Emmanuel Miranda Well there many changes that occurred when the Spaniards came to the Americas and it greatly affected the lives of the Natives that lived there. For example, a couple of years after
Christopher Columbus first arrived in the Americas, Spain and Portugal decided to divide the "heathen lands" of the New World which was known as the Treaty of Tordesilla. However, Spain received more of the Americas than Portugal did. This resulted into Spain and Portugal taking over the Americas and the Natives that lived there. One positive thing that the Natives benefitted from with the arrival of the spaniards was that they brought goods over from Spain that the Natives have never seen before such as tobacco, maize maize , beans, sugar and other goods. Another thing that affected the Natives was that the spaniards converted them into Christian religion for their land which is known as the Encomienda system. Finally, in my opinion, the biggest thing that affected the Natives with the arrival of Spain was that the spaniards brought over disease to the New World. After within 100 years of Columbus' arrival, diseases like yellow fever and malaria killed millions of Native. (90% of the Natives perished because of the diseases)
Justin Curran Spanish exploration impacted the Natives mainly in a bad way. The Spanish coming to the America's did mean new food such as the "sisters crops" (Corn, beans, squash), but it also ment being treated very poorly, and sometimes having to convert their religious beliefs by force of the Spanish. In 1539, when Hernando de Soto traveled through present day Florida to the Mississipi river, he treated the Natives there with no respect at all and almost made it seem like he hated them. He treated them so poorly, his own men had to dump his body in the river after he died because they thought the Natives were going to dig up his body and put it on display somewhere. The Encomienda system was also a burden on the Natives. If the colonists wanted land the Spanish would say "ok" but in return would Christianize some of the Natives. Things also turned bad when Don Juan de Onate seeked out to find gold in New Mexico and treated the Natives very poorly which led to the Battle of Acoma which ended up with the Spanish winning and amputating the left foot of each surviving member of the Natives. They were crossed again after the battle and the Pueblo Natives were forced to be baptized as Catholics. This time, the Pueblo, or "Popes Rebellion" fought back and regained the land. After all this, you pretty much summarize that the Natives really hated the Spanish for exploring their land and basically taking control of it and all the cruelty they had to put up with during the exploration.
Southern Economy & Religion
Protestants of all varieties settled in the South and were largely welcomed. The most northern of the southern colonies, Maryland, was originally intended as a refuge for English Catholics. Maryland created The Act of Toleration 1649, which made it a crime to restrict the religious rights of Christians (Catholics and Protestants).Several factors impacted religion in the southern colonies, including slavery, a lack of towns, villages and cities, and the environment. The economy was was mainly agricultural with tobacco being the main cash crop. Virginia was the first colony to plant tobacco and demanded slave labor. Tat bought the first African slaves from the Dutch in 1619. In The West Indies the main cash crop was sugar, but was very expensive to grow. Barbados was the main English Colony and began exported slaves so quickly that they outnumbered the white settlers. In the Carolina's, rice was the main crop and African slaves were the labor force as well. a charleston was it's busiest port, which exported wine, silk, olive oil, but mainly rice and slaves. However, in 1712, N.Carlolina broke away Gordon S.Carolina and did not use any slave labor and was more democratic. In conclusion, they Southern economy was agricultural with slaves as the labor force working in large sugar, rice, and tobacco plantations.
Jon Carlo Macabuhay
Religion also helped set the basis for many of these colonies. Because of the expulsion of Catholics, many of them looked for the Americas. An example of the use of religion can come from the order imposed by John Smith saying, "He who shall not work shall not eat," this meaning, what it says, if you don't work you don't get to eat. Maryland was established due to economy and religious reasons. It was haven for Catholics and they were the ruling class although there was not many of them. This created the Maryland Act of Toleration which is Christian toleration and the death penalty for Jews, atheists, and non-christians. Colonies tolerated religion but Georgia did not tolerate the Catholics.The Southern Colonies were an agricultural economy with slaves as the labor force and the toleration of religons. These two things helped put order and set the basis of these colonies.
