|SOCIAL 20-1: PERSPECTIVES ON NATIONALISM
“To what extent should national interests be pursued?”
“To what extent should nation be the foundation of identity?”
TO WHAT EXTENT SHOULD WE EMBRACE NATIONALISM?
“To what extent should internationalism be pursued?”
What are the impacts nationalism, ultranationalism and the pursuit of national interests ?
“To what extent should individuals and groups in Canada embrace a national identity?”
THEME 2: To What Extent Should National Interest Be Pursued?
Instructions: Refer to these pages to understand what we will be studying in this unit. “Check off” the items below as we cover them. Usage of this guide will be “ongoing;” meaning that we will be referring back to it as we progress through the unit. Upon completion of the section, this guide will serve as a valuable study resource.
You will be expected to be able to answer the following questions by the end of the unit!
What is the pursuit of national interest?
___ What is the pursuit of a national interest?
___ Why is the pursuit of a nationals interest an issue?
National Interest: refers to a political, economic or social
concern of a nation – can involve an internal matter or
situation involving other countries
Realism: occurs when a nation puts its national goals ahead of international cooperation. All nations have to be realists to a degree, but some get carried away with it.
Idealism: the idea that a “perfect” world is possible if nations cooperate and work together. This forms a basis for internationalism
Narrow Nationalism: an exclusive form of nationalism that does not focus beyond the needs of a particular nation – ie – when a nation ignores problems outside of their group because those problems aren’t seen to be relevant to the nation.
National Security: refers to matters affecting the safety of a nation and its citizens
National Prosperity: refers to issues surrounding quality of life/standard of living for citizens of a nation
Mactpolitik: a fancy German name for “power politics” where nations use political, economic or military threats to achieve goals.
Realpolitik: refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions.
Superpowers: nations possessing military, economic, and industrial superiority compared to other countries – ie – United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War – today – China, India?, Pakistan? as emerging superpowers
Great Powers: nations such as Grt. Britain and France which have strength politically, economically and socially, but are not equivalent to super powers
Middle Powers: a step below the great powers in terms of global power and influence, but important nations nonetheless – ie - Canada
Lesser Power: emerging nations such as Brazil, Argentina, and Columbia
To what extent were nations justified in pursuing their national interests in World War 1?
___ Why did nationalism increase tensions in Europe during the half-century prior to the
outbreak of World War 1?
___ Was nationalism the main cause of World War 1?
___ To what extent did World War 1 become a war between nations rather than a war between
___To what extent did Canada’s participation in World War 1 serve Canadian national
___ To what extent were the victorious Allied powers justified in pursuing their national
interests at the Paris Peace Conference?
National Consciousness: the set of opinions, feelings, and beliefs of a group – ie – “Native peoples being united concerning native self-government”
Jingoism: a form of “belligerrent nationalism where nations will act openly hostile against others to get what they want
Revanchism: a nation's or an ethnic group's policy of regaining lost territory – ie –“France pushes for the return of Alsace-Lorraine from Germany in post WW1 Peace Settlements”
Balkanization: division of an area, region, or group into smaller and often mutually hostile units – ie – as in “the Balkan States – the Powderkeg of Europe”
New Imperialism: 2nd great phase of European Imperialism from the late 1700’s until 1914 motivated by the Industrial Revolution and the scramble for resources
Foreign Policy: a nation’s program of actions, or set of principles in its relations with other countries – could involve cooperation or conflict – ie – “treaties/agreements or warfare”
Militarism: a government policy of investing heavily in
and strengthening the armed forces
Irredentism: a movement to support the return to a
country of territories that used to belong to it but are
now under foreign rule – ie “Germany sought to re-
acquire land it lost after WW 1”
Alliance System: refers to countries signing
agreements with one another for reasons of collective
security – one of the main causes of WW1 – Triple
Alliance/Triple Entente as examples
Mobilization: to prepare forces for action - especially
in a military or civil emergency
Total War: a policy where all segments of a society – from
the military to business to civilians, are involved in a war
effort – all willing to contribute and sacrifice as necessary
War of Attrition: a method of warfare designed to “wear the other side down” through methods such as cutting supply lines, destroying military capabilities and “starving them out””
Conscription: compulsory military service – a fancy name for “the draft”
War Crimes: a crime committed during wartime that is in violation of international agreements concerning the conventions of war, ie. “the mistreatment of prisoners or genocide”
Internment: to detain somebody in confinement as being a security threat
Enemy Aliens: people who are under suspicion of being sympathetic to an enemy nation due to their cultural or ancestral ties to that nation – ie-“Japanese Canadians during WW2”
War Measures Act: set of laws in Canada that gave sweeping powers of arrest and detention to police and the armed forces during times of emergency – “turned Canada into a police state during WW1, WW2 and during the FLQ Crisis in Oct. 1970”
Summit Diplomacy: conference meetings between gov’t leaders to determine foreign policy directions – ie – France and Britain meet with Hitler to create the policy of “appeasement”
Self-Determination: freedom to live as one chooses, or to act or decide without consulting another or others – a colony seeks to become its own nation
Mandate System: the system established after World War I to administer former territories of the German and Ottoman empires. The ultimate goal was development of each mandate toward eventual independence.
