Slide 1 Health Disparities in ma council for the Elimination of Racial and Ethnic Disparities Shown is a picture of two smiling women. Slide 2



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Slide 1
Health Disparities in MA

Council for the Elimination of Racial and Ethnic Disparities


Shown is a picture of two smiling women.

Slide 2
Heading: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Outcomes Are Seen Consistently in Massachusetts
Such disparities are particularly apparent in premature or excessive death rates for cancer, HIV, diabetes and asthma and in higher hospitalizations rates for many diseases and conditions
Disparities are seen across the Commonwealth – in all corners of the State
The causes of these disparities are multiple, including poverty, lack of access to care and racism, discrimination and the legacy of slavery
Slide 3
Heading: Race and Ethnic Breakdown of Population Central Region and Massachusetts: 2005
This slide shows two pie charts comparing the central region to the state as a whole. Overall, the race-ethnicity distribution in Central Ma is similar to the state.
The data shows:
Pie Chart 1: Central, Massachusetts, Population Total = 806,015

White non-Hispanics

Black non-Hispanics

Hispanics

Asian

Other

86%

3%

7%

3%

0.003

Pie Chart 2: Massachusetts, Population Total = 6,349,097



White non-Hispanics

Black non-Hispanics

Hispanics

Asian

Other

81%

6%

8%

5%

0.002

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program


Slide 4
Heading: Race and Ethnic Breakdown of Population Worcester and Massachusetts: 2005
This slide shows two pie charts comparing the Worcester to the state as a whole. Worcester is more diverse than the MA in general: 1/3 of the population is Black, Hispanic, Asian, or American Indian.
The data shows:
Pie Chart 1: Worcester, Population Total = 172,648

White*

Black*

Hispanic

Asian*

American Indian*

66.69

8.55

17.4

6.95

0.41

Pie Chart 2: Massachusetts, Population Total = 6,349,097



White non-Hispanics

Black non-Hispanics

Hispanics

Asian

Other

81%

6%

8%

5%

0.002

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program



Slide 5
Heading: Spanish Spoken at Home Central Region: 2000
A map of the central part of Massachusetts is show, with those cities highlighted where the Spanish language is spoken at home by more than 5% of the residents.
The following cities are highlighted:
Fitchburg: 13%

Shirley: 8%

Leominster: 10%

Harvard: 7%

Lancaster: 8%

Clinton: 10%

West Boylston: 6%

Worcester: 13%

Southbridge: 17%
Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program
Slide 6
Examples of Racial and Ethnic Disparities
Slide 7
Heading: Adults who Reported Fair of Poor Health by Race and Ethnicity Wester Region and Massachusetts: 2005
This slide shows a column chart comparing the western region to Massachusetts by White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic. It also shows that the overall percentage of adults who report “fair” or “poor” health for 2005 was 15%.
For both the western region and Massachusetts, Hispanic residents reported more often that they had fair or poor health. These differences were statistically significant.
The detailed data show:


Race / Ethnicity

Western Region

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

13%

12%

Black non-Hispanic

12%

17%

Hispanic

27%*

23%*









*Statistically significantly different from state (p less than or equal to .05)


Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program
Slide 8
Diabetes

Slide 9
Heading: Prevalence of Diabetes in Massachusetts Varies Significantly by Race/Ethnicity
This slide shows a column chart comparing Diabetes prevalence by Race / Ethnicity for the year 2005.
Hispanic and Black residents have a much higher diabetes rate than Asian, White or the state as a whole.
The detailed data show:


Race / Ethnicity

Prevalence Age adjusted rate per 1000

Asian

32

Hispanic

123

Black (NH)

121

White

54

Total

64

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Health Survey Program


Slide 10
Heading: Diabetes Hospital Discharges, 2003-2005
This slide shows a column chart comparing Hospital Discharges for Diabetes by Race / Ethnicity for the year 2005.
Hispanic and Black residents have a much higher hospital discharge rates per 100,000 for diabetes than Asian, White or the state as a whole.
The detailed data show:





Hospital discharge rate per 100,000

MA

133

White

114

Black

368

Hispanic

242

Asian

45

Source: Division of Health Care Finance and Policy, Inpatient Hospital Discharge Database


Slide 11
Heading: Mortality Rates are Much Higher for Blacks and Hispanics
Sub-Heading: Mortality Rates for Diabetes as the Primary Cause of Death, by Race, 1994 - 2004
This slide shows a line chart of mortality rates from 1994 to 2004 for White non-Hispanics, Black non-Hispanics, Hispanics and Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanics. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:


Year

White, non-Hispanic

Black, non-Hispanic

Hispanic

Asian / Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic

1994

21.13

47.8

16.71

12.65

1995

20.25

43.94

23.77

23.49

1996

20.84

43.02

20.51

15.08

1997

20.26

54.47

26.77

19.73

1998

20.21

46.08

25.94

19.24

1999

18.5

42.88

36.1

11.69

2000

18.72

34.34

42.36

11.26

2001

19.18

44.63

25.78

22.19

2002

18.88

42.61

40.95

16.67

2003

18.64

45.65

30.66

19.68

2004

17.41

34.66

26.75

17.93

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau


Slide 12
Heading: Diabetes Mortality Rates, 2003-2005
This slide shows a column chart of mortality rates for the combined years of 2003, 2004 and 2005 for Whites, Black non-Hispanics, Hispanics and Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanics. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:




Age-Adjusted Death Rate

MA

18

White

17

Black

38

Hispanic

29

Asian

14

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program



Slide 13
Heading: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) by Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 2000 vs. 2006
This slide shows a column chart of percentage of women who gave birth in Massachusetts who had GDM. The years compared are 2000 to 2006. Percentages are shown for Whites non-Hispanics, Black non-Hispanics, Hispanics and Asian.
Both Whites and Asians saw statistically significant increases from 2000 to 2006.
The detailed data depicted are:


Year

White Non-Hispanic

Hispanic

Black Non-Hispanic

Asian

2000

2.59

3.02

3.69

5.23

2006

3.46

3.56

4.29

6.74

Statistically higher than 2000 rate (p less than 0.05)



Slide 14
Asthma

Slide 15

Heading: Age-Adjusted Asthma ED Visits and Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity

2003-2005
This slide shows a column chart of ED Visits and Hospitalizations by Race/Ethnicity for the combined years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. Rates shown are for Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asians. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:





ED Visits

Hospitalizations

White

841.4

676.3

Black

2275.7

1564.1

Hispanic

2080.4

1524.4

Asian

227.3

234.7










MA

1038.3

782.7

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau


Slide 16

Heading: Age-Adjusted Asthma Mortality, 2003-2005


This slide shows a column chart of mortality rates for the combined years of 2003, 2004 and 2005 for Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asias. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:





Hospitalizations

White

1

Black

2.7

Hispanic

2.5

Asian

1.3







MA Total

1.1

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau


Slide 17
Cancer
Slide 18
Heading: Age-Adjusted Cancer Incidence, MA Males, 2000-2004
This slide shows a column chart of incidence rates for men for several different cancers, namely prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer and all cancer. Years shown are the combined years of 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. Races shown are Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asians. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:





Prostate

Lung

Colon

All CA Deaths

White

170.6

87

69.7

244.3

Black

271.8

88.5

53.7

301

Hispanic

183.7

49.3

48.6

134.5

Asian

77.9

49.7

47

121.2

Source: MDPH, MA Cancer Registry


Slide 19
Heading: Age-Adjusted Cancer Incidence, MA Females, 2000-2004
This slide shows a column chart of incidence rates for females for several different cancers, namely breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer and all cancer. Years shown are the combined years of 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. Races shown are Whites, Blacks, Hispanics and Asians. Rates shown are per 100,000.
The detailed data depicted are:





Breast

Lung

Colon

All CA Deaths

White

140.2

64.1

49.5

172.7

Black

103.2

48.4

45.7

176.2

Hispanic

93.3

27.1

36.3

92.1

Asian

68.8

30.3

33.8

90.5

Source: MDPH, MA Cancer Registry


Slide 20
Birth Outcomes
Slide 21

Heading: IMR by Race & Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts: 1990-2006


