TO ARMS! and TO THE CITIZENS OF MACON
Broadsides for publicizing events and announcements -- single sheets of paper, printed on one side only – are a popular format of ephemera –material printed for one-time or temporary use.
TO ARMS! -- a scarce Confederate broadside issued at Warrenton, Georgia in February 1862, shows how Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown met Richmond’s manpower demands – with the machinery of the state militia system -- before the passage of a Confederate conscription act.
TO THE CITIZENS OF MACON Governor Brown reached out, in this broadside, as Union general George Stoneman’s cavalry approached Middle Georgia. Intercepted on the city’s outskirts of by entrenched Georgia militia and outflanked by CA troops, Stoneman was captured a day later – the highest-ranking Union officer taken prisoner in the war.
Robert E Lee letter ; Map of the Battle Ground of Greenbrier River
Men of the First Georgia Regiment were among the troops called on by Robert E. Lee, in this letter of September 8, 1861 "… to keep steadily in view the great principles for which they contend, and to manifest to the world their determination to maintain them.” The First Georgia soon fought at the attack on Cheat Mountain (Sept. 12-15), and at the battle of Greenbrier River (October 3, 1861), recalled here in a Confederate battleground map by a Georgia veteran of the (West) Virginia campaign.
“R.E. Lee” carte-de-visite (albumen print on 2-1/2" x 4" card)
Photographic cartes de visite, such as this portrait of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, are descendants of the engraved calling card, compared to which they were relatively inexpensive, and more convenient keepsakes. In the Civil War, cartes’ usage exploded among uniformed soldiers and families who posed for them before being separated by war.
The First Confederate Speller; The Southern School Arithmetic (2 books, closed)
Schoolbooks before the Civil War were published in New York, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia. Out of loyalty -- and to seize a market in a war-squeezed economy -- the Nashville-based Southern Methodist Publishing House in mid-1861 began to publish texts for Southern schoolchildren.
The Southern School Arithmetic
Arithmetic books, primers, and geographies made up the majority of Confederate juvenile books. Richmond-based West & Johnston was one of a handful of Southern publishers through which the Confederacy produced roughly 10,000 books, pamphlets, broadsides, maps, sheet music, prints, government documents, and periodicals.
1 page ALS, Abraham Lincoln to Alexander Stephens; 2 photo carte-de-visites “A. Lincoln” and “Lieut. John A. Stephens.”
Abraham Lincoln met Confederate vice-president Alexander Stephens’ concern for his nephew, a prisoner-of-war, by personally ordering the young Confederate’s parole in this letter, which followed their failed meeting to discuss a peace settlement a week earlier. The U.S. president personally handed First Lieutenant John A. Stephens this letter and a carte-de-visite for his uncle. Sadly, by the time Stephens was able to convey the letter to his uncle, Lincoln had been assassinated.
Transcription of Letter:
Washington, Feb. 10 1865
Hon. A.H. Stephens,
According to our agreement your nephew, Lieut. Stephens, goes to you bearing this note. Please, in return, to select and send to me, that officer of the same rank imprisoned at Richmond whose physical condition most urgently requires his release.
Between 1861 and 1865, the nation was nearly ripped apart by a bloody Civil War that created a million casualties and freed millions of African Americans formerly held in slavery. The Hargrett Library's holdings on the Civil War era are among its most extensive and important. The Library holds the original Confederate Constitution, the founding document of the Southern government. Researchers have access to more than 2,500 Confederate imprints; tens of thousands of letters, diaries, and other papers of Union and Southern soldiers and civilians; photographs; maps; and other documents held in more than 500 distinct manuscript collections.
Performing Arts Case
Ertedrawings“Rideau de la Mer Blanche”; and "Premiere Porteuse des Vailes" for "Tableau des Mariages." (2 drawings – 1 vertical, 1 horiz)
Vintage drawings of costumes and set designs are scarce since music hall companies typically focused more on putting on shows than on filing paperwork. Max Weldy’s design studio was the most important supplier for 1920s Paris music halls like the Folies Bergère, and a major source for London and New York show producers, who sought out the spectacular designs Weldy contracted from the best European designers, such as Erté, whose work is seen here.