Great Power Politics: refers to the motivations/policies of the most powerful nations in connection with each other and with weaker powers – the great powers set the political and economic directions for the rest of the world
To what extent were nations justified in pursuing their national interests during the Interwar period?
___ Why did ultranationalism arise in Italy, Germany and Japan during the Interwar Era?
___ To what extent did the pursuit of national interests override internationalism in the
Ultranationalism: nationalism to the extreme - fanatacism
Fascism: a political system involving a totalitarian dictatorship and free enterprise economics under centralized control – Germany under Hitler, Italy under Mussolini
Social Darwinism: Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” theory applied politically and socially – results in ethnocentrism and and elitism – “Hitler’s idea that Aryan Race was the master race”
Autarky: a policy of national self-sufficiency and non-reliance on imports or economic aid – Germany sought to achieve this under Hitler’s rule because he did not want to rely on the nations that defeated Germany in WW1 for anything.
Internationalism: the principle of cooperation among nations, for the promotion of their common good – League of Nations was an attempt at internationalism
League of Nations: organization set up after WW 1 in Europe for collective security and de-armament – organization would not be successful in its purposes
Collective Security: when nations join together for mutual protection and security – ie – “Canada in the NATO Alliance”
Sanctions: penalties placed upon nations that don’t conform to following international opinion or law – ie – “economic sanctions were placed on South Africa over its refusal to end apartheid”
Appeasement: a policy of giving in to an aggressor nation in return for assurances from that nation that it will no longer act aggressively to its neighbors – ie – Britain and France appeased Hitler by rewarding him control of Czechoslovakia – Hitler promised that he would not want anymore”
Isolationism: a policy of non-interference/non-involvement in international affairs – practiced by the US after WW1 until the attack on Pearl Harbor Hawaii
Neutrality: occurs when nations don’t choose sides or join alliances in times of peace or conflict
To what extent were nations justified in pursuing their nation interests in World War 2?
___ To what extent was the pursuit of national interests responsible for the outbreak of World
___ To what extent were nations justified in pursuing their national interests in World War 2?
___ To what extent did participation in World War 2 serve Canadian national interests?
Remilitarization: when a nation re-builds its armed forces or reintroduces the military into an area where it had been removed from – ie – “Germany remilitarized the Rhineland after Hitler came to power – this went against the conditions set down by the Treaty of Versailles”
Annexation: occurs when one country takes over another politically, economically and socially -ie– “Germany annexed Austria in 1938 (Anschluss)”
Expansionism: a policy of expansion, as of territory or currency: “the colonial expansionism of Europe in the 19th century.”
Lebensraum: German term for “living space” – applied to territory that was to be gained from Eastern Europe during WW2
Civilian Bombing: the practice of carpet bombing civilian populations in cities – ie –“the London Blitz during the Battle of Britain”
To what extent is genocide an outgrowth of nationalism and the pursuit of national interest?
