Sixth Grade Social Studies Curriculum and Assessment Alignment



Download 217.5 Kb.
Page1/4
Date conversion13.05.2016
Size217.5 Kb.
  1   2   3   4

Sixth Grade Social Studies Curriculum and Assessment Alignment

GRADE 6 Content Expectation

*State Assess

**Assess

Category

Focus Question

***Sample Response to Focus Question

H1.1 Temporal Thinking
Use historical conceptual devices to organize and study the past. 


 




6 – H1.1.1 Explain why and how historians use eras and periods as constructs to organize and explain human activities over time.

C




What conceptual devices do people use to organize and study time?

We use eras, millennia, periods, decades, and centuries. We use these devices to organize time and to describe the common characteristics of events during that time period. The era of the Ice Age is characterized, for example, by a certain climate which affected large areas of the Earth. The decades of the “Cold War” were characterized by the polarization of power between two super powers. Looking for common characteristics in devices that help us organize time helps historians and students explain and compare human activity.

6 – H1.1.2 Compare and contrast several different calendar systems used in the past and present and their cultural significance (e.g., Olmec and Mayan calendar systems, Aztec Calendar Stone, Sun Dial, Gregorian calendar – B.C./A.D.; contemporary secular – B.C.E./C.E.; Note: in 7th grade Eastern Hemisphere the Chinese, Hebrew, and Islamic/Hijri calendars are included).

S

M

H1.1


What conceptual devices do people use to organize and study time?

People keep track of time and develop calendar systems based on both natural and cultural events. Calendars and time-keeping are significant aspects of cultural traditions. Historical events, holidays, religious celebrations, birthdays and anniversaries are recorded on calendars for respective cultural groups to use. People around the world may use more than one calendar. They may keep one calendar to maintain cultural and ethnic heritage and use another calendar for business.

H1.2 Historical Inquiry and Analysis
Use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past.
 

 




6 – H1.2.1 Explain how historians use a variety of sources to explore the past (e.g., artifacts, primary and secondary sources including narratives, technology, historical maps, visual/mathematical quantitative data, radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis).

S

Cc

H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

Historians use a variety of sources to explore the past. The sources provide information that is used to describe and explain the past. Technology has changed the way in which information is obtained, stored, and analyzed. We can learn about the past by examining artifacts, reading primary and secondary sources, and using historical maps. Students will understand that radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis are often used to verify the authenticity of some sources.

6 – H1.2.2 Read and comprehend a historical passage to identify basic factual knowledge and the literal meaning by indicating who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed.

S

Cc

H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We can use historical questions such as who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed to interpret meaning from a historical passage. For example, students could interpret meaning after reading about Mexican Independence.

6 – H1.2.3 Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources.

S

CC

H1.2



How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We identify point of view and context when using different types of primary and secondary sources so that we can identify the perspective of the author and determine how it would influence what was related.

6 – H1.2.4 Compare and evaluate competing historical perspectives about the past based on proof.

C




How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

We compare and evaluate historical perspectives. The view of a time period may be different for different ethnic groups, such as the world view of contemporary Mexico versus an Ancient Mayans’ world view; or the same event viewed from different perspectives. To determine what happened when perspectives clashed, historians look to DNA, forensic evidence, and other contemporaneous reports or records, artifacts and radiocarbon dating to draw a conclusion.

6 – H1.2.5 Identify the role of the individual in history and the significance of one person’s ideas.

S

Cc

H1.2


How do we use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past?

Some of the ways we can identify the role of the individual in history is as political or military leaders; as social, economic, agricultural, religious leaders; innovators, followers and entrepreneurs, both famous and not famous.

One example of the significance of an individual’s ideas would be Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of Mexican Independence, whose ideas about independence and freedom spread throughout Latin America.



H1.4 Historical Understanding
Use historical concepts, patterns, and themes to study the past.


 




6 – H1.4.1 Describe and use cultural institutions to study an era and a region (political, economic, religion/belief, science/technology, written language, education, family).

S

M

H1.4


What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Some examples of cultural institutions are political systems – how people are governed; means of production and consumption and the system of exchange in economy; beliefs, deities and values associated with religion or ethnicity; scientific and technological innovation such as the creation of the calendar, using astronomy, use of metals; written language; education systems, formal and informal; and family structures. For example, we could research the Inca and Inuit cultural institutions to learn more about Incan and Inuit life in the past.

6 – H1.4.2 Describe and use themes of history to study patterns of change and continuity.

