Shinsengumi: The Shogun’s Last Samurai Corps



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Ezo: vast undeveloped far northern territory, one of four main Japan­ese islands

Fudo-do: a village in southwestern Kyoto, location of the Shin-sen-gumi's third headquarters

Fujisan Maru: a Tokugawa warship

Fukui: a Tokugawa-related feudal domain in central Honshu, on the Sea of Japan

Furudaka Shuntaro: an anti-Tokugawa Loyalist in Kyoto, arrested by the Shinsengumi

Fushimi: a town just south of Kyoto

geigi: an entertainer in the Kyoto pleasure quarters, accomplished in the arts of song and dance

geisha: an entertainer in pleasure quarters of Edo and elsewhere, accomplished in the arts of song and dance

Genji: an era name (see Table of Era Names)

Gesshin'in: a subtemple of Kodaiji, served as headquarters of Kodaiji Faction

Gion: a district in eastern Kyoto, near the Kamogawa River

GorySkaku: a modern citadel near Hakodate

Goto Shojiro: chief minister of the Lord of Tosa

Hagi: primary castle town of Choshu, located on the Sea of Japan

Hakodate: a port city on Ezo open to foreign trade, location of oppo­sitionists' last stand

Hamaguri Gate: one of the Nine Forbidden Gates of the Imperial Palace, scene of heaviest fighting in Battle at the Forbidden Gates

han: a feudal clan or domain

Harada Sanosuke: Shieikan swordsman, founding member and offi­cer of the Shinsengumi

Hashimoto Kaisuke: Shinsengumi corpsman, member of Kodaiji Faction

hatamoto: direct retainers of the shogun, whose annual rice revenue of less than 10,000 koku did not qualify them as daimyo

Hijikata Toshizo: assistant instructor of the Shieikan, founding member and vice commander of the Shinsengumi

Hikone: a pro-Tokugawa clan in western Japan, feudal domain of li Naosuke

Hino: a post town along the Koshu-kaido Road in Tama, just west of Edo

Hirama Jusuke: Shinsengumi officer, member of Serizawa faction, narrowly escaped assassination

Hirao, Michio: a modern Japanese history writer noted for writings about the Shinsengumi and Sakamoto Ryoma

Hirayama Goro: Shinsengumi officer, member of Serizawa faction, assassinated with Serizawa Kamo

Hiroshima: a feudal domain in southwestern Honshu, on the Inland Sea

Hokushin Itto style: style of fencing taught at Chiba Dojo

Honshu: largest of the four main Japanese islands

iai: the art of sword drawing

Ii Naosuke: Lord of Hikone, Tokugawa regent, assassinated in Edo

Ikeda'ya: an inn in Kyoto, site of notorious battle between Shinsengumi and anti-Tokugawa Loyalists

Ikumatsu: a geigi, lover-spy, and future wife of Katsura Kogoro

Imai Noburo: Mimawarigumi corpsman, suspected assassin of Sakamoto Ryoma and Nakaoka Shintaro

Inoue Genzaburo: Shieikan swordsman, founding member and offi­cer of the Shinsengumi

Ishida: the native village of Hijikata Toshizo, located in Tama

Itabashi: a district in Edo, location of Kondo Isami's execution

Itakura Katsukiyo: Tokugawa prime minister and Lord of Matsuyama

Ito Kashitaro: staff officer of the Shinsengumi, Kodaiji Faction leader, assassinated at Aburakoji

Iwakura Tomomi: leader of anti-Bakufu faction at the Imperial Court

Joi: (literally, Expel the Barbarians): a slogan of Imperial Loyalists

Jundd Maru: a Tokugawa warship

Ka'ei: an era name (see Table of Era Names)

Kagawa Keizo: Mito samurai, staff officer of imperial forces, arrested Kondo Isami

Kagoshima: castle town of Satsuma



Kaikoku (literally, Open the Country): the official policy of the Tokugawa Bakufu after the arrival of Commodore Perry