Religion in New England
Monica Barry Religion influenced the development of the New England colonies. In the 1530s, the Protestant Reformation took place, where Puritans wanted all Catholics out of England. The extreme Puritans, called Separatists, became very frustrated and unhappy with the Church of England, and decided to break away. That is when they set sail in the Mayflower for the New World, where they could form their own colonies, and have a self-government. This was called the Mayflower Compact. They settled in Plymouth, which clearly wouldn't have been formed under the same conditions if at all, if it weren't for religion. When the Natives were involved in Plymouth, many were killed. Squanto established friendly relations with the English, however, in 1637 the Pequot War broke out, where most of the tribe was killed. Those who survived were Christianized. Religion did not only influence Plymouth. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans. They believed it was God's will to experiment with religion in the colony. However, this settlement was founded for Puritans. Only Puritans were allowed in politics, including voting. This was the Bible Commonwealth. The Salem Witch Trials is an example of a negative effect of religion in a colony. In 1692, there was a witch hunt that ended in 20 women killed. It was believed to be God's wrath for Puritans ungodly lives.
In England there was a man named John Calvin, who believed that even before you were born, God had decided if you were going to go to heaven or hell which was called predestination. People who were going to heaven were called the "elect." The Puritans wanted all the Catholics out of England which caused the Separatists to be angry and break away because not enough wasn't being done to purify themselves of Catholticsm. King James 1 believes that if the Separatists could defy him in religion they could also defy him in politics. The Separitist feel like they need to find a new place to go, so they eventually end up in Plymouth in 1620.
The governor of Massachusetts Johnathan Winthrop, who served for 19 years, wanted to build a religious colony. He did this and called the colony, "city upon a hill." Only the Puritans were allowed to vote and be involved in politics. This was hypocritical because the Puritans left England because they were being prosecuted and now they are prosecuting the people who were there before them, which was the natives. Puritans in Massachusetts also believed that government was meant to enforce Gods law. The Government supported the Congregational church (Puritans) by enforcing that both believers and non believers pay taxes. Anne Hutchinson went against evevrything that the Puritans believed by saying that salvation is not determined by predestination but rather on good will. She was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Another man who challenged religious authority was Roger Williams. He condemned Puritans for mistreating the Natives, taking there land, and forcing them to live by the Puritans beliefs. He is also banished and flees to Rhode Island. In Rhode Island Roger Williams builds the first Baptist Church in the U.S. He didnt't force anybody to be Baptist, go to the church, or even pay taxes to support the church. He declared Rhode Island to have religious freedom.
Economic & Social causes and effects of Bacon’s Rebellion
Jordan Tsuruta There were many diffrent causes and effects of Bacon's rebellion, both socially and economically. The main causes that led to Bacon's rebellion was that Nathaniel Bacon resented their govoner William Berkely's policy toward the Natives. Espically so when the Natives attacked frontier families, but Berkely did nothing because his intreasts were purely evonomic. He had monopolized the fur trade, and didnt want to hurt his relations with the Natives.There were also many effects of this major event, socially this uprising scared many Plantation owners that their indentured servants would rise up and kill them. After Bacon died Berkely returned and killed the remainding rebels. This then led to the economic factor. Plantation owners soon turned to West Aftica for free slave labor, this was called the middle passage. As a result Englands economy improved and very few indentured servants were sent to the Americas. The Europeans did not get their hands dirty capturing African slaves. Instead they paid the costal tribes to capure Africans from more inland tribes to be used for slave labor. One downside to slavery socially, was that it mae the gap between the rich and the poor even greater. If it were not for Bacon's rebellion, the Europeans may have never turned to African slave labor.
There are many social and economic causes that shaped the English colonies in the 17th century. In the south, their main economy was based on tobacco. The problem with tobacco was that it's labor intensive which required more servants. So the effect of it was the demand for more indentured servants and the creation of the Headright system which is a form of slavery. The men in the south lived a very short life which left the southern women to fend for their families and care for the farm giving them a higher status than the women in England. Even though a lot of indentured servants were free after working for a certain amount of years, they still remained poor which caused problems in the south. One men who took this seriously was Nathan Bacon of Virginia. He was furious that their governor, Berkeley, was more economically interested in the Native's fur trade; that in response Bacon started to attack the natives and forced Berkeley to flee his own state. The result of this was that plantation owners grew more fearful towards the indentured servants that they turned to the African Americans as their replacement and began to export more of them through the "middle passage" which goes from West Africa to the Americas.
