South Seton Avenue Emmitsburg, md 21727 Submitted By: George Haddow Bullock & Haddow llc



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Final Book Outline
for
Case Studies in Emergency and Risk Management
Request No.: HSFEEM-04-P-0345

Requisition/Reference No. E393172Y

Submitted To:
Wayne Blanchard

Department of Homeland Security/FEMA

16825 South Seton Avenue

Emmitsburg, MD 21727

Submitted By:
George Haddow

Bullock & Haddow LLC

315 Boyd Ave.

Takoma Park, MD 20912

301-270-5554


September 20, 2004
Chapter 1: Introduction to Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Concepts

  1. Review of historical trends in emergency management

    1. Early history – 1800-1950

    2. Cold War and Civil Defense Period

    3. Changes in the 1960s

    4. National Focus of the 1970a

    5. Nuclear Attack Planning in 1980s

    6. All-Hazards in 1990s

    7. Terrorism Focus starting 2001

    8. Future

  2. Four phases of emergency management

    1. Mitigation

    2. Preparedness

    3. Response

    4. Recovery

  3. Statutory Authority

    1. History

    2. Role in emergency management

  4. Communications

    1. With partners

    2. With media and public

    3. Crisis and preparedness/mitigation communications

  5. BCP and International Disaster Programs

    1. Growing fields and activities

    2. Features and practitioners

  6. Historic Focus

    1. Four phases of emergency management

  7. Focus in aftermath of Sept 11

    1. Interdiction and prevention

  8. Aspects of successful emergency management programs and activities

    1. Statutory authority and budget line items

    2. Leadership

    3. Partnerships

    4. Communications

    5. Tools and technologies

    6. Focus on mitigation and reducing future impacts

  9. Conclusions

  10. Brief descriptions of case studies included in book

Chapter 2: Preparedness

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Preparedness Cycle

      1. Assessment

        1. Assess Threat

        2. Assess Vulnerability

      2. Planning

        1. ID Shortfalls

      3. Preparation

        1. Implement Enhancements

        2. Exercise – Train

      4. Evaluation

        1. Reassess

    2. Preparedness Programs

      1. Concepts

      2. Design

      3. Implementation

      4. Evaluation

    3. Education and Training Programs

      1. Concepts

      2. Design

      3. Implementation

      4. Evaluation

    4. Community involvement

      1. Population

      2. Volunteers

      3. Partners

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. CDC Terrorism Preparedness

    2. California/Midwest Forest Fires

    3. National Fire Administration Fire Prevention Programs

    4. Western US / Hawaii / Alaska Tsunamis

    5. American Red Cross Public Preparedness Programs

    6. FEMA for Kids Campaign

    7. FEMA/DHS Family Preparedness Programs

    8. FEMA Emergency Management Institute




  1. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Effective program development

    2. Exercise elements

    3. Targeted training programs

    4. Community examples

  2. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. Where do preparedness programs and activities reside in local government and emergency management operations?

    2. How do you involve volunteers in community preparedness programs and activities? What are the sources of volunteers in a community?

    3. What training opportunities are available for local emergency managers in preparedness?

    4. How do you recruit and involve community and business sector partners in preparedness programs and activities?

  3. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  4. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA/DHS

    2. Red Cross

    3. Academia

    4. State and local

    5. USFA

  5. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  6. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Identify and report local preparedness programs and activities.

    2. Participate in a local and/or state exercise.

    3. Monitor or audit a local preparedness training course.

Chapter 3: Mitigation

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Structural versus Non-Structural

    2. Local and State Planning

    3. Community Involvement

    4. Risk Identification

    5. Mitigation Actions

    6. Partnerships

    7. Environmental Considerations

    8. Political Challenges and Obstacles

    9. Insurance as a Mitigation Option

    10. Finances

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. SBA Disaster Mitigation Program

    2. Annual Flooding in Napa Valley, CA

    3. Annual Flooding in Tulsa, OK

    4. TSA Passenger Screening Programs

    5. Missouri Flood Buyout Program

    6. International Flood Mitigation Initiative

    7. Project Impact

    8. Safe Rooms

    9. NEHRP

    10. NFIP

    11. Hazard Mitigation Grant program (HMGP)

  4. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Local hazard mitigation plan

    2. Flood mapping program

    3. Disaster Resistant Universities

    4. Funding programs

    5. Environmental examples

  5. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. How do you generate local support for mitigation?

    2. What are the roles of community members and the business sector in establishing an effective local mitigation program?

    3. What Federal and State funding programs exist for mitigation activities?

    4. What role does a healthy and robust natural environment in reducing the impacts of disasters?

    5. What mitigation measures, both structural and non-structural, could be adopted to reduce the impacts of a terrorist event?