Kaiten. flagship of the oppositionists in northern Japan

Kaiyo Maru: a Tokugawa warship

Kami'ishihara: the native village of Kondo Isami, located in Tama

Kamogawa: a river in KyotoKan'eiji: the Tokugawa family Buddhist temple at Ueno, served as place of self-confinement of Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Kaneko (family): a wealthy peasant household with vast landholdings in the countryside just northeast of Edo

Katsu Kaishu: commissioner of the Tokugawa Navy, a founder of the Japanese Navy, one of the most valuable personages in the Tokugawa Bakufu

Katsunuma: a town five miles east of Kofu on the Koshu-kaido Road, scene of battle between the Shinsengumi and imperial forces

Katsura Kogor5: political leader of the Choshu Loyalists, key player in overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu

Katsuragawa: a river in Kyoto

Kawaramachi: a district in Kyoto, on the west side of the Kamogawa River

Kawase Dazai: a Zeze samurai, involved in failed plot to kill Shogun Tokugawa lemochi

Keio: an era name (see Table of Era Names) kenjutsu (literally, sword techniques): Japanese fencing

Kiheitai (literally, Extraordinary Corps): Japan's first modern militia, founded by Takasugi Shinsaku of Choshu

Kii: a feudal domain in western Japan, one of the Three Branch Houses of the Tokugawa, native domain of Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi

kimono: a gown worn by men and women

Kinno-Tobaku (literally, Imperial Loyalism and Down with the Bakufu): a slogan of anti-Tokugawa Imperial Loyalists

kirikami: the first rank in the Tennen Rishin style of fencing

Kiyokawa Hachiro: organizer of the Roshi Corps, outspoken anti-Tokugawa dissident, assassinated in Edo

Kobe: a port town on Osaka Bay

Kodaiji: a Buddhist temple in the Higashiyama district of Kyoto

Kodaiji Faction: the name of Ito Kashitaro's group after they defected from the Shinsengumi

Kofu: a feudal domain strategically located some ninety miles west of Edo, ruled by a hereditary lord

Kojima Shikanosuke: leader of Onoji Village in Tama, close friend and patron of Kond5 Isami

koku: bushel of rice (equivalent to 44.8 U.S. gallons)

Komei: a Japanese emperor, chronic xenophobe, ruled 1846-67

Kondo Isami: master of the Shieikan, founding member and com­mander of the Shinsengumi

Kondo Otsune: Kondo Isami's wife

Kondo Shusuke: Kondo Isami's fencing instructor and adoptive father

Kondo Tamako: Kondo Isami's daughter

Kondo Yugoro: see Miyagawa Yugoro

Koshu-kaido: a main road connecting Edo and Kofu

Kotetsu: Kondo Isami's prize sword, which he used at the Ikeda'ya

Kumamoto: a feudal domain in west-central Kyushu, ruled by an out­side lord, hotbed of anti-Tokugawa Imperial Loyalism

Kuwana: a Tokugawa-related clan in central Honshu, feudal domain of Matsudaira Sada'aki

Kyoto: Imperial Capital

Kyo'ya: an inn in southeastern Osaka

Kyushu: one of four main Japanese islands, located southwest of Honshu

Maekawa (residence): headquarters of the Shinsengumi at Mibu

makoto (literally, sincerity): symbol of the Shinsengumi

Man'en: an era name (see Table of Era Names)

Masu'ya: shop of Furudaka Shuntaro, served as hiding place of Choshu-led ronin in Kyoto

Matsudaira (Houses of): ruling families of Aizu, Kuwana, and Fukui clans, Related Houses of the Tokugawa

Matsudaira Chikaranosuke: chief fencing instructor at the Bakufu's Military Academy in Edo, helped establish Roshi Corps

Matsudaira Katamori: Lord of Aizu, protector of Kyoto, master of the Shinsengumi

Matsudaira Sada'aki: Lord of Kuwana, inspector of the Imperial Court and nobles, younger brother of Lord of Aizu

Matsumae: a feudal domain on the southern tip of Ezo, ruled by an outside lord

Matsumoto Ryojun: personal physician to the shogun, befriended and treated Kondo Isami

