|Sources Consulted and Further Reading:
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On the origins of the term feminism, see Karen Offen, “Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach,” Signs 14:1 (1988), 119-157 and Leila Rupp, “Feminist Movements,” in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. David L. Sills (New York: Macmillan, 1968). Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987) describes the U.S. struggles over terminology; see also her “What’s In A Name: The Limits of Social Feminism,” Journal of American History 76:3 (1989), 809-29. On international women’s movements, see Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of An International Women’s Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997) and Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). Joni Seager, The State of Women in the World Atlas (London: Penguin, 1997) provides an excellent comparison of vital data across countries.
For overviews of Anglo-American feminist scholarship, see two collections edited by Juliet Mitchell and Ann Oakley: What is Feminism: A Re-Examination (New York: Pantheon Books, 1986) and Who’s Afraid of Feminism (New York: The New Press, 1997). On the growth of feminist scholarship in the U.S., see Ellen Carol DuBois, Gail Paradise Kelly, Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy, Carolyn W. Lorsmeyer, and Lillian S. Robinson, Feminist Scholarship: Kindling in the Groves of Academe (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987).
On the cross-cultural analysis of gender, see Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, "Woman, Culture, and Society: A Theoretical Overview" in Woman, Culture, and Society, eds. Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974), 17-42 as well as the other essays in this book; M.Z. Rosaldo, “The Use and Abuse of Anthropology,” Signs 5:3 (1980), 389-417; Jane F. Collier and Michelle Z. Rosaldo, “Politics and Gender in Simple Societies,” in Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality, eds. Sherry B. Ortner and Hariet Whitehead (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 275-329 (and other essays in this volume); and Louise Lamphere, “The Domestic Sphere of Women and the Public World of Men: The Strengths and Limitations of an Anthropological Dichotomy,” in Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. Caroline B. Brettell and Carolyn F. Sargent (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997), 82-92 (as well as other articles in this collection).
Origins stories, kinship, and the long historical view appear in Peggy Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); Eleanor Leacock, “Women’s Status in Egalitarian Society: Implications for Social Evolution,” Current Anthropology 19:2 (1978), 247-255; an important theoretical essay by Gayle Rubin, “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’ of Sex,” in Toward an Anthropology of Women ed. Rayna Rapp (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975), 157-210 (and other essays in this collection); Jane Fishburne Collier and Sylvia Junko Yanagisako, Gender and Kinship: Essays Towards a Unified Analysis (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987); Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). See also [vanitai island book]
On native gender relations in the Americas and the impact of Europeans, see Joan Jensen, “Native American Women and Agriculture: A Seneca Case Study,” in Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S. Women’s History, eds. Ellen Carol DuBois and Vicki L. Ruiz (New York: Routledge, 1990 )[pp.]; Irene Silverblatt; Moon, Sun and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987); Elinor Burkett, “Indian Women and White Society: The Case of Sixteenth Century Peru,” in Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives, ed. Asuncion Lavrin (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1978).
For Africa, I draw on Africa: Ester Boserup, Woman's Role in Economic Development (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970); Simi Afonja, “Changing Patterns of Gender Stratification in West Africa,” in Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development, ed. Irene Tinker (New York, Oxford University Press, 1990) 198-209; Richard Roberts, “Women’s Work and Women’s Property: Household Social Relations in the Maraka Textile Industry of the Nineteenth Century,” Comparative Studies in Society and History x:y (1984), 229-250; Iris Berger and E. Frances White, Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Restoring Women to History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999); Jean Davison, Agriculture, Women and Land: The African Experience (Boulder: Westview Press, 1988).
The following studies of gender relations in Chinese history proved extremely useful:
Judith Stacey, “When Patriarchy Kowtows: The Significance of the Chinese Family Revolution for Feminist Theory" Feminist Studies 2: 2-3 (1975), 64-112; Janice Stockard, Daughters of the Canton Delta: Marriage Patterns and Economic Strategies in South China, 1860-1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989); Francesca Bray, Technology and Gender: Fabrics of Power in Late Imperial China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Patricia Buckley Ebrey, The Inner Quarter: Marriage and the Lives of Chines Women in the Sung Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Hill Gates, China’s Motor: A Thousand Years of Petty Capitalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996); Dorothy Ko, Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth Century China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994); Margery Wolf, Women and the Family in Rural Taiwan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972) and Revolution Postponed: Women in Contemporary China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985); Barbara N. Ramusack and Sharon Sievers, Women in Asia: Restoring Women to History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999); Susan Mann, Precious Records: Women in China’s Long Eighteenth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997); Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers: Women in the Shanghai Cotton Mills, 1919-1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986).
