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Chapter 5—Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775
SHORT ANSWER
Identify and state the historical significance of the following:
1. Jonathan Edwards

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

2. Benjamin Franklin

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



3. Michel-Guillaume de Crèvecoeur

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

4. George Whitefield

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



5. John Peter Zenger

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

6. Phillis Wheatley

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



7. John Singleton Copley

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

8. John Trumbull

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



9. Charles Wilson Peale

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

10. Benjamin West

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



11. Jacobus Arminius

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

12. Andrew Hamilton

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



Describe and state the historical significance of the following:
13. Paxton Boys

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

14. Great Awakening

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



15. Anglicans

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

16. rack-renting

ANS:

Student answers will vary.


17. Regulator movement

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



18. old and new lights

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

19. triangular trade

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



20. Molasses Act

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

21. Scots-Irish

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



22. naval stores

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

23. praying towns

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



24. almshouses

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

25. jayle birds

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



26. taverns

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

27. Congregational Church

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



28. Presbyterian

ANS:


Student answers will vary.

29. Arminians

ANS:

Student answers will vary.



30. heresies

ANS:


Student answers will vary.


COMPLETION
Identify the customary eighteenth-century shipping routes for the following cargoes by reference number on the map.

31. ____ Rum

ANS: 2


32. ____ Slaves

ANS: 3


33. ____ Timber and foodstuffs

ANS: 5


34. ____ Tobacco, fish, lumber, and flour for British textiles

ANS: 1


35. ____ Sugar and molasses

ANS: 4
MULTIPLE CHOICE


36. All of the following are reasons the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies sought independence except

a.

distinctive social structures.

b.

distinctive economic structures.

c.

distinctive political structures.

d.

distinctive ethnic or racial structures.

e.

the appearance of a recognizably American way of life.

ANS: D REF: p. 78


37. Identify the statement that is false.

a.

In 1700, the Atlantic seaboard colonies contained fewer than 300,000 inhabitants.

b.

In 1700, only about 20,000 inhabitants were blacks.

c.

By 1775, the Atlantic seaboard colonies contained almost 2.5 million inhabitants.

d.

By 1775, the black population rose to over 1 million.

e.

White immigrants in 1775 made up about 400,000 of the inhabitants.

ANS: D REF: p. 78


38. One feature common to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their

a.

relatively equal wealth.

b.

economic organization.

c.

similar social structures.

d.

rapidly growing populations.

e.

support of religious freedom.

ANS: D REF: p. 78


39. As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the eighteenth century

a.

a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country.

b.

the British government was pleased that more workers would be available to fill an increasing need for laborers in Britain.

c.

the need for slave labor declined.

d.

the colonists became more dependent on Britain for the goods that they needed to survive.

e.

the British government granted greater autonomy to colonial governments.

ANS: A REF: p. 78


40. The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to

a.

white immigration from Europe.

b.

the natural fertility of Native Americans.

c.

the importation of slaves from Africa.

d.

the influx of immigrants from Latin America.

e.

the natural fertility of all Americans.

ANS: E REF: p. 78

41. The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was

a.

30.

b.

27.

c.

25.

d.

20.

e.

16.

ANS: E REF: p. 78


42. By 1775, which of the following communities could not be considered a city in colonial America?

a.

New York

b.

Charlestown

c.

Philadelphia

d.

Boston

e.

Baltimore

ANS: E REF: p. 78


43. By the end of the 1700s, what was the percentage of people living in rural areas of colonial America?

a.

25 percent

b.

40 percent

c.

60 percent

d.

75 percent

e.

90 percent

ANS: E REF: p. 78


44. The Scots-Irish can best be described as

a.

pugnacious, lawless, and individualistic.

b.

loyal to the British king.

c.

people who did not like to move.

d.

builders of sturdy homes and well-kept farms.

e.

strong supporters of the Catholic Church.

ANS: A REF: p. 80


45. With regard to governmental authority, the Scots-Irish colonists

a.

showed remarkable willingness to follow authority.

b.

supported only Britain.

c.

cherished no love for the British or any other government.

d.

stated a preference for Catholic authority.

e.

established good relations with local Indians.

