, Menelaion, the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia

writing and literature: Alcman and Tyrtaeus

Greek writers’ views of Sparta: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, Pausanias, Plutarch
6 Everyday life

daily life and leisure activities

food and clothing

marriage customs

Exam component:
Students must answer three questions, worth a total of ten marks, plus one worth 15 marks. The 15 mark question must be answered with reference to the source provided.

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