Slavery in Antebellum America I. "King Cotton"



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Slavery in Antebellum America

I. "King Cotton"


    A. Prior to 1793, the Southern economy was weak: depressed prices,

unmarketable products, soil-ravaged lands, and an economically

risky slave system.
        -- Some leaders, such as Jefferson (who freed 10% of his slaves),

believed slavery would gradually die out but it could not be done

immediately. "We have a wolf by the ears"

    B. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793)


        1. Impact: Cotton production now profitable; 50x more effective

than picking cotton by hand.


            a. Resulted in an explosion in slavery

b. Cotton came to surpass tobacco, rice, and production


        2. Cotton Kingdom developed into a huge agricultural factory
            a. Western expansion into lower gulf states: Louisiana,

Mississippi, Alabama


            b. Slaves brought into new regions to cultivate cotton.
    C. Trade
        1. Cotton exported to England; revenues from sale of cotton used to

buy northern goods


            -- Britain heavily dependent on U.S. cotton for its textile

factories; 80% came from U.S.


        2. For a time, prosperity of both North and South rested on slave

labor
        3. Cotton accounted for 57% of all American exports by 1860.


            -- South produced 75% of world’s cotton.

 

II. The Three Souths


    A. Generalizations
        1. The further North, the cooler the climate, the fewer the slaves,

and the lower the commitment to maintaining slavery..


        2. The further South, the warmer the climate, the more the slaves,

and the higher the commitment to maintaining slavery.


        3. Mountain whites along Appalachian Mountains would mostly

side with the Union during the Civil War.


            -- W. Virginia, E. Tennessee, NE Kentucky, W. South Carolina,

N. Georgia & Alabama.


        4. Southward flow of slaves (from sales) continued from 1790 to

1860
        5. Not a unified South except resistance to outside interference

(federal gov’t)

    B. Border South: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, & Missouri


        1. Plantations scarcer; cotton cultivation almost nonexistent;

Tobacco main crop (as in Middle South); More grain production

(as in Middle South)
        2. Unionists would overcome Disunionists during and after the Civil

War.
        3. 1850, Slaves = 17% of population.; Avg. 5 slaves per slaveholder
        4. 1850, over 21% of Border South’s blacks free; 46% of South’s

free blacks


        5. 22% of white families owned slaves
        6. Those who owned more than 20 slaves in South: 6%; Ultra-

wealthy = 1%


        7. Produced over 50% of South’s industrial products

    C. Middle South: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.


        1. Each state had one section resembling the Border South and

another resembling the Lower South.


            -- Some industrial production: Tredegar Iron Works in Virginia

used slave labor


        2. Unionists prevailed after Lincoln elected; Disunionists prevailed

after war began
        3. Many plantations in eastern Virginia and western Tennessee
        4. 1850, slaves = 30% of population; Avg. 8 slaves per slaveholder
        5. 36% of white families owned slaves
        6. Of all who owned more than 20 slaves in South: 32%; Ultra-

wealthy = 14%


    D. Lower South: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama,

Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas
        1. Most slaves located in the “cotton belt” or "black belt" of Deep

South along river valleys


        2. Plantations prevalent; cotton was king; grew 95% of South's

cotton & almost all sugar, rice, and indigo.


        3. Disunionists (secessionists) would prevail after Lincoln was

elected
        4. 1850, slaves = 47% of population; Avg. 12 slaves per slaveholder
        5. Less than 2% of blacks free; only 15% of South’s free blacks
        6. 43% of white families owned slaves
        7. Of all who owned more than 20 slaves in South: 62%; Ultra-

wealthy = 85%


        8. Produced less than 20% of South’s industrial products

 

III. The Slave System in the South (the "Peculiar Institution")



A. The Planter "Aristocracy"
    1. South was ruled politically and economically by wealthy

plantation owners


        a. 1850, only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves; yet

dominated southern politics.


        b. South was least democratic region of the country.

i. Huge gap between rich & poor

ii. Poor public education (planters sent kids to private schools)

2. Planters carried on "cavalier" tradition of early Virginia;

reflected in its military academies.

