|Unit 2 & 3 Review 8th Social Studies -REVOLTIONARY ERA
boycott – refusal to buy something as a form of protest
taxation – process of collecting money from citizens in order to fund government expenses
grievance – a complaint
Unalienable rights – fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally, as a result of being human, instead of by the law (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness)
Know the CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF REVOLUTIONARY ERA and sequence of events
Dates 1776 –Declaration of Independence, list of grievances against Great Britain and it demonstrated John Locke’s idea of a “social contract”
CAUSES OF AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Proclamation of 1763 –colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains
Intolerable Acts – (Coercive Acts); G.B. reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closed the port of Boston until the tea was paid for; troops quartered in Boston ; colonists reacted by boycotting British goods and First Continental Congress convenes – declares acts illegal and organizes militia’s for training
Stamp Act –official stamp on printed paper; Tax was the cover the cost of the French/Ind. War
Mercantilism – system by which a nation increases its wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver from its colonies. It includes a favorable balance of trade. The colonies become a source of raw materials for the mother country. The colonies also are expected to be the purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country. Mercantilism includes the theory that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the mother country. This policy angered colonists who wanted
to purchase goods from cheaper sources and to sell to a wider market.
Lacks of representation in Parliament –colonists had their own legislative assemblies and were unhappy about Britain’s taxing without any direct representation.
British economic policies following the French and Indian War – to raise money to help pay off the French & Indian war debt
ROLES PLAYED BY SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Abigail Adams –When her husband John Adams and others were considering a declaration of independence, Abigail reminded him to take care of the women, who would not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice (“Remember the ladies”).
John Adams – lawyer and politician; defended British soldiers after the Boston Massacre; a
member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts
Wentworth Cheswell – African American Patriot; like Paul Revere he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community of the impending British invasion; in the army and fought at the Battle of Saratoga
Samuel Adams – played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution including organized opposition to the Stamp Act, protests waged by the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Massacre
Mercy Otis Warren –anonymously wrote propaganda supporting the Patriots; wrote the first history of the American Revolutionary War
James Armistead – enslaved African American. Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. Posing as a double agent, forager and servant at British headquarters, he moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette;
Benjamin Franklin – on committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence, but spent most of the period of the American Revolution in France as the American envoy starting in 1776 and remained until 1785; negotiated the alliance with France and the Treaty of Paris which ended the war.
Bernardo de Gálvez – Spanish nobleman, governor of the province of Louisiana (January, 1777), protected American ships in the port of New Orleans; helped transport war supplies
Crispus Attucks – an African American man; ; first casualty of the Am. Rev. –Boston Massacre
King George III – feared that the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance.
Haym Salomon – a Polish-born Jewish immigrant to America who helped in financing the Revolution; Arrested by the British as a spy; used by the British as an interpreter with their German troops; helped British prisoners escape and encouraged German soldiers to desert the British army;
Patrick Henry – a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses; spoke against the Stamp Act; famous quote “Give me liberty or give me death;” during the Revolution he served in the Continental Army
Thomas Jefferson – delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and in 1776 where he was chief writer of Declaration of Independence
The Marquis de Lafayette – a French aristocrat, but respected concepts of liberty, freedom, and constitutional government; he fought in the American Revolution y commanding forces as a major-general in the colonial army; Important because France joined the Colonists.
Thomas Paine –Wrote pamphlet “Common Sense” persuading Americans to join the Patriot cause
George Washington –, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and the chairman of the Constitutional Convention in 1787
John Paul Jones – founder of U.S. Navy
ISSUES SURROUNDING IMPORTANT EVENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Declaring independence – “listed grievances against the King of England stated all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and pursuit of happiness”, and
Writing the Articles of Confederation –created a new form of government for the independent colonies with one branch that included one representative from each state; Addressed issues of financing for a war, power to negotiate treaties, and avoided the creation of a powerful executive
Battles of Lexington and Concord – 1st battles of the war; (“The shot heard ‘round the world”), involved the engagement of British soldiers with colonial “minutemen”
Battle of Saratoga – turning point of the war with victory for the patriots, helped to convince France to join the colonists
Enduring the winter at Valley Forge – after suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777. There the men were trained and became more of a professional army (rather than militias). The winter was harsh and men suffered from starvation and frostbite.
Battle of Yorktown – British forces surrendered after the capture of two British generals including Lord Cornwallis along with many Loyalists soldiers and sailors
Signing the Treaty of Paris 1783 – independence recognized, boundaries extended to Canada to the north, the Mississippi River to the west, and Florida to the south
COLONIAL GRIEVANCES LISTED IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Taxation without representation Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
King has absolute power Allowed homes to be searched without warrants
No speaking out against the King No trial by jury of peers
REASONS FOR AND THE IMPACT OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IN U.S. HISTORY
Civil disobedience –defying codes of conduct or ignoring the policies when the civil laws are considered unjust. Ex. include nonviolent actions such as boycotts, protests and refusal to pay taxes.
Boston Tea Party (1773) –Sons of Liberty dumped British tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act ;Parliament responded by passing the Intolerable Acts and closing the port of Boston.
DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW
Loyalists –loyal to the British monarchy and disagreed with the Declaration of Independence
Patriots –separating from Britain and becoming their own independent nation