    6. What challenges do community leaders face in choosing mitigation options to adopt within the community?

  6. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  7. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA/DHS

    2. IBHS

    3. Community websites – Tulsa, Berkeley, etc.

    4. Natural Hazards Center

  8. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  9. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Examine and report on the local community hazard mitigation plan?

    2. Examine and report of the State hazard mitigation plan?

    3. Identify and report on local mitigation projects and programs?

Chapter 4: Response

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Federal, State and local government roles

    2. Role of the business sector

    3. Roles of volunteers and part-time employees

    4. Response structures and protocols

    5. Leadership roles and responsibilities

    6. Resources

    7. Coordination

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. Northridge Earthquake

    2. Grand Forks Flood (1997)

    3. September 11th Terrorist Attacks in NY / VA

    4. Space Shuttle Columbia

    5. Hurricane Andrew

    6. Hurricane Floyd

    7. Hurricane Hugo

    8. Murrah Office Building

    9. Federal Response Plan and the National Response Plan

  4. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Urban Search and Rescue

    2. Emergency Operations Centers

    3. Mutual Aid Compacts

    4. Disaster Assistance Employees

    5. National Response Plan Functional Areas

  5. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. How does the Department of Homeland Security guarantee that the full resources of the Federal government are made available to State and local governments during a disaster response?

    2. Who is in charge during the response phase of a major natural disaster?

    3. Who is in charge during the response phase of a terrorist incident?

    4. What role do volunteer groups play in disaster response?

    5. What role does the business sector play in the response phase?

    6. What are the procedural steps for disaster declaration at each level of government?

  6. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  7. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA/DHS

    2. NEMA

    3. IAEM

    4. State emergency management websites

  8. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  9. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Join a volunteer organization such as the Red Cross, Salvation Army or faith based group and volunteer in an emergency response.

    2. Become a FEMA Disaster Assistance Employee?

    3. Report your local community response plan?

    4. Participate in CERT (Community Emergency Response Team) training?

Chapter 5: Recovery

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Federal individual and public assistance programs

    2. Small Business Administration loan programs

    3. State and local assistance programs

    4. Roles and responsibilities

    5. Volunteer groups

    6. Resources

    7. Role of business sector

    8. Coordination

    9. Customer service

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. Hurricane Georges – FEMA

    2. SBA Disaster Loan Programs

    3. Hurricane Charley Volunteer Efforts

    4. Princeville, NC after Hurricane Floyd

    5. WTC Economic Infrastructure

    6. Grand Forks, ND flood recovery

  4. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. FEMA individual assistance registration program

    2. Presidential declaration process

    3. Mennonite residential rebuilding program

    4. Federal versus state and local assistance

  5. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. What are the roles of the various public and private organizations involved in disaster recovery efforts?

    2. Who is in charge of a disaster recovery effort?

    3. What other sources of funding and resources can be found beyond the FEMA and SBA disaster assistance programs?

    4. Who helps the business community to recover?

    5. How are mitigation actions incorporated into recovery plans and actions and why?

  6. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  7. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA/DHS

    2. SBA

    3. Insurance websites

    4. HUD

    5. HHS

  8. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  9. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Join an organization involved in providing disaster recovery assistance to individuals and communities?

    2. Seek a “local hire” part time job with FEMA in a disaster area?

    3. Review past community recovery efforts?

    4. Interview local economic development officials on their involvement ion disaster recovery efforts?

Chapter 6: Communications

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Leadership commitment

    2. First responder interoperability issues

    3. Customer focus

    4. Inclusion of communications in planning and operations

    5. Media partnership

    6. Information collection and dissemination

    7. Accurate and timely information

    8. Crisis communications

    9. Preparedness Communications

    10. Social marketing

    11. Tools

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. 2001 Anthrax Attacks

    2. Northridge Earthquake

    3. Hurricane Floyd

    4. September 11th Terrorist Attacks – National Focus

    5. Ready.gov Campaign

    6. Washington, DC Sniper Attacks

    7. Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS)

  1. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Eleven “C”s of preparedness communications

    2. Knowing your audience

    3. Marketing mitigation and preparedness

    4. Public Partnership on Warning

  2. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. Why is the media the optimum mechanism for communicating timely and accurate crisis information to the public?

    2. What products and tools are best suited for getting messages to the media?

    3. Why is it important that communications staff be involved in all disaster planning and operations?

    4. How do you identify the appropriate messages and media outlets to best communicate preparedness and mitigation messages to targeted audiences?

    5. What information collections mechanisms are available to government agencies in a disaster situation?

  3. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  4. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA/DHS

    2. IBHS

    3. City of Tulsa website

    4. CNN website

  5. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  6. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Visit a local TV or radio station.

