Sol review United States History

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SOL Review

United States History:

1877 to the Present

Understanding Maps

Examples of Manufacturing areas

Reason for increased immigration

Reasons why cities developed

  • Specialized industries including steel (___________________), meat

  • packing (___________________)

  • Movement of Americans from ________________ to _______________________ areas for job opportunities

  • ______________________ from other countries

Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth

  • Lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (________________________________________)

  • Telephone service (­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­______________________________)

Racial segregation- _____________________ Laws

  • Based upon race

  • Directed primarily against African Americans, but other groups also were kept segregated

  • “Jim Crow” laws were passed to discriminate against African Americans. (unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government)

African American Response

Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business

Factors resulting in growth of industry

  • Access to __________________________________ and energy

  • Availability of work force

  • _______________________________________

  • Financial resources

Examples of big business

  • _________________________

  • Oil

  • _________________________

Postwar changes in farm and city life

  • Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) had reduced farm labor needs and increased production.

  • Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs.

Negative effects of industrialization

  • _________________________

  • Low wages, long hours

  • ______________________________________________

Rise of organized labor

  • Formation of ____________________—Growth of American Federation of Labor

  • ________________________—Aftermath of Homestead Strike

Progressive Movement workplace reforms

Women’s suffrage

  • Increased ____________________________ opportunities

  • Attained ______________________ rights

  • Women gained the right to vote with passage of the _________ Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America.

  • ___________________________ worked for women’s suffrage.

Temperance Movement

  • Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of _________________________

  • Supported _______________ Amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages

Reasons for the
Spanish American War

  • Protection of American business interests in______________

  • American support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from ___________________

  • Rising tensions as a result of the sinking of the ____________ in Havana Harbor

  • Teddy Roosevelt and the _____________________________

  • Exaggerated news reports of events (_____________________)

Results of the
Spanish American War

  • The United States emerged as a __________________.

  • Cuba gained independence from __________________.

  • The United States gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

Reasons for U.S. involvement World War I

  • Inability to remain _____________________

  • German submarine warfare— sinking of __________________

  • U.S. economic and political ties to __________________

World War I Opponents

U.S. leadership as the war ended

  • At the end of World War I, President ________________________ prepared a peace plan that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peace-keeping organization.

  • The United States decided not to join the __________________________.

Results of improved transportation brought by affordable automobiles

  • Greater __________________________

  • Creation of ________________

  • Growth of transportation-related industries (road construction, oil, steel, automobile)

  • Movement to __________________________ areas

  • Invention of the _____________________

(Wright brothers)

Communication changes

Ways electrification changed American life


Results of Prohibition

Great Migration north

  • Jobs for African Americans in the ____________ were scarce and low paying.

  • African Americans faced _____________ and ________________ in the South.

  • African Americans moved to ___________________________ in search of better employment opportunities.

  • African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the ________________________.

Cultural climate of the 1920s and 1930s

Harlem Renaissance

African American artists, writers, and musicians

based in Harlem revealed the freshness and

variety of African American culture.

Causes of the Great Depression

  • People over ______________________ on stocks, using borrowed money that they could not repay when stock prices crashed.

  • End of the ________________________________

  • The Federal Reserve failed to prevent the collapse of the _______________________________

  • High tariffs strangled international _________________________.

Impact on Americans

Major features of the New Deal

  • ______________________________

  • Federal work programs

  • ______________________________ improvement programs

  • ______________________ assistance programs

  • Increased rights for __________________________

Causes of World War II

  • Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from _______________________

  • Worldwide _____________________

  • High _________________________ owed by Germany

  • High ___________________________

  • Massive ______________________________

Continued causes of World War II

  • Rise of ______________________

  • Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a _______________ and individual freedoms are denied.

  • Fascist dictators included Adolf Hitler (_____________), Benito Mussolini (_______________), and Hideki Tojo (________________).

  • These dictators led the countries that became known as the ________________________.

The Allies

  • Democratic nations (the United States, Great Britain, Canada) were known as the __________. The Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany.

  • Allied leaders included Franklin D. Roosevelt and later Harry S. Truman (____________), Winston Churchill (___________), Joseph Stalin (____________________)

Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to _____________________

  • Isolationism (Great Depression, legacy of World War I)

  • Economic aid to Allies

  • Direct involvement in the war

War in the Pacific

  • Rising tension developed between the United States and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East Asia.

  • On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor without warning.

  • Roosevelt -“A day that will live in infamy.”

  • The United States declared war on Japan.

  • Germany declared war on the United States.