A Hello, Dolly sketchbook used by Tony-award winning designer Freddy Wittop shows the creative multitasking involved in creating the 1964 Broadway production’s “world”: Notes on characters and settings; sketching and filling out costume designs, with samples of the exact color and fabric he imagined for Miss Dolly Levi (Carol Channing).
Gentlemen Prefer Blondes script. (cover and fanned pages)
Charles Coburn’s personal script from Gentlemen Prefer Blondes may evoke golden memories of his performance as the quintessential millionaire old fool for Marilyn Monroe’s iconic gold-digger. But it was “Sir Francis ‘Piggy’ Beekman’s” diamonds that most interested “Lorelei Lee,” in a run of dialogue highlighted by Coburn below, and echoed in the cabaret lyrics of a later scene, one of Monroe’s most famous:
A kiss on the hand / may be quite continental / but diamonds are a girl's best friend …
The Hargrett Library houses many significant theatrical collections covering all aspects of the performing arts with a special emphasis on costume design. The Charles Coburn Collection includes scripts, movie stills, and publicity photographs documenting the Savannah native's successful theatrical career. Coburn received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1941. The Paris Music Hall Collection comprises over 7,000 original renderings of costume and curtain designs created for the music halls of Paris from 1920-1938. Twenty-six international designers are represented in this collection including the most famous of all, Erté. The Hargrett Library houses more than 3,000 costume designs by Freddy Wittop who won the Tony Award for Hello Dolly!
Natural History Case
The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes. John Gerard. London,  1636.
Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris. John Parkinson. London, 1629
These herbals of John Gerard (1597) and John Parkinson (1629), profusely illustrated with woodcuts, grew out of these important English botanists’ extensive practical gardens, where they cultivated foreign-born varieties from seeds and bulbs gathered by enterprising explorers of the New World. Plants described and shown for the first time in the herbals then made their way back across the Atlantic, and could be found among valuable references on the Southern colonial gentleman’s bookshelf.
A description of East-Florida, with a Journal, kept by John Bartram […] upon a journey from St. Augustine up the river St. John’s […]. By William Stork ;
John Bartram. 1769;
Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges or Creek confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws […]. William Bartram. 1792.
John Bartram (1699-1777) was the self-taught “Father of American Botany.” He traveled extensively throughout the eastern United States collecting plant specimens. John’s final trip, in 1765, took him to Florida, where he served as King George’s royal botanist.
His son William (1739-1823) accompanied him on the 1765 expedition in Florida and, in 1773, returned to further explore the state. William spent nearly four years in the southern United States and later published his account of his travels. William Bartram’s Travels, reprinted many times, continues to fascinate American readers and attract them to the wildernesses he loved.
William Tatham manuscript notebook.
William Tatham (1752-1819) came to America as a young man to engage in the tobacco trade. Amid a lifetime of enterprises – civil servant, engineer, surveyor, agricularist, author, collector, etc. -- he ventured a “Botanical Correspondence” between Spain and America with this self-illustrated manuscript discussing Southern gardens and gardening, native plants and medicinal herbs, and the production of sugar from sugar maples.
The Natural History Collection is one of the most important interdisciplinary resources in the Hargrett Library. Represented in this collection are a variety of rare books, prints, original renderings, and manuscripts. These materials give insight into the historical relationship between man and his environment.
The Hargrett Library's collection of the work of John Abbot is one of the largest in the country. Abbot (1751-1840) lived primarily in Screven County, and devoted his life to documenting the birds, spiders, moths, butterflies and plants he discovered in that area of Georgia. In 1830, John Eaton LeConte recorded for posterity the Turtles, Tortoises, Frogs and Salamanders of Georgia and South Carolina with forty-nine original drawings.
A New Map of Georgia, with Part of Carolina, Florida and Louisiana […].Emanuel Bowen.
From: John Harris’ Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, or Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels.