C




What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Historians use themes such as: 1. human interaction with the environment; 2. civilization, cultural diffusion, and innovation; 3. values, beliefs, political ideas, and institutions; 4. conflict and cooperation; 5. comparative history of major developments; and 6. patterns of social and political interaction, to study patterns of change and continuity.

6 – H1.4.3 Use historical perspective to analyze global issues faced by humans long ago and today.

C




What are some examples of historic concepts, patterns and themes historians use to study the past?

Some examples of global issues are global climate change, globalization of trade, and human migration. Human environment interaction such as terrace farming in Peru and the building of Incan Road are examples of people adjusting to their environment with technology. Natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are challenges still faced by people today.

W1.1 Peopling of the Earth
Describe the spread of people in the Western Hemisphere during Era 1.
 

 




6 – W1.1.1 Describe the early migrations of people among Earth’s continents (including the Berringa Land Bridge).

S

Cc

H1.4


How did people live in the earliest times and where did they migrate?

The early migration of people from Asia and Africa throughout the Earth's continents via land and water is early evidence of movement of people; other examples are the Berringa Land Bridge and Pacific Islanders reaching South America.

6 – W1.1.2 Examine the lives of hunting and gathering people during the earliest eras of human society (tools and weapons, language, fire).

C




How did people live in the earliest times?

Early people who were hunters and gatherers invented tools and weapons primarily from stone, wood, and bone for acquiring and preparing food and for defense. The use of fire was an important discovery as well as the development of basic verbal communication and other forms of communication such as pictographs and cave drawings.

W1.2 Agricultural Revolution
Describe the Agricultural Revolution and explain why it is a turning point in history.







6 – W1.2.1 Describe the transition from hunter gatherers to sedentary agriculture (domestication of plants and animals).

S

CC

H1.1


How did people live in the earliest times?

When hunters and gathers settled in favorable areas, they domesticated plants and animals, specialized in goods, and participated in trade. The focus for people began to change from a nomadic lifestyle to living in a specific location. The growing of maize and squash required a continued human presence to care for the fields, protect crops from predators, and to harvest and store food.

6 – W1.2.2 Describe the importance of the natural environment in the development of agricultural settlements in different locations (e.g., available water for irrigation, adequate precipitation, and suitable growing season).

S

Cc

G4


How did the natural environment affect how people lived?

A favorable natural environment with adequate soil, water, and growing season allowed for the development of agricultural settlements. The natural environment was important because it allowed for reliable production of clothing, food and shelter for the population.

6 – W1.2.3 Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution (stable food supply, surplus, population growth, trade, division of labor, development of settlements).

S

M

H1.4


Why was the Agricultural Revolution a turning point in history?

The Agricultural Revolution changed life during this time period by providing a stable food supply, which enabled trade possibilities, population growth, division of labor, and the development of settlements.

The Agricultural Revolution era began when hunter gatherer societies began to settle and plant food and useful commodities. Not until a society had sufficient reliable food sources could trade take place. With surplus and trade came the division of labor – a working society where people do many different jobs such as herdsmen, potters, craftsmen, traders, and farmers. As a result, settlements developed and populations grew. Specialization made the settlement more prosperous.



W2.1 Early Civilizations and Early Pastoral Societies
Describe the characteristics of early Western Hemisphere civilizations and pastoral societies.


 




6 – W2.1.1 Explain how the environment favored hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life in different parts of the Western Hemisphere.

S

CC

G2


How did the environment favor hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life?

Areas with regular and abundant precipitation, soil, and adequate growing seasons developed societies that utilized small scale agriculture, as well as opportunities for hunting, fishing and gathering of berries and other plants for food, dye, and medicine. Drier and more mountainous climates developed small pastoral societies, which often supplemented agriculture with hunting and gathering. Agriculture could be sustained through irrigation of specialty crops such as potatoes.

6 – W2.1.2 Describe how the invention of agriculture led to the emergence of agrarian civilizations (seasonal harvests, specialized crops, cultivation, and development of villages and towns).

S

Cc

G2


What characteristics describe early civilizations and early pastoral societies?

The development of agriculture and production of surplus food allowed for larger more densely populated areas. This resulted in specialization of labor, and the development and refinement of cultural institutions, such as the arts and architecture, as well as the development of social, political and economic hierarchy.

6 – W2.1.3 Use multiple sources of evidence to describe how the culture of early peoples of North America reflected the geography and natural resources available (e.g., Inuit of the Arctic, Kwakiutl of the Northwest Coast; Anasazi and Apache of the Southwest).

S

CC

H1.2


How did the cultures of early people of North America reflect the natural resources present in their environment?