-- Elite culture included chivalry; landed genteel-class


B. Plantation system
        1. Risky : Slaves might die of disease, injure themselves, or escape.
            -- System required heavy investment of capital
        2. One-crop economy
            a. Discouraged diversification of agriculture, especially

manufacturing


            b. Southerners resentful North made huge profits at their expense
                -- Complained of northern middlemen, bankers, agents, &

shippers


            c. Resented being so dependent on northern manufactures &

markets
        3. Repelled large-scale European immigration


            a. Only 4.4% of foreign-born Americans were part of South’s

population in 1860;

-- 18.7% in North.
            b. Slave labor was far cheaper; fertile land was too expensive for

most immigrants; immigrants not familiar with cotton

production.
            c. South most Anglo-Saxon (English) region of nation

    C. Plantation slavery


        1. Nearly 4 million slaves by 1860; quadrupled in number since

1800
            a. Legal imports of slaves ended in 1808
                -- Thousands of slaves smuggled in despite death penalty for

slave traders


            b. Increase due to natural reproduction
                i. Over-breeding of slaves not encouraged
                    -- Owners still often rewarded slave women for multiple

children


                ii. White slaveowners often fathered sizable mulatto

population (e.g. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemmings)


                    -- Most remained slaves
        2. Slaves seen as valuable assets and primary source of wealth
            a. Slave auctions one of most revolting aspects of slavery
                i. Families often separated: division of property, bankruptcy
                ii Slavery’s greatest psychological horror
        3. Punishment often brutal to intimidate slaves not to defy master’s

authority
        4. New western areas were harshest for slaves: (LA, TX, MS, AL)
        5. Afro-American slave culture developed, despite oppression.

    D. Burdens of slavery


        1. Slaves deprived of dignity and sense of responsibility that free

people have, suffered cruel physical and psychological treatment,

and were ultimately convinced that they were inferior and

deserved their lot in life.


        2. Denied an education; seen as dangerous to give slaves ideas of

freedom
        3. Slaves often insidiously sabotaged their master’s system


            -- Poisoned food, supplies often missing, equipment often broken,

slow work.


        4. Many attempted to escape
            -- Some success in Border South; next to impossible in Lower

South

    E. Slave Revolts
        1. Stono Rebellion, 1739
            a. South Carolina slaves fled toward Florida killing whites on the

way; did not make it.

b. Led to more oppressive slave system in the South during

colonial period


        2. Gabriel Prosser, 1800
            a. Slave blacksmith in VA who planned a military slave revolt;

recruited 150 men


            b. Rebellion did not materialize and Prosser and 26 others were

hanged.
        3. Denmark Vesey, a mulatto in Charleston, planned largest ever

revolt in 1822 but it never materialized
            a. A slave informer advised his master of the plot
            b. Vesey and 30 others publicly hanged
        4. Nat Turner’s revolt, 1831 (most significant of 19th century)
            a. Sixty Virginians slaughtered, mostly children and women
                i. Wave of killing slowed down revolt’s aim of capturing

armory
                ii. Largest slave revolt ever in the South


            b. Over 100 slaves were killed in response; Turner was hanged.

            c. Significance: Produced a wave of anxiety among southern



plantation owners that resulted in harsh laws clamping down

further on the slave institution.

    F. Southern white paranoia


        1. Feared more reprisals by slaves (like Nat Turner’s revolt)
        2. Infuriated by abolitionist propaganda in the North they saw as

inciting slaves.


        3. Believed in biological racial superiority as a justification for

slavery.


IV. The White Majority
    A. By 1860, only 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to

slave-owning families


        1. Over 2/3 of slave owners owned less than ten slaves each.
        2. Small slaveowners made up a majority of masters.

    B. 75% of white southerners owned no slaves at all.


        1. Located in the backcountry and mountain valleys.
        2. Mostly subsistence farmers; didn’t participate in market economy.
        3. Raised corn, hogs
        4. Poorest called "white trash", "hillbillies", "crackers", "clay eaters"

by planters


            -- Suffered from malnutrition & parasites especially hookworm.
        5. Fiercely defended the slave system as it proved white superiority
            a. Poor whites took comfort that they were "equal" to wealthy

neighbors


            b. Social status was determined by how many slaves one owned:

poor Southern whites someday hoped to own slaves.


            c. Slavery proved effective in controlling blacks; ending slavery

might result in race mixing and blacks competing with whites

for work.