ANS: C REF: p. 80


46. An armed march in Philadelphia in 1764, protesting the Quaker oligarchy's lenient policy toward the Indians was known as

a.

Bacon's Rebellion.

b.

March of the Paxton Boys.

c.

Regulator Movement.

d.

Shays' Rebellion.

e.

Oligarchy Revolution.

ANS: B REF: p. 80


47. In North Carolina, spearheaded by the Scotch-Irish, a small insurrection against eastern domination of the colony's affair was known as

a.

Bacon's Rebellion.

b.

March of the Paxton Boys.

c.

Regulator Movement.

d.

Shays' Rebellion.

e.

Whiskey Rebellion.

ANS: C REF: p. 80


48. By 1775, the ____ were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America.

a.

Africans

b.

Germans

c.

West Indians

d.

Scots-Irish

e.

Irish

ANS: A REF: p. 80


49. The population of the thirteen American colonies was

a.

about evenly divided among Anglo-Saxons, French, Scots-Irish, and Germans.

b.

perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominantly Anglo-Saxon.

c.

overwhelmingly African.

d.

the less diverse in the world.

e.

None of these

ANS: B REF: p. 80


50. The South held about ____ percent of the slaves in the thirteen colonies of North America.

a.

100

b.

90

c.

80

d.

70

e.

50

ANS: B REF: p. 80


51. The most ethnically diverse region of colonial America was ____, whereas ____ was the least ethnically diverse.

a.

New England, the South

b.

the middle colonies, the South

c.

the South, New England

d.

the middle colonies, New England

e.

the frontier regions, New England

ANS: D REF: p. 80

52. Identify the statement that is false.

a.

The population of the thirteen colonies, mainly Anglo-Saxon, was the least mixed to be found anywhere in the world.

b.

The South, holding about 90 percent of the slaves, displayed its historic black-and-white racial composition.

c.

New England, mostly staked out by the original Puritan migrants, showed the least ethnic diversity.

d.

The Middle Colonies received the bulk of later white immigrants and boasted the most variety of peoples.

e.

In 1775, outside of New England, about one-half the population was non-English.

ANS: A REF: p. 80


53. Colonial immigrants laid the foundations for a new multicultural American national identity by

a.

merging their religious traditions with those of Native Americans

b.

intermarrying with people from other ethnic groups.

c.

pushing their settlements from the East Coast into the backcountry.

d.

importing increasing numbers of slaves.

e.

None of these

ANS: B REF: p. 80


54. In contrast to the seventeenth century, by 1775, colonial Americans

a.

had become more stratified into social classes.

b.

had all but eliminated poverty.

c.

found that it was easier for ordinary people to acquire land.

d.

had nearly lost their fear of slave rebellion.

e.

had few people who owned small farms.

ANS: A REF: p. 81


55. On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility in the colonies decreased for all of the following reasons except

a.

earlier wars made Northern merchants rich and created a class of widows and orphans.

b.

the supply of unclaimed land in New England began to diminish

c.

farmers' sons and daughters were forced to hire out as wage laborers.

d.

the average size of New England farms increased dramatically.

e.

the gap between owners of large Southern plantations and small farms widened.

ANS: D REF: p. 81


56. By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies

a.

became greater than in all of Europe.

b.

had increased to the point of overpopulation.

c.

had begun to decline from seventeenth-century levels.

d.

remained tiny compared with the number in England.

e.

was about one-third of the population.

ANS: D REF: p. 81


57. In 1760, fearful of heavy concentrations of resentful slaves, which colonial legislature unsuccessfully sought to pass legislation that would halt the further importation of slaves.?

a.

South Carolina

b.

North Carolina

c.

Georgia

d.

Virginia

e.

Maryland

ANS: A REF: p. 81-82


58. How did British authorities respond to efforts by colonial legislatures to restrict or halt the importation of slaves?

a.

They applauded and supported these efforts.

b.

British leaders vetoed such efforts.

c.

They allowed only South Carolina's legislation to stand.

d.

They viewed such colonial actions as morally callous.

e.

The British refused to intervene and did nothing.