This slide shows a line chart with a trend over time of infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births by race. The races shown are Black non-Hispanic, Hispanic and White. The Black rates have been consistently higher than the White rates.
The detailed data depicted are:


Year

White

Hispanic

Black

1990

6.1

9.1

13.7

1991

5.5

9.4

15

1992

5.5

7.9

16.4

1993

5.3

9.3

13.1

1994

5.3

7.6

12.6

1995

4.4

7.2

11.1

1996

4.7

5.1

11.4

1997

4.8

6.7

11.7

1998

4.6

6.7

10.6

1999

4.7

5.5

12.3

2000

3.8

5.2

12.8

2001

4.1

7.3

12.1

2002

4.1

7

11.6

2003

4.1

5.6

12.7

2004

3.8

7.6

11.5

2005

4.3

7.6

9.4

2006

4.2

5.8

11.1

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau


Slide 22
HIV
Slide 23
Heading: People Diagnosed with HIV Infection by Gender and Race/Ethnicity: Massachusetts, 2004-2006
This slide has a column chart that shows a breakdown of HIV diagnosis by gender and race/ethnicity. Almost half of males diagnosed are White, whereas half of females are Black.
Data depicted in the chart are:





Male

Female

White (non-Hispanic)

48%

18%

Black (non-Hispanic)

25%

50%

Hispanic

25%

29%

Other

3%

3%

Data Source: MDPH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program, Data as of 11/1/07


Slide 24
Heading: Females Diagnosed with HIV Infection by Race/Ethnicity and Place of Birth: Massachusetts,2004-2006
This slide has a chart that shows a breakdown of females diagnosed with HIV by race/ethnicity and place of birth. For those white females diagnosed with HIV from 2004 through 2006, the majority (88%) are US born. For black females, the majority (65%) were born in Puerto Rico or another US dependency. For Hispanic females, 35% are US born, 36% are from Puerto Rico or another US dependency and 27% are non-US born.
Data depicted in the chart are:





US

Puerto Rico/US Dependency

Non-US

White NH, N=130

88%

1%

11%

Black NH, N=354

35%

0%

65%

Hispanic, N=204

37%

36%

27%

1 97% of people diagnosed with HIV infection from 2004-2006 that were born in a US Dependency were born in Puerto Rico; NH=Non-Hispanic; Data Source: MDPH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program, Data as of 11/1/07


Slide 25
Heading: Percentage of HIV Cases Among 13-24 Year Olds, by Race/Ethnicity: 1999–2006
This slide contains a line chart showing the trend over time of HIV cases that occur among teenagers and young adults (ages 13 to 24) broken down by race and ethnicity. In 2004 and 2005, Blacks made up the majority of cases among this age group, but leveled off again in 2006.





White

Black

Hispanic

Other

1999

34%

23%

37%

6%

2000

24%

37%

38%

2%

2001

35%

32%

31%

1%

2002

31%

37%

28%

3%

2003

26%

36%

36%

1%

2004

27%

48%

22%

4%

2005

19%

55%

22%

3%

2006

36%

30%

31%

3%

2006 Data are preliminary; Data Source: MDPH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program; Data as of 11/1/07


Slide 26
Heading People Diagnosed with HIV Infection by Age at Diagnosis & Race/Ethnicity:
Massachusetts, 2003-2005
This chart contains column charts comparing diagnosis by age and race/ethnicity.

Of teenagers and young adults (13-24) diagnosed with HIV between 2003 and 2005, 44% were Black with 26% being White and 26% being Hispanic. 3% were other. For adults 25 or older, whites had the highest percentage at 40%, followed by black (32% and Hispanic (25%).


The data depicted are:





13-24 years, N=201

25+ years, N=2461

White

26%

40%

Black

44%

32%

Hispanic

26%

25%

Other

3%

3%

Data Source: MDPH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program, Data as of 7/06
Slide 27
Violence in Massachusetts
Slide 28
Gun Violence in Boston Homicides & Non-Fatal Shootings (1990 - PRESENT)

This slide shows a trend line of 17 years showing the number of homicides and shootings related to guns.