Meiji: an era name (see Table of Era Names), name of the emperor who ruled during that era

menkyo: the fourth rank in the Tennen Rishin style of fencing, a license to serve as assistant instructor

Mibu: a district in western Kyoto, location of the first Shinsengumi headquarters

Mibu Roshi: derogatory term for men of the Roshi Corps and the Shinsengumi

Mimawarigumi (literally, Patrolling Corps): a Tokugawa security force in Kyoto

Minakuchi: a feudal domain, ruled by a hereditary lord

Mito: a feudal domain northeast of Edo, one of the Three Branch Houses of the Tokugawa, native domain of Tokugawa Yoshinobu, birth­place of Imperial Loyalism

Miura Kyutaro: a high-ranking samurai of Kii Han, falsely suspected of orchestrating assassination of Sakamoto Ryoma

Miyabe Teizo: a ronin from Kumamoto, Loyalist leader, perished at the Ikeda'ya

Miyagawa Hisajiro: Kondo Isami's father

Miyagawa Katsugoro: Kondo Isami's name at birth

Miyagawa Nobukichi: Kondo Isami's cousin, Shinsengumi corps-man, killed at the Tenman'ya

Miyagawa Yugoro: Kondo Isami's nephew, witnessed execution of Kondo Isami, married Kondo Tamako, changed family name to Kondo, succeeded Kondo Isami as head of the Shieikan

Miyako Bay: scene of sea battle between oppositionists and imperial forces, on the northeastern coast of Honshu

Miyuki: a mistress of Kondo Isami in Kyoto

Mochizuki Kameyata: a Tosa Loyalist and ronin; perished in the Ikeda'ya Incident

mokuroku: the second rank in the Tennen Rishin style of fencing

Mori (House of): ruling family of Choshu

Musashi: a province west of Edo

Nagai Naomune: a chief inspector in the Tokugawa Bakufu

Nagakura Shinpachi: close associate of the Shieikan, founding member and officer of the Shinsengumi

Nagareyama: a village near the east bank of the Edogawa in the province of Shimo'usa, location of Kondo Isami's arrest

Nagasaki: an open port city in western Kyushu on the East China Sea Naito Hayato: Hijikata Toshizo's alias

Nakai Shogoro: a follower of Sakamoto Ryoma, killed at the Tenman'ya inn

Nakaoka Shintaro: a Tosa Loyalist leader, close comrade of Sakamoto Ryoma, assassinated with Ryoma

Nakayama Tadayasu: maternal grandfather and official guardian of Emperor Meiji, confidant of Iwakura Tomomi

Namamugi: a village near Edo, scene of murder of a British subject by Satsuma samurai

Nijo Castle: the Tokugawa stronghold in Kyoto

Nishihonganji: a Buddhist temple in western Kyoto, served as the second headquarters of the Shinsengumi

Nomura Risaburo: Shinsengumi corpsman, Kondo Isami's attendant, accompanied Kondo to Itabashi, killed in battle at Miyako Bay

Ogasawara Nagamichi: Lord of Karatsu and a senior councilor in the Tokugawa Bakufu

Oishi KuwajirS: an officer of the Shinsengumi

Okita Soji: genius swordsman, head of the Shieikan, founding mem­ber and officer of the Shinsengumi

Okubo Ichio: an influential official in the Tokugavva Bakufu, close ally of Katsu Kaishu

Okubo Ichizo: a Loyalist leader of Satsuma, key player in overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu

Okubo Yamato: Kondo Isami's alias Onoji: the native village of Kojima Shikanosuke, in Tama

Osaka: mercantile center, located in western Honshu near Kyoto Otaka: Kondo Isami's mistress in Kyoto, who bore him a daughter

Otori Keisuke: former commissioner of the Tokugawa infantry, headed oppositionist army

Otsu: a town just east of Kyoto

O'ume: the mistress of Serizawa Kamo in Kyoto

Owari: a feudal domain in central Honshu, one of the Three Branch Houses of the Tokugawa

Oyu: Kondo Isami's daughter, borne by his mistress Otaka ronin: a samurai who did not serve a feudal lord

roshi: a samurai who did not serve a feudal lord (less derogatory than ronin)