By doing this, their economy improved and they created new ports in Rhode Island and Charles town. They also created the Slave codes in 1662 which states that slaves are to be slaves for life and they are not allowed to learn how to read and write. Deep in the south their economy was based on rice which was much more labor intensive that tobacco. Their fields were farther apart which limited their social relations and slavery also created a huge gap between the rich and poor social class; 2% elites ruled over 98% of the population.
In New England women had to surrender their property rights but got protection from abuse in return. Their economy was based more on lumber, shipbuilding, cod, and exports. They didn't need slaves because of the harsh weathers and the compact soil. Their livestock ate up all their pasture which caused them to move inland and clear the forests. They held towns meeting and created the "halfway covenant" due to their decline in devotion. Which created more members of the church but they were less pious. There was also the Salem witch trials which was a form of hatred more towards the higher social class.
Democratic ideas base on the Great Awakening, immigration & Zenger Trial
Jennifer Martinez The Great Awakening, immigration, and the Zenger trial made a great contribution to a more democratic society in the colonies. These three events helped bring up toleration of different religions, speaking/challenging against the government, and allowing foreigners to live in the American colonies. The Great Awakening was more of a religious movement for the settlers to be able to express their own religious beliefs openly. For example, Jonathan Edwards preaches," Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." and " Hell is 'paved' with the skulls of unbaptized children." Jonathan discussed about sins and how to be saved by God’s grace. George Whitefield was another influential person besides Jonathan Edwards. These two increased freedom of religion to the people which also meant that the relious leaders loss their authority. The colonist questions the authority, which leads to a new religious diversity, which then leads to a result of the increased freedom given to the colonists, and ends with a more democratic society. Immigration is another contribution to a more democratic society in the colonies. Immigration created a new diversity in the ethnicity and religion. It blended people from different places which led to a multi-cultural American identities. In the Zenger trail, John Peter Zenger was accussed of libel or defaming an official's charatcer. All he did was exposed the corruption of the royal governor of New York and he was ruled " not guilty". The results of this trail led to Freedom of the Press and Speech. This trail also shows that the government wasn't untouchable, could be questioned, and they can be held responsible for their actions.
The democratic society in the colonies was formed by the Great Awakening, immigration, and the Zenger case. All 3 contributed to the formation of the democratic structure during the Eve of Revolution. Immigration was big due to the influence on trade,transportation, economy,religion, and mainly a diverse population. The colonial society contained Anglo-Saxons, Germans, Scot-Irish, and slaves; with a diverse population that leads to takin power away from Britain and becoming a democracy due to the diveristy in that colony. Colonists were mainly trying to became their own colony and break away from British rule which resulted in violating the many laws the British created. Another contributor to the democratic lifestyle of the colonies is the Zenger trial. The trial was based off of Zenger revealing the corruption in the royal governor of NY which resulted into the world of the press. He was charged with defaming an official but was ruled not guilty. The outcome of this trial was the whole freedom of the press amd speech, since he spoke of the corruption which in a way resembles freedom of speech. Freedome of soeech means you can't take away someone right to speak and they have a right to opinion over a idea. Not only that but freedom of speech is categorized as a democratic idea. The Great Awakening was the big contributor because of the many outcomes it has created for the democractic society. It is known that the Great Awakening was the biggest impact in New Enfland, contained liberal ideas that challenged old religous ideas. There were people involved like Johnathan Edwards who in this case believed in people doing good deeds in their lives leads to salvation in the end. Another guy is George Whitefield who believed in the spirtiual life and "old light" and "new light", he went for the spiritual prespective. The Great Awakening resulted in making people chose a religion to join in a way was a democratic action of picking your own religion. Plus, one effect of the Great Awakening was that there was colonial unity which was based on spiritual, social movememt and also the establishment of schools that provide a ministry major. Immigration, Zenger trail, and the Great Awakening had all in a way or another contributed to the formation of a democractic society based on democractic ideas and actions.
