|SOL NOTES/ UNIT STUDY GUIDE
The 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries (1500s, 1600s, and 1700s)
Age of Revolutions
Scientific Revolution, Absolutism, English Civil War, Glorious Revolution, Enlightenment (Age of Reason), American Revolution, French Revolution
The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by
describing the Scientific Revolution and its effects.
describing the Age of Absolutism, including the monarchies of Louis XIV, Frederick the Great, and Peter the Great.
assessing the impacts of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on democracy.
explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States.
describing the French Revolution;
identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America.
describing the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.
What were some new scientific theories and discoveries?
What were some of the effects of these new theories?
Who were the absolute monarchs?
What effect did the absolute monarchs have on their countries?
How did the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution promote the development of the rights of Englishmen?
Who were some Enlightenment thinkers, and what were their ideas?
How did philosophers of the Enlightenment influence thinking on political issues?
Who were some artists, philosophers, and writers of the period?
What improved technologies and institutions were important to European economies?
How did the Enlightenment promote revolution in the American colonies?
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment contribute to causing the French Revolution?
How did the French and American Revolutions influence Latin American independence movements?
With its emphasis on reasoned observation and systematic measurement, the scientific revolution changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it.
The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments.
Political democracy rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the
governed. The foundations of English freedoms included the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen.
Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.
Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
The Enlightenment brought a new emphasis on order and balance in the arts as artists borrowed heavily from classical Greece and Rome, and new forms of literature were established.
The Age of Reason witnessed inventions and innovations in technology that stimulated trade and transportation.
The ideas of the Enlightenment and French participation in the American Revolution influenced the French people to view their government in new ways. They overthrew the absolute monarchy, and a new government was established.
These ideas and examples of the American and French Revolutions influenced the people of Latin America to establish independent nations.
Notes Scientific Revolution
Pioneers of the scientific revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theory
Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motion
Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theory
Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of Gravity
William Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood
Importance of the scientific revolution
Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature
Formulation of the scientific method
Expansion of scientific knowledge
Notes Absolute Monarchs
Characteristics of absolute monarchies
Centralization of power
Concept of rule by divine right
Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power
Frederick the Great—Prussia, emphasis on military power
Peter the Great—Russia, westernization of Russia
Notes English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution
Development of the rights of Englishmen
Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
The restoration of Charles II
Development of political parties/factions
Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)
Increase of parliamentary power over royal power
English Bill of Rights of 1689
Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world
Stimulated religious tolerance
Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan—The state must have central authority to manage behavior.
John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government—People are sovereign; monarchs are not chosen by God.
Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a contract between rulers and the people.
Voltaire—Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state
Influence of the Enlightenment
Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
Representative artists, philosophers, and writers
Johann Sebastian Bach— Composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart— Composer
Miguel de Cervantes—Novelist
New forms of art and literature
Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits).
New forms of literature evolved—the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote).
All-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade.
New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution).
Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.
Notes French Revolution
Causes of the French Revolution
Influence of Enlightenment ideas
Influence of the American Revolution
Events of the French Revolution
Storming of the Bastille
Reign of Terror
Outcomes of the French Revolution
End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI
Rise of Napoleon
Influence of the American and French Revolutions on the Americas
Independence came to French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies
Simon Bolivar—South America