ANS: B REF: p. 82


59. The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South

a.

were distributed evenly among whites.

b.

helped to narrow the gap between rich and poor.

c.

created a serious problem with inflation.

d.

were not distributed evenly among whites.

e.

enabled poor whites to escape tenant farming.

ANS: D REF: p. 81-82


60. The most honored profession in early colonial society was

a.

medicine.

b.

law.

c.

the ministry.

d.

farming.

e.

the merchants.

ANS: C REF: p. 82


61. The least honored profession in early colonial society was

a.

physician.

b.

teacher.

c.

minister.

d.

farmer.

e.

merchant.

ANS: A REF: p. 82


62. By the eighteenth century, the various colonial regions had distinct economic identities; the northern colonies relied on ____, the Chesapeake colonies relied on ____, and the southern colonies relied on ____.



a.

cattle and grain, tobacco, rice and indigo

b.

furs and skins, tobacco, iron works

c.

rice and indigo, lumber and timber, tobacco

d.

shipbuilding, iron works, cattle and grain

e.

cattle and grain, tobacco, fishing

ANS: A REF: p. 83


63. The leading industry in the American colonies was

a.

fishing.

b.

manufacturing.

c.

commerce.

d.

agriculture.

e.

slave trading.

ANS: D REF: p. 82


64. One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies was

a.

commercial ventures.

b.

a plantation.

c.

fishing.

d.

manufacturing.

e.

selling slaves.

ANS: A REF: p. 82


65. The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry

a.

was not that profitable.

b.

involved America, France, and England.

c.

relied on the Spanish fleet for protection.

d.

saw the Spanish gaining the largest profits.

e.

involved the trading of rum for African slaves.

ANS: E REF: p. 83


66. Identify the statement that is false.

a.

The triangular trade was infamously profitable and made up most of the colonial commerce.

b.

A trader would leave New England with a cargo of rum and sail to the Gold Coast of Africa.

c.

A trader would barter rum with African chiefs for captured African slaves.

d.

A trader would travel to the West Indies with the African slaves for molasses.

e.

A trader would travel to New England with the molasses, where it would be distilled into rum.

ANS: A REF: p. 83


67. Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they did produce which of the following?

a.

Rum

b.

Beaver hats

c.

Lumber

d.

Iron

e.

All of these

ANS: E REF: p. 83-84


68. The most important manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the eighteenth century was

a.

iron making.

b.

arms and munitions production.

c.

lumbering.

d.

rum distilling.

e.

making clothes.

ANS: C REF: p. 84


69. What proportion of the British merchant marine fleet was American built?

a.

One-fourth

b.

One-third

c.

Two-thirds

d.

Three-fifths

e.

None

ANS: B REF: p. 84


70. Which of the following was not considered to be a naval store?

a.

Tar

b.

Pitch

c.

Rosin

d.

Turpentine

e.

Glass

ANS: E REF: p. 84


71. One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the

a.

British demand to halt the importation of slaves.

b.

growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain.

c.

lack of any British regulations regarding trade with foreign nations.

d.

British rejection of the Molasses Act.

e.

the Americans' unwillingness to trade with the French West Indies.

ANS: B REF: p. 84


72. The Molasses Act of 1733 was intended to

a.

stimulate the colonies' triangle trade with Africa and the West Indies.

b.

satisfy colonial demands for earning foreign exchange money.

c.

inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies.

d.

increase the colonists' standard of living and protect the livelihood of colonial merchants.

e.

require Americans to sell their molasses to British merchants.

ANS: C REF: p. 85


73. American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain

a.

in order to gain their independence.

b.

mainly to anger the king.

c.

to anger Parliament.

d.

to help strengthen the French.

e.

to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain.

ANS: E REF: p. 84


74. Transportation in colonial America was

a.

surprisingly fast for the time.

b.

safer by road than by any other means.

c.

slow by any of the means available.

d.

so poor that no mail service was established until the 1800s.

e.

fast only on the waterways.

ANS: C REF: p. 85


75. Colonial American taverns were all of the following except

a.

frequented mainly by the lower class.

b.

another cradle of democracy.

c.

hotbeds of agitation for the Revolutionary movement.

d.

important in crystallizing public opinion.

e.

places providing amusements.