2. Evaluate the extent to which trans-Atlantic interactions from 1600 to 1763 contributed to maintaining continuity as well as fostering change in labor systems in the British North American colonies.
Causes & Effects of the French and Indian War
The causes of the French and Indian War was that colonists wanted to expand westward into the Ohio Valley. France controlled that area because it was important for their economy. Colonists invaded the French territory which lead to a huge conflict. In July 1754, France retaliated by defeating Washington at Ft. Necessity. This lead to the French and Indian War. The effects of the war happened with the Peace Treaty of Paris in 1763. France is completely kicked out of North America, Britain controls Canada through the MS River, France gave up the MS River and New Orleans ports to Spain, and Spain gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba. Britain now became the dominant power in North America. In the same year, the Pontiac’s Rebellion happened. Natives killed over 2,000 troops and removed all but 3 British posts west of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain removed the Native threat, but colonists wanted to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. The British prevented that from happening with the Proclamation of 1763. The proclamation stated that colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1765, speculators and land-hungry colonists began settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, which violated British Law and it challenged royal authority.
The cause of the French and Indian War started when the Ohio River Valley, in control by the French, had Virginian’s claiming land in the Ohio River Valley, leading to conflict; making the French believe that the colonists were attacking them. George Washington was sent to secure the Virginians land but altercations came when French troops were there and Washington killed them. The French don’t take lightly to this and attack back at Washington, defeating him. This leads to the Seven Year War; French and Natives versus the British and Colonists. The Natives were used in the war since back in Europe, the cost of sending men was way over budget for France. One man who led the war in the British/Colonists side was William Pitt –who’s plan was to draw away from Canada and focus on taking control on Quebec and Montreal, leading the downfall of France and the victory of the colonies and Britian. Some effects of the war was the Albany Congress, which was created to have the colonies unite but only 9 went together but it also tried to keep the Iroquios (Natives) on the British side, protect colonies from France, and have colonial unity. Another effect from the war was Franklin’s creation of the infamous disjointed snake representing the colonies not being together. British was not very prepared in the war which the colonists saw, for example, General Edward Braddock who failed miserably in taking back Fort Duquesne. It led the colonies to fight for their land themselves than have British try. The end result of the war was the Peace Treaty of Paris, leading France an outcast of North America, British gaining land from Canada to Mississippi River and France giving up Port New Orleans to Spain, while Spain exchanged Florida for Cuba (British).
British policies intensified British colonial rule
From 1763 through 1776, British imperial policies sparked the colonists’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values. Their acts and taxes clearly benefitted themselves and slowed down the political growth and economy of the colonists. The first strike was the British’s restrictions on colonial trade. Their philosophy of mercantilism inspired them to use the colonists for their own economic gain. The Navigation Acts of 1650 allowed only British ships to transport goods from the colonists for import and export. The colonists lost a lot of money as a result of these restrictions also because of enumerated goods which could be exported exclusively to Britain. The colonists were forced to sell cheap, yet buy goods for expensive prices to Britain. Another thing that aggravated the colonists was that they were forced to depend on Britain for things such as protection. Things quickly got worse for the colonists when the British began to lay down acts regularly, starting with the Stamp Act in 1764. It didn’t really matter to the colonists if they were being taxed, they just wanted to be represented first. To this idea, Britain stated that the colonists were under “virtual representation” and that all those under the British monarchy were being represented no matter where they were. Delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies then decided to take action and formed the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 and asked Britain to repeal the taxes, but were ignored. In 1766, Britain repealed the Stamp Act because it began to hurt their merchants, manufacturers, and shippers. However, they then established the Declaratory Act that granted them absolute authority over the colonists. As more and more acts and taxes were being added, such as the Townshend Act, tensions grew in the colonies and eventually lead to violence and crime. In 1770, the Boston Massacre left five colonists dead and then came the Boston Tea Party in 1773. After the Boston Tea Party, the colonists were harshly punished with the 1774 Intolerable Acts which called for no Massachusetts town meetings and enabled royal governors to kill colonists and get away with little to no punishment. The New Quartering Quebec Acts soon followed and Britain was quickly becoming very threatening to the colonists’ future. The colonies then decided that they need to unite and created the First Continental Congress. They asked Parliament one last time to repeal the taxes and were rejected. The colonists then began to prepare for war.