Roshi Corps: forerunner of the Shinsengumi ryo: gold coin and unit of Japanese currency

Saigo Kichinosuke (a.k.a. Saigo Takamori, Saigo the Great): military leader of Satsuma, a key player in overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu, commander of imperial forces

Saito Hajime. close associate of the Shieikan, founding member and officer of the Shinsengumi

Sakamoto Ry5ma: a Tosa Loyalist and ronin, a key player in over­throw of the Tokugawa Bakufu, assassinated in Kyoto

sake: an alcoholic beverage made from rice

Sakuma Shozan: a leading scholar of Western thought, teacher of

Katsu Kaishu, assassinated in Kyoto



samurai: a warrior who generally served a daimyo

Sanbongi: a pleasure quarter in Kyoto, near the western bank of the Kamogawa

Sanjo-dori: a main thoroughfare in Kyoto

Sanjo Large Bridge: a bridge in Kyoto spanning the Kamogawa River

Sanjo Sanetomi: leader of the Seven Banished Nobles

Sanjo Small Bridge: a bridge in Kyoto spanning the Takasegawa Canal

Sasaki Tadasaburo: leader of the Mimawarigumi, a suspected assas­sin of Kiyokawa Hachiro, Sakamoto Ryoma, and Nakaoka Shintaro

Sato Hikogoro: leader of Hino Village in Tama, brother-in-law of Hijikata Toshizo, close friend and patron of Kondo Isami

Satsuma: a leading anti-Bakufu feudal domain in southern Kyushu, ruled by influential Outside Lord Shimazu Hisamitsu

Sei'i'taishogun (literally, commander in chief of the expeditionary forces against the barbarians, generally called shogun): title of the mil­itary ruler of feudal Japan

Sendai: a feudal domain in northern Japan, ruled by an outside lord

seppuku (literally, cutting the belly; also called hara-kiri): an honor­able form of suicide practiced by samurai

Serizawa Kamo: Mito ronin, founding member and commander of the Shinsengumi, assassinated in Kyoto

shaku: a unit of measurement just under one foot

shamisen: a three-stringed musical instrument resembling a banjo

Shiba Tsukasa: Aizu samurai, committed seppuku for violating Bushido

Shibata Hikosaburo: Shinsengumi corpsman, forced to commit sep­puku for deserting

Shieikan: Dojo of Kondo Isami

Shikoku: smallest of the four main Japanese islands, located in south, east of Kyushu

Shimabara: a pleasure quarter in western Kyoto

Shimada Kai: Shinsengumi veteran, followed Hijikata Toshizo to Ezo

Shimazu (House of): ruling family of Satsuma

Shimazu Hisamitsu: father of Satsuma daimyo, influential de facto Lord of Satsuma

Shimoda: an open port southwest of Yokohama

Shimonoseki: a port in Choshu on the western tip of Honshu

Shimonoseki Strait: strait between Honshu and Kyushu

Shimosawa, Kan: a modern Japanese history writer and novelist noted for writings about the Shinsengumi

Shimo'usa: a province northeast of Edo

shinan menkyo: fifth and highest rank in the Tennen Rishin style of fencing, a license to open a dojo and teach one's own students

Shinrai Nishiki: nominal commander of Shinsengumi, later demoted to vice commander, member of Serizawa faction, forced to commit sep-puku for violating corps regulations

Shinohara Yasunoshin: Shinsengumi officer, close confidant of Ito Kashitaro, member of Kodaiji Faction, shot Kondo Isami

Shinsengumi (literally, Newly Selected Corps): a Tokugawa security force in Kyoto

Shintokuji: a Buddhist temple in Mibu, served as headquarters for Roshi Corps

Shinto Munen style: style of fencing practiced by Serizawa Kamo

shishi: men of high purpose

Shogitai (literally, Corps of Clear Loyalty): an oppositionist corps at Ueno

shogun: see sei'i'taishogun

Shonai: a feudal domain in northern Japan

Sonno-Joi (literally, Imperial Reverence and Expel the Barbarians): a slogan of Imperial Loyalists