Four geographic areas and Indian tribes of the present day United States are examples of how indigenous people used the environment throughout their history: the Plains, Apache; the Southwest, Anasazi; the Northwest, Kwakiutl; and Arctic regions, Inuit, are only examples of the wide diversity of indigenous people living in North America. They can serve, however, as examples of how indigenous people used their environment.
Some examples of how the geography and natural resources of North America influenced food, clothing and housing of the people who lived there are: Apache food: deer, wild turkey, rabbit, buffalo, bear, mountain lion; clothing: deerskin shirts, skirts, moccasins, and leggings; housing: single family, thatched grass over bent pole frame; Anasazi food: rabbit, deer, maize, squash, beans; clothing: skirts for women, loin cloths for men made from cotton cloth and woven yucca; housing: apartment type, cliff dwellings of adobe; Kwakiutl food: deer, moose, fish, shellfish, seaweed, berries; clothing: cedar bark and fur robes for men and women, cedar bark capes and hats; housing: multi-family, wood frame, cedar bark covering, pitched slanted roof; Inuit food: fish, sea mammals, land animals, seaweed; clothing: parkas and pants made from hides and skins; housing: single family, skin tent in summer, igloo in winter.

6 – W2.1.4 Use evidence to identify defining characteristics of early civilizations and early pastoral nomads (government, language, religion, social structure, technology, and division of labor).

S

M

G2


What characteristics describe early civilizations and early pastoral societies?

Leadership and governing; language such as pictographs and early writing; religion; technology such as tools and techniques of road building; division of labor; and an identifiable social structure based on economics, politics, and religion are characteristics of early civilizations and pastoral nomadic society. A pastoral nomadic society is one whose economy and way of life are centered on the raising of domesticated animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, or camels. We can use evidence from a variety of artifacts, extinct architecture or architectural ruins, scrolls, tablets, decorative art, artisan created jewelry and household items, textiles, burial items, collected oral accounts, and others to identify characteristics of early civilizations.

W3.1 Classical Traditions and Major Empires in the Western Hemisphere
Describe empires and agrarian civilizations in Mesoamerica and South America.


 




6 – W3.1.1 Analyze the role of environment in the development of early empires, referencing both useful environmental features and those that presented obstacles.

C




How did the environment help and hinder the development of empires in the Western Hemisphere?

The environment both helped and hindered the development of early empires in the Western Hemisphere. The Olmec, Incan, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations were both helped and hindered by environmental features. Mountains provided both protection and isolation from enemies, and a diversity of agricultural conditions. Examples of the positive effects of geographical features are that highland plateaus protected the population from disease more common in the lowland and coastal regions, and altitude and latitude allowed for a year-round growing season. Challenges caused by the physical environment would include the rugged terrain and the lack of water in more arid regions, making agriculture difficult; the mountains were a hindrance to transportation.

6 – W3.1.2 Explain the role of economics in shaping the development of early civilizations (trade routes and their significance – Incan Road, and supply and demand for products).


S

Cc

H1.4


What were the characteristics of empires and agrarian civilizations in the Western Hemisphere?

Economics played an important role in early civilizations. The size of the empires resulted in a diversity of products which encouraged trading. For example: agricultural products, items made from volcanic glass, and shells were exchanged. This was made possible with transportation systems such as the Incan Road which was over 1000 miles long.
Another example is Tenochtitalan as the central trade location for the Aztec empire. The trade region for the Aztec empire extended northward across Mexico and into the southern part of what became the United States. Established trade and trade routes made control of the trade area attractive. Armies and alliances were necessary to maintain the order and the power of the empire.

6 – W3.1.3 Describe similarities and differences among Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, including economy, religion, and role and class structure.

S

M

H1.4


What were the characteristics of empires and agrarian civilizations in the Western Hemisphere?

One unique characteristic of Mayan, Incan, and Aztec empires was their establishment in three different locations. Each region was urban in its structure. The civilizations were supported by extensive trade and communication networks and had complex religion and social structures. Each civilization established pyramids and monuments which are still observable. Each civilization appeared, reached its zenith, and collapsed during different time periods. The Incans and the Mayans had an environmental and an economic collapse. The Aztec's collapse was the result of military conquest.

6 – W3.1.4 Describe the regional struggles and changes in governmental systems among the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan Empires.

C




What were the characteristics of empires and agrarian civilizations in the Western Hemisphere?

Around the territorial perimeters there were continual struggles between the empire and the smaller nomadic tribes and independent settlements. The governmental structure changed according to the outcome of the perimeter struggles. Finally, the dissolution of the centralized government occurred when the empire collapsed.
  1   2   3   4


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page