It sarted when the British imposed new laws and Acts such as the Sugar Act of 1764 against the colonists. The Sugar Act put tax on sugar to raise money for the Britishand their economy although the British gained money the colonists were left with having to pay extra for sugar. Once the British were at war they past the Quartering Act of 1765 which meant that the colonists were required to provide housing and food to the British troops. The British didnt stop there they continued to charge them extra for suppliences that were used daily in order to gain as much extra money as they could. In 1765 the Stamp Act was also passed which meant they mandated the use of stamp paper to certify payment, this money went to the British army. The colonists were outraged and as the historic saying goes "No taxation without Representaion" the response from the parliament was "Virtual representation". About 27 delegates and 9 colonies tried to get the Stamp Act repealed but the Pariaments ignored the plea. This lead to the colonists boycotting certain British goods. The Stamp Act was repealed but they added the Declaratory Act which had to do with abolute sovereighity over the colonies.Once the British imposed the Townshend Act in 1767 and they taxed glass, paper, lead, and tea colonists went ballistic and smuggled goods mostly tea from French and Spain which was cheaper.In 1773 on December 16th the Baston Tea Party occured. While Thomas Hutcgison ordered the ship carrying tea to stop while they unload colonists dressed upa as Natives and dumped 342 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor. In 1774 the colonists and delegates met to discuss how to deal with the British and how they can repeal all these taxes. The colonists were preparing for war knowing the unlikely possibility that the Parliament wouldn't reject their proposal. In April 18th, 1775 the Lexington concord British soldiers were killed and the war had began.
Military & political reasons for a colonist victory
Aidan Steen The United States' victory over the British and their new found independence can be attributed to their political, diplomatic, and military successes. Initially, the United States' military was in shambles and was very weak. In June of 1775, the British and colonists fought on Bunker Hill, where the colonists did infact damage the British, but were defeated and had to retreat. In October of 1775, colonists invaded Canada and made it the 14th colony, depriving the British of a valuable military position North of the colonies. The Battle of Long Island, NY, a severe defeat for the colonists, cost them New York and New Jersey and forced Washington and his army to retreat to Pennsylvania. The Battle of Trenton and Princeton, a victory for the colonists, capturing the German mercenaries (Hessians) in Trenton, and defeating a British detachment in Princeton. In 1777, the British made advances towards the colonists in an attempt to regain what they had lost, planned to take the Hudson River valley and cut off New England from the rest of colonies, a valuable point of entry for the British. They ultimatetly failed the campaign, a big step for the colonists. The Battle of Saratoga convinced the French that the colonists could win the war, so they formed an alliance with the colonists, a huge ally had been gained. In Valley Forge, Washington's Army was in a very desperate situation. They needed food, clothing, and most importantly training. Baron von Steuben of Prussia, trained the colonists and turned them into a strong fighting force. Later in 1777, in the West, 4 tribes from the Iroquis Confederacy allied with the British in an attempt to protect their land and to prevent new settlers. They later surrendered land to the U.S. in the Treaty of Stanwix. In Yorktown, General Cornwallis lie in wait for reinforcements and supplies. The French Navy blocked the entrance and escape of the Chesapeake Bay while Washington came up from the South together, they surrounded Cornwallis. He later surrendered in the 19th of October, 1781. This basically marked the end of the war.
Politically, the U.S. was mostly Patriots ("Whigs") against the British, while 16% of the population were the Loyalists ("Tories") loyal to the crown. The Loyalists acted as spies, inciting insurrections and threatened to kill Patriot families, which did infact make some Patriots stay behind and not fight the war. The Patriots acted as political agents, spreading the idea of rebellion against the crown and pushed those that didn't care about the war, pushed them into the war and that gained the colonists many allies and many resources, etc.