Sumi'ya: a house of pleasure in Shimabara, Kyoto, frequented by the Shinsengumi

Sumiyoshi: a pleasure house in Osaka

Suzuki Mikisaburo: Shinsengumi officer, younger brother of Ito Kashitaro, member of Kodaiji Faction

Takahata Fudo: a Buddhist temple in Hino

Takao: a warship of the oppositionists in northern Japan

Takasegawa: a canal in Kyoto

Takasugi Shinsaku: revolutionary commander of Choshu Army

Takechi Hanpeita: leader of Tosa Loyalist Party

Takeda Kanryusai: Shinsengumi officer, suspected traitor, murdered in Kyoto

Tama: a region in Musashi province, just west of Edo

Tamagawa: a river in Tama

tatami: thickly woven straw mats perfectly fitted together and cover­ing the floor in traditional Japanese rooms

Ta'uchi Tomo: Shinsengumi corpsman, forced to commit seppuku for violating corps regulations

Tenmanbashi: a bridge in Osaka

Tenman'ya: an inn in western Kyoto

Tennen Rishin style: style of fencing taught at the Shieikan

Tenpo: an era name (see Table of Era Names)

Terada'ya: an inn in Fushimi

Toba-Fushimi: area at the southern approach to Kyoto where civil war broke out between the imperial forces and oppositionists loyal to the Tokugawa Bakufu

Todo Heisuke: Shieikan swordsman, founding member and officer of the Shinsengumi, member of Kodaiji Faction, killed at Aburakoji

Tokugawa (House of): ruling family of feudal Japan

Tokugawa Bakufu (a.k.a. Edo Bakufu, Bakufu): military government at Edo which dominated the Japanese nation

Tokugawa lemochi: child-lord of Kii, fourteenth Tokugawa Shogun Tokugawa lesada: feebleminded thirteenth Tokugawa Shogun

Tokugawa leyasu: founder of the Tokugawa Bakufu, first Tokugawa Shogun

Tokugawa Yoshinobu (a.k.a. Hitotsubashi Yoshinobu): fifteenth and last Tokugawa Shogun, abdicated and restored the emperor to power in 1867

Tosa: a feudal domain on the Pacific coast of southern Shikoku, ruled by influential Outside Lord Yamanouchi Yodo

Tsugaru Strait: strait between Honshu and Ezo

Tsushima: a feudal domain located in the strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu, ruled by an outside lord

Uchiyama Hikojiro: official at the Osaka magistrate's office, assassi­nated by the Shinsengumi

Ueno: a hilly region in the northeastern part of Edo, location of Toku-gawa Yoshinobu's self-confinement

Utsunomiya: a strategically located feudal domain north of Edo

Yagi (residence): residence of the Shinsengumi leaders at Mibu

Yagi Gennojo: master of the Yagi residence

Yamaguchi: secondary castle town of Choshu

Yamanami Keisuke: assistant instructor of the Shieikan, founding member and officer of the Shinsengumi, defected before committing seppuku

Yamanouchi (House of): ruling family of Tosa

Yamanouchi Yodo: influential Lord of Tosa

Yamaoka Tetsutaro (aka Yamaoka Tesshu): low-ranking Tokugawa samurai, expert swordsman, close friend of Kiyokawa Hachiro, an over­seer of Roshi Corps

Yamato'ya: a silk wholesaler in Kyoto

Yamazaki Susumu: Shinsengumi officer and spy

yarijutsu: the art of the spear

Yodogawa: a river in Osaka

Yokohama: a port city on Edo Bay west of Edo, location of foreign set­tlement

Yonezawa: a feudal domain in northern Japan, ruled by an outside lord

Yoshida Shoin: archetype of Japanese revolutionaries, martyred teacher of Choshu Loyalists

Yoshida Toshimaro: a Choshu Loyalist and student of Yoshida Shoin, perished in the Ikeda'ya Incident

Yoshida'ya: an inn in the Sanbongi pleasure quarter of Kyoto; also the

name of a pleasure house in Osaka



Zeze: a feudal domain in western Japan, ruled by a hereditary lord
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