    C. Mountain whites


        1. Lived in the valleys of the Appalachian Mountain range.
        2. Independent small farmers located far from the cotton kingdom.
        3. Lived in rough frontier environment
        4. Hated wealthy planters and slaves.
        5. During Civil War were Unionist; significant in crippling

Confederacy

V. Free Blacks


    A. Numbered about 250,000 in the South by 1860
        1. In Border South, emancipation increased starting in the late 18th

century.


        2. In Lower South, many free blacks were mulattos (white father,

black mother)


        3. Some bought their freedom with earnings from labor after hours.
        4. Some owned property; New Orleans had large prosperous mulatto

community.


            -- A few even owned slaves (although this was rare)

    B. Discrimination in the South


        1. Prohibited from certain occupations and from testifying against

whites in court.


        2. Always in danger of being forced back into slavery by slave

traders.


    C. Discrimination in the North


        1. Blacks also numbered about 250,000
        2. Some states forbade their entrance or denied them public

education


        3. Most states denied them suffrage
        4. Some states segregated blacks in public facilities.
        5. Especially hated by Irish immigrants with whom they competed

with for jobs.


        6. Much of Northern sentiment against spread of slavery into new

territories due to intense race prejudice, not humanitarianism.


            -- Racist feelings often stronger in the North than in the South

 

VI. Abolitionism


Definition: Abolitionism: Movement in North that demanded immediate end to slavery
    A. First abolitionist movements began during Revolutionary Era;

especially Quakers


    B. American colonization Society (founded in 1817)
        1. Sought practical solution vis-à-vis free blacks if slavery was

ended.
            -- Recolonization: supported by many prominent Northerners and

Southerners afraid that manumission (freeing slaves) would

create surplus of free blacks in U.S.


        2. Liberia created on West African Coast for former slaves in 1822.
            a. 15,000 freed blacks transported over next four decades
            b. Most US blacks not eager to go; saw themselves as Americans
                i. Believed they were part of America’s growth & culture
                ii. By 1860, virtually all southern slaves were native-born

Americans


        3. Colonization appealed to most Northerners (including Lincoln)

who felt blacks and whites could not coexist in a free society.
            a. Some feared a mongrelization of the white race.
            b. Others thought blacks inferior, didn't want them in large #’s in

their states.


    C. Abolitionism became the dominant reform movement of the



antebellum period
        1. Second Great Awakening convinced abolitionists of the sin of

slavery.
        2. Abolitionists inspired that Britain freed their West Indian slaves

in 1833

    D. Radical Abolitionism
        1. William Lloyd Garrison
            a. Published 1st issue of his Liberator, a militant antislavery

newspaper in Boston in1831

-- Symbolized the beginning of the abolitionist movement
            b. Demanded the "virtuous" North secede from the "wicked"

South.
                -- Yet, offered no practical solutions for ending slavery.


            c. Inspired abolitionists to found American Anti-Slavery Society
        2. American Anti-Slavery Society
            a. Theodore Dwight Weld
                i. Evangelized by Charles Grandison Finney in NY’s Burned-

Over District in 1820s and appealed to rural farmers in the

Ohio Valley.
                ii. American Slavery As It Is (1839): Among most effective

abolitionist works


                iii. Married Angelina Grimke, a southern abolitionist.
            b. Wendell Phillips -- ostracized Boston patrician; "abolition’s

golden trumpet"


                i. Perhaps most important abolitionist; major impact on politics

during the Civil War for emancipation.
                ii. One of the finest orators of the 19th century.
                iii. Product the 2nd Great Awakening.
                iv. Followed Garrison but more politically practical in 1860s.
            c. Angelina and Sarah Grimke
                i. Only white southern women to become leading abolitionists
                ii. Also involved in women’s rights.
                iii. Angelina married to Theodore Weld; Sarah remained part of

their household


            d. Arthur and Lewis Tappan: wealthy New York merchants.
                -- Funded the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Liberator
            e. Organization would eventually split along gender lines;

women’s rights issues
        3. David Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World,1829
             -- Advocated violence to end slavery.
        4. Sojourner Truth: Freed black woman; pro-emancipation &

women’s rights


        5. Elijah Lovejoy: Militant editor of antislavery newspaper in

Illinois.