    2. Audit a media/communications course at the local community college.

    3. Videotape interviews of your fellow students and review the results.

    4. Conduct a press conference with students in the roles of the government and business sector officials and the reporters.

    5. Develop a marketing plan for promoting preparedness and mitigation activities.

Chapter 7: Statutory Authority

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Why statutory authority is important

    2. Legal basis of modern emergency management in the United States

    3. Budget authority

    4. Program eligibility

    5. Focus of authority

    6. Roles and responsibility

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. Civil Defense Act

    2. Homeland Security Act

    3. Flood Insurance Act

    4. Disaster Mitigation Act

    5. Civil Defense Act

    6. NEHRP

    7. Rhode Island club fire

  4. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Pre-disaster mitigation

    2. Appropriations versus authorization

    3. Promulgating regulations

    4. Why laws are made

    5. Department of Homeland Security budget summary

    6. Department of Homeland Security organization

  5. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. Why are these disaster related statutes necessary?

    2. What are the differences between appropriations and authorization statutes?

    3. What are supplemental spending bills and why are they needed?

    4. Why was Tom Ridge more effective as the Secretary of the Department of Security than as the Director of the White Office of Homeland Security?

    5. What do all the statutes examined in this chapter have in common?

  6. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  7. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. Congress.com

    2. FEMA/DHS

  8. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  9. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Review how a bill becomes law at the Federal, State and local levels.

    2. Examine the budget process employed by your local community government.

    3. Identify and review local emergency management related statutes and regulations.

    4. Draft an emergency management statute for a local community.

Chapter 8: Business Continuity Planning

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Evolution of business continuity planning in the United States

    2. Disaster recovery vs. business continuity planning

    3. Business continuity planning process – elements of an effective business continuity plan

    4. Selling business continuity plan to the executive board

    5. Social responsibility of businesses to participate in community emergency management

    6. Federal and State government and non-profit agency assistance in business continuity planning

    7. Differences between community disasters and business disasters

    8. Business continuity planning as a profession

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. Johnson & Johnson

    2. Cantor Fitzgerald

    3. Marriott Corporation

    4. Marsh Consulting

    5. Institute for Business and Home Safety

    6. 2003 Northeast United States Blackout

    7. September 11th terrorist attacks in New York City

    8. AT&T and Public Partnership for Warning business continuity planning study

  4. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. Causes of business interruption throughout the United States

    2. Contribution of small businesses to the United States economy

    3. Obstacles to effective business continuity planning

    4. DRI International 7-Step Business Continuity Planning Model

  5. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. What value does business continuity planning add to the company?

    2. If a business faces a low risk of natural or technological disasters, why should they perform business continuity planning?

    3. Why should businesses become involved in community emergency preparedness?

    4. Why is testing of the business continuity plan so important? How often should the plan be tested?

    5. Should businesses hire outside consultants to develop their business continuity plan? Why or why not?

  6. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  7. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. FEMA

    2. IBHS

    3. American Red Cross

    4. SBA

    5. DRI International

  8. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  9. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Help a small business in the community develop a business continuity plan.

    2. Work with a local small business to help them test their business continuity plan.

    3. Work with a local small business to help them update their business continuity plan.

    4. Write a letter to the business section of your local newspaper describing the importance of business continuity planning and the resources available to businesses that would like to develop a plan of their own.

Chapter 9: International Disaster Management

  1. Chapter Outline - Bulleted-format outline detailing major topics to be discussed in each chapter

  2. Chapter Introduction - Introduction of topics and concepts to be discussed in the chapter.

    1. Statutory and budget authority

    2. United States Government international disaster services

    3. Role of NGOs

    4. Role of international organizations and international financial institutions

    5. Difference between disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies

    6. Donor nation support

    7. Leadership issues

    8. Agency responsibilities

    9. Tools, technology and staffing

    10. Obstacles

  3. Full Instructional Text - Case studies to be examined of which 3-5 will be included:

    1. 2001 Gujarat Earthquake

    2. PAHO Preparedness Programs

    3. USAID OFDA Disaster Response Mechanism

    4. Hurricane Mitch in Honduras

    5. Hurricane Mitch in Guatemala

    6. Hurricane Georges in the Dominican Republic

    7. MEER Project (Turkey)

    8. 2001 El Salvador Earthquake

    9. Dominican Disaster Mitigation Association (ADMD). in the Dominican Republic

    10. ECA Region Disaster Mitigation Strategy



  1. Sidebars - Interesting commentary and important concepts that are provided in the outer page margins to expand upon the case studies and other instructional material. Potential sidebar topics:

    1. World Bank disaster relief

    2. Mitigation versus recovery

    3. Marginalizing the emergency management officials

    4. NGO leadership

    5. Military’s role in disaster relief

  2. Discussion Questions - Questions that challenge readers to consider how the events and actions described in the cases would apply in their local context.