The data depicted are:


1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006 (projected)

550

521

355

445

416

356

245

133

167

154

162

222

179

177

268

341

616

DATA SOURCE: Councilor Ross (5.06 Presentation)


Slide 29

Heading: Nonfatal Gunshot Injuries by Race/Ethnicity Boston, 2003-2005 Combined


Sub-heading: Black Bostonians are 24% of total population and 74% of victims of gunshots
Highlights of this slide are:

  • Black Bostonians bear most of the burden of nonfatal assaults with guns: 73.5% of all victims between 2003 and 2005 were black.

  • Hispanics or Latinos are the second-largest group, with 13% of gunshot injuries.

  • MDPH began making data on Cape Verdean Boston residents available as a separate group in 2003. They had 2.2% of these injuries.

  • White residents are disproportionately not among the victims of this kind of violence. With 53.6% of the city’s population in the high-risk age group of 15-34, they had just 4.5% of the gunshot injuries for the period 2003-2005.

Data depicted are:



Asian/Pac Isl

Black

Cape Verdean

Latino

Other/Unknown

White

0.9%

73.5%

2.2%

12.9%

6.0%

4.5%


Slide 30
Disparities Across the Commonwealth
Slide 31

Heading: Diabetes Hospital Discharge Rate by Race/Ethnicity Western Region and Massachusetts: 2003-2005


As in MA overall, diabetes hospitalization rates are highest for Black non-Hispanics and Hispanics.
Diabetes hospitalization rates for Black non-Hispanics and Hispanics in western region are statistically significantly higher than for MA overall.
Data depicted are:





Western Region

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

117.8

114.29

Black non-Hispanic

452.33

367.66

Hispanic

396.02

241.95

Asian non-Hispanic

35.9

45.15

Notes at bottom of page:

Statistically different from State (p ≤.05)

Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population


Source:

Division of Health Care Finance and Policy. Calendar Year 2003-2005. Inpatient Hospital Discharge Database



Slide 32

Heading: Diabetes Death Rate by Race/Ethnicity Central Region and Massachusetts: 2003-2005


This slide contains a column chart comparing the central region to Massachusetts by race/ethnicity.
The data depicted are:


Race/Ethnicity

Central Region

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

21.69 *

17.45

Black non-Hispanic

37.27

38.53

Hispanic

48.81

28.96

Asian non-Hispanic

37.42

14.48

Notes at bottom of page:

* Statistically different from State (p ≤.05)

Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population


Source:

Preliminary 2005 MA Death file, Registry of Vital Records MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research and Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program


Slide 33
Heading: Diabetes Hospital Discharge Rate by Race/Ethnicity, Berkshires, Pittsfield & Massachusetts: 2003-2005
This slide contains a column chart comparing the Berkshires, Pittsfield and Massachusetts by race/ethnicity.
The rate of diabetes discharges is statistically higher for Black-Non-Hispanics in the states, and the Pittsfield rate is much higher for Whites (181 discharge/100,000 population) as well.
The data depicted are:


Race/Ethnicity

Berkshires

Pittsfield

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

121.73

180.58 *

114.29

Black non-Hispanic

975.26 *

1584.29 *

367.66

Hispanic

NA




241.95

Asian non-Hispanic

NA




45.15


Notes at bottom of page:

* Statistically different from State (p ≤.05)

Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population

Source: Division of Health Care Finance and Policy. Calendar Year 2003-2005. Inpatient Hospital Discharge Database


Slide 34
Heading: Infant Mortality Rates by Race/Ethnicity, Western Region and Massachusetts: 2002-2005
This chart compares the western region to Massachusetts by race/ethnicity.
The data depicted are:





Western Region

Massachusetts

White

4.52

4.07

Black

15.1

11.3

Hispanic

7.75

7.02

Asian

NA

2.97


Notes at bottom of page:

NA= Calculations based on less than 5 events are excluded

(*) Statistically different from State (p ≤ .05)

Source: MDPH, Bureau of Health Information, Statistics, Research, & Evaluation Bureau, Division of Research & Epidemiology


Slide 35
Heading: HIV/AIDS Death Rate by Race/Ethnicity Western Region and Massachusetts: 2003-2005

This slide contains a column chart comparing HIV / AID death rates by race / ethnicity for the Western region and the state as a whole. Hispanics in the Western Region die at much higher rates than the state.