            a. Printing press destroyed four times; 4th time press thrown into

a river and Lovejoy was killed by a mob who promptly burned

his warehouse.
            b. Became an abolitionist martyr

c. Also a nativist (may have contributed to his death)


        6. Martin Delaney
            -- One of few blacks to seriously advocate black mass

recolonization in Africa.


        7. Frederick Douglass
            a. Greatest of the black abolitionists
                -- Published The North Star, his own abolitionist newspaper.
            b. Former slave who escaped slavery at age 21.
            c. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
                -- Depicted his life as a slave, struggle to read & write & his

escape to North.


            d. Flexibly practical (in contrast to Garrison who was stubbornly

principled)


            e. Looked to politics to end slavery.
                -- Backed the Liberty party in 1840 and the Republican party in

the 1850s.


        8. Eventually, most abolitionists support the Civil War to end

slavery.

 

VII. Southern Responses to Abolitionism


    A. In 1820s, southern antislavery societies outnumbered northern ones.
    B. After 1830s , white southern abolitionism was silenced
    C. Causes of southern concern
        1. Nat Turner’s revolt coincided with Garrison's Liberator.
            a. South saw a northern abolitionist conspiracy and called

Garrison a terrorist.


            b. Georgia offered $5,000 for his arrest and conviction
        2. Nullification Crisis of 1832
            a. Southerners concerned powerful federal gov't might supported

abolitionism


            b. Anti-slavery whites in South sometimes jailed, whipped, or

lynched
        3. Abolitionist literature that flooded southern mails infuriated

proslaveryites

     D.    Abolitionist literature banned in the Southern mails


            -- Federal gov't ordered southern postmasters to destroy

abolitionist materials and to arrest federal postmasters who did

not comply.

    E. Pro-slavery whites responded by launching a massive defense of

slavery.
        1. Slavery supported by the Bible (Genesis) and Aristotle (slavery

existed in ancient Greece).


        2. Slavery helped civilize and Christianize Africans
        3. Master-slave relationships resembled those of a "family."
        4. George Fitzhugh -- most famous pro-slavery apologist
            a. Contrasted happiness of slaves with "northern wage slaves."
            b. Fresh air in the south as opposed to stuffy factories
            c. Full employment for blacks
            d. Slaves cared for in sickness and old age unlike northern

workers.

 
    F. "gag resolution" -- 1836, southerners drove it through Congress
        1. All antislavery appeals and petitions in Congress prohibited.
            -- Seen by northerners as a threat to the 1st Amendment
        2. Rep. John Quincy Adams waged 8-year fight against it; repealed

in 1844
        3. (Note: banning of antislavery materials in the mails was a

separate issue)

 

VIII. Abolitionist impact in the North


    A. Abolitionists (e.g. Garrison & Lovejoy) were unpopular in many

parts of the North.


        1. Northerners revered the Constitution; slavery was protected by it.
        2. Ideal of Union (advocated by Webster & others) had taken deep

root; Garrison's cries to secede from the South was seen as

dangerously radical.
        3. Northern industry dependent on the South for economic well-

being
            a. Northern bankers owed by southern planters; about $300

million
            b. New England mills fed by southern cotton.
    B. Mob outbursts occurred in response to extreme abolitionists
        1. Lewis Tappan’s NY house ran-sacked in 1834 to a cheering

crowd.
        2. 1835, Garrison dragged through streets of Boston with rope tied

around him.
        3. Elijah P. Lovejoy killed in Illinois

    C. For ambitious politicians, support of abolitionism was political

suicide

    D. By 1850, abolitionism significantly influenced the northern mind


        1. Many saw slavery as morally evil and undemocratic.
        2. Free-soilers opposed extending slavery to remaining Louisiana

Territory and Mexican Cession.


            -- "Free-soil" movement grew into the Republican Party in the

1850s.


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