ANS: A REF: p. 95


76. English officials tried to establish the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because

a.

they were concerned about the eternal souls of the colonists.

b.

the church would act as a major prop for royal authority.

c.

such an action would restore enthusiasm for religion.

d.

the American colonists supported such a move.

e.

such an action brought in more money to England.

ANS: B REF: p. 86


77. In 1775, the ____ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America.

a.

Methodist and Anglican

b.

Presbyterian and Congregational

c.

Congregational and Anglican

d.

Quaker and Catholic

e.

Presbyterian and Anglican

ANS: C REF: p. 86

78. Match each denomination on the left with the region where it predominated.


A.

Congregationalist

1.

the frontier

B.

Anglican

2.

New England

C.

Presbyterian

3.

the South




a.

A-2, B-3, C-l

b.

A-2, B-1, C-3

c.

A-1, B-3, C-2

d.

A-3, B-2, C-1

e.

A-3, B-1, C-2

ANS: A REF: p. 86


79. As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general

a.

remained neutral.

b.

supported the Revolutionary cause.

c.

sided with the Anglican clergymen.

d.

opposed the idea of revolution.

e.

split on the issue of independence.

ANS: B REF: p. 86


80. By the early eighteenth century, religion in colonial America was

a.

stronger than at any previous time.

b.

holding steadfastly to the belief that spiritual conversion was essential for church membership.

c.

moving away from clerical intellectualism.

d.

less fervid than when the colonies were established.

e.

becoming less tolerant.

ANS: D REF: p. 87


81. The main reason that Puritan churches were struggling in the early eighteenth century was because

a.

parishioners found their theological doctrines too elaborate.

b.

parishioners thought that ministers had gone too soft in their preaching.

c.

church members embraced the notion of predestination.

d.

they banned their predominantly female membership from any leadership positions.

e.

the Anglican Church successfully competed for church members.

ANS: A REF: p. 87


82. The religious doctrine of the Arminians held that

a.

predestination determined a person's eternal fate.

b.

good works could get you into heaven.

c.

Calvin's ideas should be followed without question.

d.

emotion had no place in religion.

e.

individual free will determined a person's eternal fate.

ANS: E REF: p. 87


83. Match each individual on the left with his or her talent.


A.

Jonathan Edwards

1.

poet

B.

Benjamin Franklin

2.

scientist

C.

Phillis Wheatley

3.

theologian







4.

portrait artist




a.

A-2, B-1, C-3

b.

A-1, B-3, C-2

c.

A-3, B-2, C-1

d.

A-1, B-2, C-3

e.

A-2, B-3, C-1

ANS: C REF: p. 87 | p. 91


84. The New Light preachers of the Great Awakening

a.

delivered intensely emotional sermons.

b.

rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation.

c.

reinforced the established churches.

d.

were ultimately unsuccessful in arousing the religious enthusiasm of colonial Americans.

e.

opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists.

ANS: A REF: p. 88


85. The Great Awakening

a.

undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies.

b.

split colonial churches into several competing denominations.

c.

led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges.

d.

was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people.

e.

All of these

ANS: E REF: p. 87-88


86. The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as all of the following except

a.

essential training for citizenship.

b.

designed primarily for men.

c.

reserved for the aristocratic few.

d.

essential for creating leaders.

e.

hailed and embraced in New England more than any other region.

ANS: A REF: p. 88


87. To the Puritans, education was essential for

a.

reading the Bible.

b.

enforcing Christian laws and customs.

c.

creating good citizens.

d.

writing inspiring sermons.

e.

training future ministers.

ANS: A REF: p. 88

88. Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on

a.

math.

b.

science.

c.

modern languages.

d.

literature.

e.

religion.

ANS: E REF: p. 89


89. The first American college free from denominational control was

a.

Harvard.

b.

Yale.

c.

New York University.

d.

Brown University.

e.

the University of Pennsylvania.

ANS: E REF: p. 90


90. Match the following description with the artist.


A.

John Trumbull

1.

regarded as a Loyalist during the Revolutionary War

B.

Charles Wilson Peale

2.

best known for his portraits of George Washington, ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry

C.