The data depicted are:





Western Region

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

1.29

1.67

Black non-Hispanic

18.92

16.47

Hispanic

29.33 *

13.3

Asian non-Hispanic

--

0.87


Notes at the bottom of the page:

(*)Statistically different from State (p ≤.05)

Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population

Source: MDPH, Health Information, Statistics, Research & Evaluation Bureau, Research & Epidemiology Program



Slide 36
Heading: Asthma Emergency Department Visit Rates Children Ages 0-14 Western Region and Massachusetts: 2005
This slide contains column charts comparing the western region to the state as a whole. In the Western region, Blacks and Hispanics have statistically different rates of Asthma ED visits than the state as a whole.
The data depicted are:





Western Region

Massachusetts

White non-Hispanic

569.41

515.82

Black non-Hispanic

1683.08 **

2095.79

Hispanic

2196.27 *

1573.17

Asian non-Hispanic

237.68

355.7



Notes at the bottom of the page:
Statistically different from State (p ≤.05) (*) = Statistically higher; (**) = Statistically lower

Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Source: Division of Health Care Finance and Policy. Calendar Year 2005. Emergency Department Visits
Slide 37
The Health Profiles of Each Racial and Ethnic Group and Sub-group are Different
Slide 38
Heading: Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, Massachusetts, 2006
This slide contains a column chart of mortality rates compared by race and ethnicity. Blacks have statistically significantly higher rates compared to the state; Asians and Hispanics have statistically significantly lower rates compared to the state.
The data depicted are:


Race

Rate per 100,000

N=

White

723.3

49132

Black

838.4 *

2233

Asian

379 **

635

Hispanic

479.9 **

1194

Total

717.6

53293


Notes:

Rates are per 100,000 population. Age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population

* statistically higher than the state rate (p<.05)

* statistically lower than the state rate (p<.05)

Source: MDPH, BHISRE

Slide 39
Premature Mortality Rate (PMR)
Definition:


  • deaths before age 75


Rational:

  • Two-thirds of deaths to persons ages 75+

  • Focus on deaths to persons less than 75 years may be more preventable


Summary health statistic:

  • Excellent measure to reflect the health status of a population

  • Used as a health status indicator that can be used to focus prevention initiatives and target programs.


Slide 40

Heading: Premature Mortality Rates by Race and Hispanic Ethnicity Massachusetts 2006


This column charts shows that Blacks have higher premature mortality rates followed by Whites, Hispanics and then Asians.
Data depicted are:





Rate per 100,000

Total

300.5

White

298.8

Black

427.3

Asian

140.3

Hispanic

279.8



Slide 41
Cesarean Rate by Maternal Ethnicity,Massachusetts 2006
This slide contains information on which women are more likely to get a cesarean delivery based on ethnicity.
Data depicted are:

Ethnicity

Percent delivered by c-section

Brazilian

45.30%*

Nigerian

42.90%*

Haitian

41.00%*

Filipino

39.80%*

Asian Indian

37.70%*

European

35.20%*

MA

33.40%

Chinese

29.70%**

African-American

29.40%**

Puerto Rican

27.60%**

Vietnamese

27.40%**

Japanese

26.10%**

Colombian

24.10%**

Honduran

23.00%**

Salvadoran

22.70%**

Guatemalan

21.70%**

Cambodian

17.40%**

Note: Only ethnic groups statistically different from the state rate are included


* Statistically higher than state rate (p ≤.05)

** Statistically lower than state rate (p<.05)


Slide 42

Heading: Number of Deaths for Leading Causes of Death by Hispanic Ethnicity, Massachusetts 2006


This chart shows that most deaths for those of Hispanic Ethnicity occur to those who are Puerto Rican, followed by Dominican, Central American, South American, Cuban, Mexican and Other/Unknown. In total 1,194 Massachusetts deaths were to people with Hispanic Ethnicity.