    1. Why does the lack of statutory and budget authority hinder most international emergency management operations?

    2. Are the international financial institutions beginning to place more emphasis on disaster mitigation in their development projects?

    3. What are the principal sources of disaster relief funding to developing countries?

    4. Why are NGOs better able to distribute disaster relief at the community level than national and municipal governments?

    5. What disaster-related technologies are most needed among developing countries?

  3. Illustrations - Photographs, charts, graphs, diagrams, and other material that adds visual enhancement to materials provided

  4. Information Resources and Website Links - Additional sources of information available in the public, private, and non-profit sectors, both conventional and on-line.

    1. World Bank

    2. Asian Development Bank

    3. Asian Disaster Preparedness

    4. ISDR

    5. Inter-American Development Bank

  5. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

  6. Suggested Out-of-Class Exercises - Additional projects, to be assigned at the discretion of the instructor, that provide students with additional practical experience with the material discussed in the comprehensive chapter material.

    1. Review country disaster relief documents prepared by the World Bank.

    2. Review ISDR plans, projects and research documents.

    3. Review disaster relief activities and programs of Interaction.

Chapter 10: Future Trends and Issues

  1. Continuing evolution of emergency management in the United States

    1. Department of Homeland Security

      1. NRP

      2. NIMS

      3. Statutory authorities

      4. Budget issues

      5. Interdiction as the primary focus




    1. FEMA

      1. Resources

      2. Staffing

      3. Programs

      4. Role in Federal actions

      5. Relationship with State and local government and emergency managers




    1. Other Federal agencies

      1. HHS

      2. EPA

      3. DOJ

      4. USDA

      5. DOD




    1. State and local emergency management

      1. Evolving role in state and local government

      2. Education and training

      3. Staffing and resources




    1. Role of the business sector

      1. BCP evolution

      2. Partnering with government

      3. Education and training

      4. Certification

      5. Expanding role inside the corporate world




  1. Continuing evolution of emergency management internationally

    1. Role of international financial institutions

      1. Disaster relief

      2. Capacity building

      3. Shift in focus to mitigation

      4. Reconfiguring development plans




    1. Government agencies

      1. Statutory Authority

      2. Budget authority

      3. Technology and tools

      4. Staffing

      5. Education and training

      6. Resources

      7. Coordination within the government




    1. NGOs

      1. Shift of focus to mitigation

      2. Resources

      3. Coordination with government

      4. Education and training




    1. Role of US Government and other donor nations

      1. Mitigation

      2. Resources

      3. Incorporation in development assistance

      4. Relief assistance




  1. Future Considerations




    1. Community based programs




    1. Public safety position




    1. FEMA’s role




    1. Understanding the new terrorism threats




    1. Consolidating business continuity and recovery planning in the corporate world




    1. Disaster mitigation institutionalized in international development planning




    1. Organizational capacity building in emergency management operations in developing countries

Project Deliverables Schedule
A 24-month project schedule is proposed as follows:

Task Date Due

Date of Award 7/30/04


Task One - Textbook Development Process
2.1 Development of detailed work plan 8/20/04
2.2 Book Development Focus Group Meeting N/A
2.3 Development of Textbook Outline (final) 9/17/04
2.4.1 Development of Draft Chapter 1 11/5/04
2.4.2 Development of Draft Chapter 2 12/24/04
2.4.3 Development of Draft Chapter 3 2/11/05
2.4.4 Development of Draft Chapter 4 4/1/05
2.4.5 Development of Draft Chapter 5 5/20/05
2.4.6 Development of Draft Chapter 6 7/8/05
2.4.7 Development of Draft Chapter 7 8/26/05
2.4.8 Development of Draft Chapter 8 10/15/05
2.4.9 Development of Draft Chapter 9 12/2/05
2.4.10 Development of Draft Chapter 10 1/27/06
2.5 Development of 1st Draft of Complete Textbook 3/10/06
2.5.1 Review of 1st Draft of Complete Textbook (PD responsibilities) 5/5/06
Task Two - Textbook Review and Finalization
2.5.2 Review of 1st Draft of Textbook (FEMA responsibilities) 5/5/06
2.6 Draft Textbook Review Comments Meeting 5/12/06
2.7 Development of 2nd Draft of Complete Textbook 5/19/06
2.8 Development of Final Textbook 8/4/06
2.9 Annual Higher Ed Conference Attendance June 2005, June 2006



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