Sol notes/ unit study guide

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The 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries (1500s, 1600s, and 1700s)
Age of Revolutions
Scientific Revolution, Absolutism, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, Enlightenment (Age of Reason), American Revolution, French Revolution

The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

  1. describing the Scientific Revolution and its effects.

  2. describing the Age of Absolutism, including the monarchies of Louis XIV, Frederick the Great, and Peter the Great.

  3. assessing the impacts of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on democracy.

  4. explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States.

  1. describing the French Revolution;

  2. identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America.

  3. describing the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.

Essential Questions

  1. What were some new scientific theories and discoveries?

  2. What were some of the effects of these new theories?

  3. Who were the absolute monarchs?

  4. What effect did the absolute monarchs have on their countries?

  5. How did the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution promote the development of the rights of Englishmen?

  6. Who were some Enlightenment thinkers, and what were their ideas?

  7. How did philosophers of the Enlightenment influence thinking on political issues?

  8. Who were some artists, philosophers, and writers of the period?

  9. What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies?

  10. How did the Enlightenment promote revolution in the American colonies?

  11. How did the ideas of the Enlightenment contribute to causing the French Revolution?

  12. How did the French and American Revolutions influence Latin American independence movements?

Key Ideas

    • With its emphasis on reasoned observation and systematic measurement, the scientific revolution changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it.

    • The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments.

    • Political democracy rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the

    • governed. The foundations of English freedoms included the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen.

    • Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.

    • Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

    • The Enlightenment brought a new emphasis on order and balance in the arts as artists borrowed heavily from classical Greece and Rome, and new forms of literature were established.

    • The Age of Reason witnessed inventions and innovations in technology that stimulated trade and transportation.

    • The ideas of the Enlightenment and French participation in the American Revolution influenced the French people to view their government in new ways. They overthrew the absolute monarchy, and a new government was established.

    • These ideas and examples of the American and French Revolutions influenced the people of Latin America to establish independent nations.

Notes Scientific Revolution
Pioneers of the scientific revolution

Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theory

Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motion

Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theory

Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of Gravity

William Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood

Importance of the scientific revolution

Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature

Formulation of the scientific method

Expansion of scientific knowledge

Notes Absolute Monarchs
Characteristics of absolute monarchies

Centralization of power

Concept of rule by divine right
Absolute monarchs

Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power

Frederick the Great—Prussia, emphasis on military power

Peter the Great—Russia, westernization of Russia

Notes English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
Development of the rights of Englishmen

Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I

The restoration of Charles II

Development of political parties/factions

Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)

Increase of parliamentary power over royal power

English Bill of Rights of 1689
Notes Enlightenment
The Enlightenment

Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world

Stimulated religious tolerance

Fueled democratic revolutions around the world

Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas

Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan—The state must have central authority to manage behavior.

John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government—People are sovereign; monarchs are not chosen by God.

Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a contract between rulers and the people.

Voltaire—Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state

Influence of the Enlightenment

Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.

Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.

The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.

Representative artists, philosophers, and writers

  • Johann Sebastian Bach— Composer

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart— Composer

  • Eugène Delacroix—Painter

  • Voltaire—Philosopher

  • Miguel de Cervantes—Novelist

New forms of art and literature

Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits).

New forms of literature evolved—the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote).

  • All-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade.

  • New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution).

  • Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.

Notes French Revolution
Causes of the French Revolution

Influence of Enlightenment ideas

Influence of the American Revolution
Events of the French Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

Reign of Terror
Outcomes of the French Revolution

End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI

Rise of Napoleon
Influence of the American and French Revolutions on the Americas

Independence came to French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies

Toussaint L’Ouverture—Haiti

Simon Bolivar—South America

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