Slide 43
What are the contributing factors?

Social and economic determinants of health matter.



Slide 44

Heading: Uninsured by Race / Ethnicity

Percent of all Massachusetts Residents 2007
In 2007, 5.7% of all Massachusetts residents did not have health insurance. However, Hispanics and Black residents have higher rates o uninsurance when compared to other races and ethnicities.
Percentages of Uninsurance:

Asian: 4.5%

White: 4.6%

Other, Multiple: 5.4%

Black: 7.9%

Hispanic: 10.2%


Source: DHCFP Household Survey for 2007 which was conducted January through July 2007.
Slide 45

Language Spoken at Home, Largest Cities, Western Region, 2000


This shows the difference between cities of languages spoken at home. Data depicted are:





Western Region

Chicope

Holyoke

Springfield

Only English

83.9

79.2

57.2

68.4

Spanish / Spanish Creole

8.2

7.1

35.8

23.5

Portuguese / Portuguese Creole

0.9

1.8

0.3

0.7

French

1.5

3.7

1.9

1.3

Italian

0.7

0.3

0.2

1.1

French Creole

0.04

0.07

0.03

0.06

Russian

0.7

0.9

0.1

0.7

Other

4.1

6.9

4.5

4.2

Source: MDPH BHISRE



Slide 46

Heading: Substantial Variation in Diabetes Rates by Household Income


This slide contains a line chart showing prevalence of diabetes from 1998 to 2005 in three year blocks by household income. There is a three-fold difference between people who make less than $25,000 as compared to those that make more than $75,000.
Source: NEHI/Boston Foundation: Boston Paradox

Slide 47

Heading: Diabetes by Education, 2006


This slide compares diabetes prevalence by education levels. Adults with less than a high school education are more than 3 times as likely to have diabetes than the state level.
Data depicted are:


< HS

15.6

HS grad

7.9

1-3 years college

5.4

4+ years college

4.4

MA

6.4


Slide 48

Heading: Mortality Rates by Education and Race, Adults 25-64 Years, Massachusetts 2006


This slide contains a column chart showing that even when looking at adults with a high school education or less, racial differences exist. For example, the mortality rate for whites with a high school education or less is 530.5 but for blacks it is 728.6

Slide 49
The Experience of Racism and Discrimination

In Boston, Black residents are more than 5 times as likely as White residents to report being treated worse than co-workers because of their race, and nearly 6 times more likely to report such racial discrimination in health care settings.


Data depicted are:
Boston Adults who report having been treated worse because of their race in the previous year:


Black

Latino

White

20.8%

18.1%

2.9%



Boston Adults who report having been treated worse when seeking health care because of their race in the previous year:





Black

Latino

White

Diagonal bar: when seeking health care

8.3%

4.0%

1.9%

Note: Data about Asian residents not shown due to inadequate sample size

SOURCE: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Massachusetts Department of Public Health and Boston Public Health Commission
Slide 50
This slide shows a report cover with the following text:
Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities by EOHHS Regions in Massachusetts
Massachusetts Department of Public Health Logo
Deval L. Patrick, Governor

Timothy P. Murray, Lieutenant Governor

JudyAnn Bigby, MD, Secretary of Health and Human Services

John Auerbach, Commissioner, Department of Public Health


Jerry O’Keefe, Bureau Director

Bureau of Health Information, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation

Bruce Cohen, Director, Division of Research and Epidemiology

Massachusetts Department of Public Health


Slide 51
This slide shows a flyer advertising an event. The text reads:
An Added Burden: The Impact of the HIV / AIDS Epidemic on Communities of Color in Massachusetts
World AIDS Day

December 1, 2007


Deval L. Patrick, Governor

Timothy P. Murray, Lieutenant Governor

JudyAnn Bigby, MD, Secretary of Health and Human Services

John Auerbach, Commissioner, Department of Public Health


HIV / AIDS Bureau

Kevin Cranston, Director


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