___ To what extent was the Holocaust the result of nationalism?
___ To what extent was the Holodomor motivated by nationalism and the pursuit of national
___ To what extent was the Holodomor intended to stifle Ukrainian nationalism?
___ To what extent is genocide an outgrowth of nationalism?
___ Should nations take action to prevent, halt and punish genocide?
Genocide: the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group
Scapegoat: a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place - -ie – Hitler and the Nazis blamed the loss of World War 1 and The Great Depression on the Jews. – The Jews of course were not to blame for these outcomes.
The Holocaust: the mass murder of Jews during WW 2 by Hitler and his supporters
Shoah: the Hebrew language reference to the Holocaust
Final Solution: The German decision to kill all Jews in Concentration Camps
Nazism: the ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy
Anti-Semitism: discrimination against or prejudice or hostility toward Jews
Nuremburg Laws: anti-Jewish laws passed in 1935 that stripped Jews of their citizenship in Germany-violence and persecution encouraged against them
Eugenics: the study of hereditary improvement of the human race by controlled selective breeding – “creating a master race”
Holodomor: the Ukrainian Holocaust of the early 1930’s –caused by Stalin’s 5 year plans in the USSR
Russification: to make Russian in character or quality
Ethnic Cleansing: the elimination of an unwanted ethnic group or groups from a society, as by genocide or forced emigration
War Crimes: crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements or, as in the case of genocide, are offenses against humanity
Crimes Against Humanity: crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements or, as in the case of genocide, are offenses against humanity
Nuremburg Principles: a set of guidelines for determining what constitutes a war crime. The document was created by necessity during the Nuremberg Trials of Nazi party members following World War II
UN Genocide Convention: refers to any acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group
International Law: a set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and nations
To what extent should self-determination be encouraged?
___ What is the pursuit of self-determination and why is it an issue?
___ To what extent do nationalities in today’s world enjoy self-determination?
___ Are nations ever justified in using violence to achieve self-determination?
___ To what extent doest the pursuit of self-determination contribute to international stability
___ Should every nation have its own state?
Sovereignty: a nation which has complete independence and self-government – ie - Canada
Decolonization: to release from the status of a colony. Most of the new countries created worldwide after WW2 were the result of decolonization.
Civil War: a war between political factions or regions within the same country
Guerilla Movements: new social movements occurring in countries (as in Africa) involving huge political/economic/social changes – can result in civil war – ie – “The Congo”
Freedom Fighters: soldiers fighting to end oppression for their supporters – often times these soldiers are part of Guerilla (non-conventional) forces – ie –“ the Mujahedeen in Afghanistan”
Secession: the act of formally withdrawing from membership in an organization, association, or alliance – ie – “western separatists want Alberta to secede from Canada”
Civil Disobedience: the refusal to obey certain laws or governmental demands for the purpose of influencing legislation or government policy, characterized by the employment of such nonviolent techniques as boycotting, picketing, and nonpayment of taxes
Just War: a military action that is justified as being permissible for legal or moral reasons – ie – “international military forces pushing Iraqi troops out of Kuwait in 1991”
Self-Preservation: to save oneself from harm or destruction – ie –“ Israel uses military/defence forces against its hostile Arab neighbours”
Insurgency: rebellion within a group, as by members against leaders or others seen to be oppressors
Statehood: the status of being a state, especially of the United States, rather than being a territory or dependency
Autonomy: the condition of being autonomous; self-government, or the right of self-government; independence: “The rebels demanded autonomy from Spain.”
Micro-States: a handful of very small sovereign states on the European continent and the surrounding islands – ie – “The Vatican, Monaco”
Minority Rights: embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups
To what extent should national interest be pursued?
___ What is the pursuit of enlightened national interest?
___ To what extent should this be the objective of foreign policy?
___ To what extent should national interest be pursued?
Enlightened National Interest – to pursue national interests based upon making informed opinions – considering a wide variety of factors both internal and external to make decisions for the good of a nation – ie- carefully weighing out the pros and cons of setting up a trade deal with another country.
Foreign Policy - a policy pursued by a nation in its dealings with other nations, designed to achieve national objectives.