Major events and turning points of World War II

  • Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe. The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations.

  • Germany invaded France, capturing Paris.

  • Germany bombed London and the Battle of Britain began.

  • The United States gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean.

World War II--Pacific

  • Japan bombed Pearl Harbor.

  • After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States.

  • The United States declared war on Japan and Germany.

  • The United States was victorious over Japan in the Battle of Midway. This victory was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.


  • Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany at Stalingrad, marking the turning point of the war in Europe

  • American and Allied troops landed in Normandy, France, on

  • D-Day to begin the liberation of Western Europe. (Treaty of Versailles)

  • The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in 1945, forcing Japan to surrender and ending World War II.

The Holocaust

  • Anti-Semitism

  • Aryan supremacy

  • Systematic attempt to rid Europe of all


  • Tactics (Propaganda)

  • Boycott of Jewish stores

  • Threats

Concentration Camps

  • Segregation

  • Imprisonment and killing of Jews and others in concentration camps

  • Liberation by Allied forces of Jews and others in concentration camps

Home Front during WWII

American involvement in World War II brought an end to the Great Depression. Factories and workers were needed to produce goods to win the war.

Thousands of American women took jobs in defense plants during the war (e.g., Rosie the Riveter).

Rationing and Workers on the Home Front

  • Americans at home supported the war by conserving and rationing resources.

  • The need for workers temporarily broke down some racial barriers (e.g., hiring in defense plants) although discrimination against African Americans continued.

Japanese Americans on the Home Front

While many Japanese Americans served in the armed forces, others were treated with distrust and prejudice, and many were forced into internment camps.

Europe Rebuilds after WWII

  • Much of Europe was in ruins

  • The United States wants to rebuild

Europe and prevent political and

economic instability.

  • The United States instituted George C. Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism.

Europe Divided

  • West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation.

  • East Germany, Eastern Europe, and Central Europe remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.


Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-government, and became a strong ally of the United States.

Establishment of the United Nations

The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.

Reasons for rapid growth of American economy following World War II

  • With rationing of consumer goods over, business converted from production of war materials to consumer goods.

  • Americans purchased goods on credit.

  • The workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned to family responsibilities.

Rapid Growth of America Continued

  • Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries.

  • As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers.

Cold War

State of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps

Origins of the Cold War

  • Differences in goals and ideologies between the two superpowers—The United States was democratic and capitalist; the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist.

  • The Soviet Union’s dominated over Eastern European countries

Cold War continued

  • American policy of containment (to stop the spread of communism)

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus Warsaw Pact

Major conflicts in the post-World War II era

South Korea and the United States resisted Chinese and North Korean aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

Occurred when the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba. The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a U.S. blockade.

Vietnam Conflict

The United States intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam (Domino Theory). Americans were divided over whether the United States should be involved militarily in Vietnam. The conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement in which U.S. troops withdrew.

Collapse of Communism in Europe

  • Breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries

  • Destruction of Berlin Wall

New challenges

Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society

  • Strong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products)

  • Greater investment in education

  • “The Baby Boom,” which led to changing demographics

Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society continued

  • Interstate highway system

  • Evolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, but increasingly working outside the home)

  • Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights

  • Changes in make-up of immigrants after 1965 (e.g., Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans)

Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities

  • G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to World War II veterans.

  • Truman desegregated the armed forces.

  • Civil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minorities.

Some effects of segregation

  • Separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American students

  • Separate public facilities (e.g., restrooms, drinking fountains, restaurants)

  • Social isolation of races

Civil Rights Movement

  • Opposition to Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate but equal”

  • Brown v. Board of Education, desegregation of schools

Martin Luther King, Jr.—Passive resistance against segregated facilities; “I have a dream…” speech

  • Rosa Parks—Montgomery bus boycott

  • Organized protests, Freedom Riders, sit-ins, marches

  • Expansion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

Changing role of women

  • Discrimination in hiring practices against women

  • Lower wages for women than for men doing the same job

  • Improved conditions

  • Federal legislation to force colleges to give women equal athletic opportunities

  • The Equal Rights Amendment, despite its failure, and a focus on equal opportunity employment created a wider range of options and advancement for women in business and public service.

Industries benefiting from new technologies

Impact of new technologies on American life

  • Increased domestic and international travel for business and pleasure

  • Greater access to news and other information

  • Cheaper and more convenient means of communication

  • Greater access to heating and air-conditioning

  • Decreased regional variation, resulting from nationwide access to entertainment and information provided by national television and computers.

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