May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress had convened and came up with the "Olive Branch Petition" which was just a peaceful resolution to their problems. They had not wanted independence from Britain at that point. King George III rejected their petition and declared the colonies as rebellious and hired German mercenaries (Hessians) to fight a war with them. Thomas Paines' "Common Sense" in 1776, incited the feeling for independence with the statement 'a smaller body does not control a large one' which does sound very logical. He also talked about a republic, where official powers should gain their power through the people. Later, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Decleration of Independence, stating that they wanted independence from Britain, which after revisions, was approved and read on the 4th of July.
Effectiveness of the new Constitution
The Constitution established a stable democratic government that successfully dealt with the nations problems. They set up a plan to fix their financial crisis with Hamilton's financial plan like the protective Tariff which taxed 8% on imported goods. It helped boost foreign trade and protected U.S. industries. He also created the excise tax which taxed 7% of domestic goods such as whiskey. He then proposed a National Bank where the Federal Treasury would deposit money, stimulate businesses, and print $ and establish currency. Although Jefferson didn't agree with Hamilton and had arguments over creating a national bank. Then in 1971 the congress decided to approve a 20 year charter for a bank in Philadelphia with 20 million dollars. Where the federal government would own 20% of it. It was very successful and gives birth to political parties. In 1794 the Western Philadelphia farmers were upset over the excise tax and is known as the Whiskey Rebellion. Then the state militia was called and dispersed the rebels, but then was forgiven by President George Washington. This shows the power of the federal government. Then the Franco-American alliance was established in 1778 where both France and America were to protect the West Indies. Britain declares war on France and America establishes the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 because he believed the military wasn't ready to fight a war and didn't not need to fight in a war. Although Britain defies the treaty and captures U.S soldiers to help fight the war on France. The Treaty of Greenville stopped the attacks from the natives who were supplied guns from the British. Then Washington sent John Jay to Britain to negotiate a treaty with Britain. Known as John Jay's Treaty where Britain would leave all post on U.S. Soils and repaid them of the damage. Although Spain was afraid of America's treaty with Britain and established the Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 were they gave America rights to the Mississippi River and large amounts land from Florida. The Constitution was able to make wise military decisions, negotiating and expanding new lands because of it. Although in the end the U.S was still in debt with Britain.
The new Constitution was highly effective in dealing with the nation’s problems during its early years. For example, Alexander Hamilton proposed ideas that would help pay back the nation’s debt. These ideas would be giving Congress the responsibility of paying back the debt (around $75 million), incorporating taxes on imported goods (Protective Tariff, 8%), taxes on goods that are no considered a necessity (Excise Tax, 7%), and the creation of a national bank. The national bank can be used to deposit money from the Federal Treasury, stimulate businesses by investing and giving loans with interests, and the ability to create a national currency on paper. Hamilton argued that the banks are constitutional because the constitution never forbade it, and that the Constitution states that whatever is “necessary and proper” should be done for the good for the good of the nation. Alexander than argues that the banks are proper and that they are going to be used to pay the nation’s debts.
Later, Alexander Hamilton’s Excise Tax caused a rebellion in Pennsylvania, since farmers of corn, grain, and etc. (used to make Whiskey) felt that Whiskey is a necessity (due to them relying on it) and also felt that the 7 percent tax on their products were unfair. They would then start riots and tar and feather federal tax collectors. Due to the events of Shay’s Rebellion, Congress incorporated that the Constitution would grant a strong authority to the Executive Office (the President). As a result, Washington and the federal government sends 13,000 troops to pacify the rebels, but troops from other states join the state militia since it is a federal government law to help stop rebellion. This shows the strength of the government resulting from what happened in Shay’s Rebellion.
Lastly, the Constitution granted the President (George Washington) the power to wage war with the other countries. However, despite many people’s views like Alexander Hamilton’s favor for the British, Thomas Jefferson’s favor for the French, the U.S.’s and France’s “forever” alliance, and Britain’s constant annoyance to the U.S. (seized U.S. ships, impressment of U.S. sailors, and behind the supplying and attacks from Natives) Washington could have easily waged war with either country. But instead, he looked at the U.S.’s young and fragile state and thought that it was for the best to stay out of any war, which is why he declared the country neutral in France and Britain’s war.