Settlers, Slaves, and Servants

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Settlers, Slaves, and Servants

Men and women with little active interest in a new life in America were often induced to make the move to the New World by the skillful persuasion of promoters. William Penn, for example, publicized the opportunities awaiting newcomers to the Pennsylvania colony. Judges and prison authorities offered convicts a chance to migrate to colonies like Georgia instead of serving prison sentences.

But few colonists could finance the cost of passage for themselves and their families to make a start in the new land. In some cases, ships' captains received large rewards from the sale of service contracts for poor migrants, called indentured servants, and every method from extravagant promises to actual kidnapping was used to take on as many passengers as their vessels could hold.

In other cases, the expenses of transportation and maintenance were paid by colonizing agencies like the Virginia or Massachusetts Bay Companies. In return, indentured servants agreed to work for the agencies as contract laborers, usually for four to seven years. Free at the end of this term, they would be given "freedom dues," sometimes including a small tract of land.

Perhaps half the settlers living in the colonies south of New England came to America under this system. Although most of them fulfilled their obligations faithfully, some ran away from their employers. Nevertheless, many of them were eventually able to secure land and set up homesteads, either in the colonies in which they had originally settled or in neighboring ones. No social stigma was attached to a family that had its beginning in America under this semi-bondage. Every colony had its share of leaders who were former indentured servants.

There was one very important exception to this pattern: African slaves. The first black Africans were brought to Virginia in 1619, just 12 years after the founding of Jamestown. Initially, many were regarded as indentured servants who could earn their freedom. By the 1660s, however, as the demand for plantation labor in the Southern colonies grew, the institution of slavery began to harden around them, and Africans were brought to America in shackles for a lifetime of involuntary servitude.

Question 1

What is the main idea of the passage?

  1. contract laborers replaced indentured servants

  2. Slavery evolved from the need for plantation labor

  3. Indentured servitude exceeded the use of slave labor

  4. Slaves earned freedom dues for their work

Question 2

Social stigma, as used in paragraph 4 refers to

  1. a reputation that was reprehensible

  2. the way children viewed adults

  3. a badge of honor

  4. an evaluation of one’s character

Question 3

What is the main idea of the last paragraph?

  1. Slaves had no choice in determining their fate

  2. Slavery would extinguish itself

  3. Southern colonies resisted the use of slave labor

  4. Involuntary servitude was replaced by indentured servitude

Question 4

According to the passage, a result of the migrants not being able to afford the costly trip to America was

  1. Many passengers lived a life of being indentured servants after their arrival

  2. Many migrants decided to stay in their home land

  3. Captains of ships letting passengers ride for free to America

  4. The population of the new colonies decreased

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