The map first appeared in the 1744-48 edition, when a chapter was added, giving a history of Georgia.
Emanuel Bowen’s 1748map shows the Southeastern Indian tribes and the chief trading paths among them and French and English colonists. This New Map of Georgia first appeared in the 1744-48 edition of John Harris’ (Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca (A Complete Collection of Voyages and Travels) when a chapter was added giving a history of the Georgia colony.
CC Jones extra-illustrated vols 1 and 2 of Antiquities of the Southern Indians, each open to unfold a 2-page wide copper engraving of Indians by Theodor De Bry
Theodor De Bry, a 16th-century Flemish-German engraver, never traveled to America, but his imaginative renditions of drawings by colonists were widely reprinted, the earliest representations of Native Americans seen by many Europeans. These drawings of Algonquian village and fishermen were used by Georgia historian Charles Colcock Jones Jr. to illustrate his personal, author’s extra-illustratedcopy of Antiquities of the Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes (1873).
Cherokee Hymns / compiled from several authors and revised by E. Boudinott & S.A. Worcester ... Printed for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. New Echota : Jno. F. Wheeler, Printer, 1829. And Cherokee Phoenix. Vol. I, No. 4. New Echota, Thursday March 13, 1828.
(Hymnal open to title page; newspaper folded with page 1 on display)
While editing the Cherokee Phoenix , the first Native American newspaper, Elias Boudinot (Cherokee name: Galagina “Buck” Watie) began working with white American missionary Samuel Worcester. Together they translated between 16 and 23 Christian texts into Cherokee between 1829-1839. Their initial collaboration produced Cherokee Hymns, the first book printed using the Cherokee syllabary invented by Sequoyah.
Centuries before European colonization, indigenous peoples inhabited the land that would become Georgia. Rich with their own distinctive languages and cultures, contact with whites would fundamentally change the condition of their lives. In a nearly one-hundred-year saga of wars and treaties that would continue to play out across the American Western frontier long afterward, Georgia's native tribes were pushed to the state's fringes and finally removed, altogether.
The Hargrett Library offers extensive holdings on the Native American experience in Georgia dating from James Oglethorpe's first contacts with Chief Tomochichi of the Yamacraw in 1733 to the forced relocation of Georgia's Cherokees to Oklahoma in 1838 known as the "Trail of Tears."
Art of the Book Case
Alphabetical Collection: favorite words and texts about writing, lettering and painting […].Illus. by Suzanne Moore. 1989.
Suzanne Moore’s Alphabetical Collection (1989) unique manuscript book was designed, lettered, painted, and handsewn into its vellum binding by the artist.
Daphnis and Chloe. Longus. Etchings by Susan Allix. London: Willow Press, 1982. (1 book open upside down, displaying full binding illustration)
Susan Allix’s Daphnis and Chloe (1982) features handset text, hand-drawn titles, and illustrative etchings in colour and sepia. Allix handbound this limited edition of 55 copies in natural and dyed leather, which she decorated with a Greek Classical design extending fully across both boards.
Cetacea; The Great Whales. Etchings and wood engravings by Alan James Robinson. Williamsburg, Mass.: Chelonidae Press, 1982. (1 book, closed to show cover)
Cetacea (The Great Whales) artist Alan James Robinson collaborated on this limited edition (100 copies) masterpiece with binders David Bourbeau and Gray Parrot, and master printer Harold McGrath. Together they created this portfolio of etchings, engravings, and handset text, in a black leather folder sculpted in bas-relief with the head of a Right Whale.
Books have influenced the course of history creating the impetus for revolutions and change throughout the world, as well as providing knowledge and enjoyment. Our collection of over 200,000 books may be used to trace the growth and development of the book, starting with works printed before 1501 called incunabula, meaning the “cradle” of printing and continuing throughout the centuries to the modern book arts movement. Within these books, researchers may study various aspects of book history such as paper making, calligraphy, engraving, illustration, typography, design, bibliography, and bindings. The Library's collection of small press and fine printing is one of the largest in the country.