Benjamin West




D.

John Singleton Copley

3.

from Connecticut and was discouraged by his father as a youth, "Connecticut is not Athens"







4.

close friend of George III and official court painter, was buried in London's St. Paul's Cathedral




a.

A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4

b.

A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1

c.

A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1

d.

A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4

e.

A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4

ANS: C REF: p. 90


91. All of the following contributed to the lack of development of art and artists in early colonial America except

a.

simplicity of pioneering life.

b.

lack of subjects to paint.

c.

lack of talent among the Americans.

d.

lack of patrons who could afford the expensive art.

e.

lack of art schools in America.

ANS: C REF: p. 90


92. Culture in colonial America

a.

involved heavy investment in art.

b.

was generally ignored and unappreciated.

c.

showed its native creativity in architecture.

d.

was always important to the colonists.

e.

for a long time rejected any European influence.

ANS: B REF: p. 90-91


93. The person most often called the "first civilized American" was

a.

Thomas Jefferson.

b.

John Trumbull.

c.

John Winthrop.

d.

Phillis Wheatley.

e.

Benjamin Franklin.

ANS: E REF: p. 91


94. All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin except

a.

the lightning rod.

b.

influential poetry.

c.

bifocal glasses.

d.

a highly efficient stove.

e.

author of Poor Richard's Almanack.

ANS: B REF: p. 91


95. All of the following are true statements about colonial newspapers on the eve of the Revolution except

a.

there were about forty different newspapers throughout the colonies.

b.

they were typically published twice a week.

c.

they proved to be powerful vehicles for airing grievances and rallying support against England.

d.

they consisted of a single large sheet of paper folded once.

e.

the news they contained often lagged weeks behind the events themselves.

ANS: B REF: p. 91-92


96. The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because

a.

he was found guilty.

b.

it supported English law.

c.

it pointed the way to freedom of the press.

d.

the ruling prohibited criticism of political officials.

e.

it allowed the press to print irresponsible criticisms of powerful people.

ANS: C REF: p. 92


97. One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was

a.

the property qualification for voting.

b.

one man, one vote.

c.

the separation of powers.

d.

self-taxation through representation.

e.

restricting the right to vote to men only.

ANS: D REF: p. 92


98. By 1775, most governors of American colonies were

a.

appointed by colonial proprietors.

b.

appointed by the king.

c.

elected by popular vote.

d.

elected by the vote of colonial legislatures.

e.

appointed by the British Parliament.

ANS: B REF: p. 92

99. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because

a.

the governors often had a greater sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king.

b.

the governors were usually chosen by colonial legislatures and could be removed from office by the legislatures.

c.

the king generally held the views of colonial legislators in higher regard than those of the governors.

d.

colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries.

e.

of the threat of violence.

ANS: D REF: p. 92


100. In colonial elections

a.

most eligible voters zealously exercised their right to vote.

b.

the right to vote was reserved for property holders.

c.

only a small landed elite had the right to vote.

d.

average citizens were usually elected to office.

e.

true democracy had arrived.

ANS: B REF: p. 93


101. By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities except

a.

complete democracy.

b.

basically English in language.

c.

Protestant in religion.

d.

opportunity for social mobility.

e.

some degree of ethnic and religious toleration.

ANS: A REF: p. 94


102. Colonists throughout the eighteenth century universally enjoyed all of the following amusements except

a.

militia musters.

b.

weddings and funerals.

c.

celebrating Christmas.

d.

winter sports in the North; and cockfighting, hunting and horse racing in the South.

e.

enjoying Thanksgiving.

ANS: C REF: p. 94


Directory: anglais -> American-History-Exams
American-History-Exams -> Short answer
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American-History-Exams -> Chapter 38—The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968 short answer
American-History-Exams -> Chapter 35—America in World War II, 1941-1945 short answer
American-History-Exams -> Chapter 14—Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860 short answer
American-History-Exams -> Chapter 41—America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era, 1992-2009 short answer
American-History-Exams -> Chapter 4—American Life in the Seventeenth Century, 1607-1692 short answer
American-History-Exams -> Chapter 25—America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 short answer


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