For an excellent collection of essays on European women’s history see the various editions of Becoming Visible, eds. Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977) which includes Joan Kelley’s classic essay, “Did Women Have a Rennaissance?,” 137-164. Throughout this book I draw heavily on the encyclopedic and highly readable survey by Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), volumes I and II. See also Judith Shaver Hughes and Brady Hughes, Women in Ancient Civilizations (Washington: American Historical Association, 1998); Judith Bennett, “Across the Divide - in my files in office; Natalie Zemon Davis, Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995); Susan Moller Okin, Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979); Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to 1870 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Erna Olafson Hellerstein, Leslie Parker Hume, and Karen M. Offen, eds. Victorian Women: A Documentary Account of Women's Lives in Nineteenth-Century England, France and the United States,.assoc. eds. Estelle Freedman, Barbara Gelpi and Marilyn Yalom (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1981). On the colonial encounter, see Margaret Strobel, Gender, Sex, and Empire (Washington: American Historical Association, 1993) and Strobel and Nupur Chaudhuri, Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1991); Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper, eds., Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), and below, Chapter Six.
On European feminisms, see Bonnie S. Anderson and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), volume II; Gerda Lerner, Creation of Feminist Consciousness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Bonnie S. Andersen, Joyous Greetings: The First International Women’s Movement, 1830-1860 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Joan Scott, Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996); Karen Offen, European Feminisms, 1700-1950: A Political History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000); Marion Kaplan, The Jewish Feminist Movement in Germany: The Campaigns of the Jüdischer Frauenbund, 1904-1938 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979); Ray Strachey, The Cause: A Short History of the Women’s Movement in Great Britain (London: Virago, 1978, orig 1928); Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution in Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980); Barbara Engel, “Women as Revolutionaries: The Case of the Russian Populists,” in Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koonz, eds., Becoming Visible (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977). On Scandinavia see Ida Blom, “Nation, Class, Gender: Scandinavia at the Turn of the Century,” Scandinavian Journal of History 21:1 (1996), 1-16; Ingrid Aberg, “Revivalism, Philanthropy and Emancipation: Women’s Liberation and Organization in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Scandinavian Journal of History 13.fill.. pp. 399-420.
Linda Kerber, Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980) traces the intellectual debates on gender in the early U.S. Alice Rossi, The Feminist Papers: From Adams to de Beauvoir (New York: Columbia University Press, 1973) provides biographical and critical introductions to key historical documents, including Wollstonecraft, Wright, Mill, Stanton, Engels, Gilman, and Woolf. Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham discusses the temperance movement among African American women in Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church, 1880-1920 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993). On female moral reform and social purity in the U.S. see Mary Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1790-1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981) and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). On Charlotte Perkins Gilman, see Carl Degler’s introduction to her Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women (New York: Harper and Row, 1966, orig. 1898) and Louise Michelle Newman, White Women’s Rights: The Racial Origins of Feminism in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). Steven Buechler, Women’s Movements in the U.S.: Woman Suffrage, Equal Rights, and Beyond (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1990) provides an overview, while Seth Koven and Sonya Michel’s edited collection Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (New York: Routledge, 1993) provides a useful comparative perspective on maternalism. Linda Alcoff’s discussion of rights and race appears in [I will find....]
On Latin America, see especially Nina M. Scott, “‘If You Are Not Pleased to Favor Me, Put Me Out of Your Mind...’: Gender and Authority in Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and the Translation of the Letter to the Reverend Father Maestro Antonio Núñez of the Society of Jesus,” Women’s Studies International Forum 11:5 (1988), 429-38 and “Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: ‘Let Your Women Keep Silence in the Churches…’” Women’s Studies International Forum 8:5 (1985), 511-519; Francesca Miller, Latin American Women and the Search for Social Justice (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1991); University P..); the special issue of the Pacific Historical Review 69:4 (2000) on suffrage in the Americas; June E. Hahner, Emancipating the Female Sex: the Struggle for Women’s Right in Brazil, 1850-1940 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1990); Sylvia Arrom, The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985); and Evelyn Stevens, “Marianismo: The Other Face of Machismo in Latin America,” in Female and Male in Latin America: Essays ed. Ann Pescatello (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsbugh Press, 1977). On Japan see Sharon Sievers, Flowers in Salt: The Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983.