This land grant from King George II, signed by Georgia’s royal governor John Reynolds, conveyed 500 acres in the Ogeechee district to colonist Noble Jones. As Georgia’s Trusteeship (1732-1752) ended, and its years as a crown colony (1752-1776) began, the end of a ban on slavery and the abolition of restrictions on the buying, selling, and mortgaging of land encouraged large acquisitions and investments in capitalist plantation agriculture.
Framed 1-page letter, London, Oct. 7, 1772, signed “B. Franklin”, to Noble W. Jones.
When Benjamin Franklin was Georgia’s agent (1768-1775), he sent the colony seeds of Chinese rice and tallow trees, hoping they “may be useful to your Country.” With similar optimism, he wrote to Noble Jones:
In my last I acquainted you with the Change of Ministry in the American Department […] and from the Character of Lord Dartmouth we may hope there will be no more of those arbitrary Proceedings in America that disgrac’d the late Administration.… Tallow trees thrived; upland rice had less success. Most unfortunately, in 1775, Lord Dartmouth would order enforcement of the “Intolerable Acts,” causing the seizure of arms in Massachusetts Bay colony. What followed, at Lexington and Concord, proved the opening shots of the American Revolution.
Sheftall Diary (ca. 1733-1808). Attributed to Benjamin Sheftall (1692-1765), Levi Sheftall (1739-1809), Mordechai Sheftall (1784-1856).
Forty-one Jewish women, men and children disembarked from the schooner William and Sarah in early July 1733, upon the shore of the Savannah River, after a seven-month journey from London. At the time, they were the single largest group of Jews to land in America.
Unlike few archives of colonial Jewish congregations, this second-generation copy of colonist Benjamin Sheftall’s diary survived by being completed and copied by his descendants. It notes the community’s births, deaths, marriages, arrivals and departures, and also records their establishment of Congregation Mickve Israel, the third oldest Jewish congregation in America.
Georgia’s first newspaper, the Georgia Gazette, appeared in the colony at Savannah in 1763. Suspended in 1776, it was resurrected by Loyalists when British rule was restored and published in 1779-1782 time as the Royal Georgia Gazette.
Signed letter to “His Excellency George Walton” from “Your Excellency’s Most Obedient Servant-- G. Washington.” September 21, 1789. 1 page.
The first president, George Washington, was tasked with notifying the states of laws passed by Congress. (Soon the Secretary of State would take over this responsibility; by John Adams’ administration, it was dispensed with altogether.) On September 21, 1789, Washington wrote Georgia’s governor George Walton of the first Acts passed by the First U.S. Congress -- setting executive branch salaries, assigning custody of the nation’s records, acts and Great Seal, and raising revenue through a customs program.
United States, Sept. 21st 1789.
I have the honor to transmit to your Excellency An Act for establishing the Salaries of the Executive officers of Government, with their Assistants and Clerks. An Act to provide for the safe-keeping of the Acts, Records and Seal of the United States, and for other purposes. And an Act to suspend part of an Act entitled “An Act to regulate the collection of the duties imposed by Law on the Tonnage of Ships and Vessels, and on Goods, Wares, and Merchandizes imported into the United States,” and for other purposes.
I have the honor to be,
With due consideration
Most Obt. Servt.
British settlement of Georgia began in earnest in 1732 when King George II granted a charter of the colony and named twenty-one Trustees to govern it. James Oglethorpe led the original 114 men, women, and children who crossed the Atlantic on the Anne and established a new settlement at Savannah in 1733. Envisioned as a refuge for debtors and buffer against Spanish Florida, Georgia also banned slavery for its first eighteen years of existence.
The Hargrett Library's holdings on the Colonial period include the original plan of the city of Savannah, as laid out by Oglethorpe and Noble Jones and sketched by George Jones. The papers of Trustee Sir John Perceval Earl of Egmont provide vital information about the early colony, including the passenger list of the first settlers. The Hargrett Library holds papers of royal governors, maps, early newspapers, and thousands of other documents that stand as an enduring record of Colonial and Revolutionary era Georgia.