Seneca & Shawnee Old Northwest Territory: Present day “Midwest”
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Chapter 7 Study Guide OK History
Seneca & Shawnee
Old Northwest Territory: Present day “Midwest” Indian Removal began there in 1787
Seneca’s & Shawnee came from the Old Northwest Territory
Many of them consisted of: Iroquois, Mohawks, Onondagas, Oneidas and Cayuga’s.
US Signed removal treaty for Seneca’s in 1831.
Disease, lack of food, and poor treatment was on their trail to Indian Territory.
They got to Indian Territory in 1832
Once arriving in Indian Territory, the tribes fought over land assignments.
Stokes Commission dealt with these problems between the Seneca’s and Shawnees over land.
Treaties at the end of the Civil War Reconstruction reduced the 5 Civilized Tribes Land by ½
The Reconstruction Treaties also reduced Indian Power.
Omnibus Treaty of 1867
This was the treaty that moved many tribes from the “Old Northwest” to Indian Territory
In Indian Territory they only owned a few thousand acres of land. In the Old Northwest they owned 1/3 of the United States of America.
New Perce’ Tribe
Their leader was named Chief Joseph
They lived in Present day: Oregon, Idaho, and Montana
Whites wanted this land because it was good for mining
They made a deal (Treaty) and moved them to a
Reservation – It was a place where land was exchanged and given to natives for their previous tribal lands. On these lands they would receive annual payments of money, and sometimes just one time payments of money. The natives never liked their reservations.
The Nez Perce and Chief Joseph waged war to keep their land. Killing 13 whites.
Chief Joseph and some of his people tried to flee to Canada to escape. However they were caught.
Chief Joseph after his capture, “I will fight no more forever.”
The Nez Perce were moved to their new lands. But, many died… they were moved again to live with the Ponca Tribe… more died…
They died of diseases, lack of food, and bad conditions.
287 remained after 6 years of trying to farm.
Chief Joseph made many trips to Washington D.C. to beg to let his people go home back to the Old Northwest
Washington agreed that for his people’s survival, they would let them go home.
Some, like Chief Joseph did not get to go home because of his war punishment.
It was an area of land in Indian Territory reserved for Western Tribes
The tribes that were moved there were: Wichita’s, Caddoes, Delaware’s, Keechies, & Anadarko’s.
½ of the West Side of Indian Territory was for Western Tribes to be moved there.
Tribes were to be removed from the Great Western Plains area and relocated to the Leased District.
The tribes were: Cheyenne & Arapaho
Their chief was : Black Kettle
Always kept an American flag with him and given to him by officials in Washington D.C.
a white peace flag
They promised Black Kettle this would keep him and his people safe.
Was later killed at the Battle of the Washita
Black Kettle and 500 of his tribesman stopped at Sand Creek, Colorado.
U.S. Colonel John Chivington with 700 Calvary troops attacked the tribe’s camp.
Black Kettle waved his flags, but many of his tribe was still slaughtered.
Black Kettle and survivals survived and decided to fight back.
Black Kettle and his tribe attacked a supply depot with the help of the Sioux.
They gathered supplies there to survive. But Black Kettle was tired of fighting
He moved his tribe south to Indian Territory.
United States citizens were outraged that the Calvary did this to innocent Natives.
But White officials in Washington DC wanted to punish them. They won and put war crimes on the Cheyenne and Arapaho.
Lodge Peace Council
Located at Medicine Creek Lodge in Kansas
United States officials, told the tribes that the buffalo was disappearing and that they needed to go to the reservation at Indian Territory to learn to “farm”
Natives agreed, and signed treaties to relocate.
United States officials were told by Washington D.C. to get this in the treaty
1. Prevent Indian attacks on white emigrants and settlers.
2. Stop Indian wars
3. Convince Natives to become farmers
Medicine Creek Treaties 1867
Reduced their lands in exchange for goods and services.
The government never gave them their goods and services promised in the treaty.
Whites would invade on the Natives land, the Natives would attack the poachers.
United States Military would then get involved starting wars in Indian Territory.
Tribes that were there: Kiowa’s
Kiowa’s : Chief Satanta
Apaches: Chief Wolf’s Sleeve
Comanche’s: Chief Ten Bears
Southern Cheyenne: Black Kettle
United States Commissioners
N.G. Taylor, Senator J.B. Sanborn, & General Alfred Terry.
Battle of the Washita and Battle of Little Big Horn
Chief Black Kettle of the Cheyenne and Arapaho – Did not want whites moving into his land.
Black Kettle would raid whites to drive them away from their hunting grounds
George Armstrong Custer –
Famous General killed at the Battle of Little Big Horn
Cocky, Arrogant, did not finish high in his class in college at West Point.
Battle of the Washita – Indian Territory
Attacked with his 7 th Calvary at the Washita River slaughtering many warriors
They also killed Black Kettle
native brothers wanted revenge. So they attacked prepared to make a stand Black Kettle at Little Big Horn.
Battle of Little Big Horn – Present day Montana
Cheyenne, Arapaho, & Sioux vs. George Custer
George Custer – US General
Had a small army but thought it was indestructible
Cheyenne: Chief Dull Knife
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
The natives massacred George Custer and his men avenging Black Kettle.
Sitting Bull and his people escaped to Canada
Crazy Horse was trying to do the same but killed.
United States Changes its Mind about Native Freedom & Buffalo
In 1871 The USA began to think of the Natives not as independent and free nor as Separate Nations, but almost like enemies after the Slaughter at Little Big Horn
Natives were rounded up, killed, moved. Many tribes gave up and moved on their own.
Tribal Chiefs were then moved away from their people.
The United States encouraged the extinction of the buffalo to force the Natives to farm.
Thousands of furs were sold
Many people shot buffalo for sport, shooting buffalo off of the tops of trains.
Some would kill buffalo as if it was fishing today.
The Last group to surrender was the Comanche’s.
Comanche Chief: Quanah Parker
Geronimo and the Apache
Apache were located in Present day Arizona, New Mexico area. (4 CORNERS AMERICA)
Apache was the last
Western tribe to be controlled
Geronimo or “He-Who-Yawns”
Married the Apache chief’s (Chief Cochise) daughter, he was then moved to a top man in the tribe.
He was a peaceful man who hunted for his wife and children
One day after returning from Hunting, Geronimo found his wife and kids slaughtered by Mexican soldiers.
From that day on Geronimo wanted to kill many white and Mexican people.
Vowed to kill 10 men for every child that was killed (He had 3 children)
Over several years Geronimo & the Apache made many raids on Mexican people killing them
The United States began wanting to move the Apache to Indian Territory because Geronimo and his raids were now on whites as well.
Geronimo was most
known for his daring escapes
There was one time he was trapped by the US Army in a cave and made an escape out of it. Today we still do not know how.
He had many other famous escapes, and it made USA newspapers, making Geronimo much like a hero outlaw like a Jesse James, or Billy the Kid.
He earned the title “the worst native who ever lived”
Geronimo did not like the idea of being moved to reservations in Indian Territory.
The United States government went to chase Geronimo
The US Generals tracks him down and captures him, Geronimo surrenders.
Over the next few years the Apache and Geronimo become POW’s
They finally move Geronimo to Lawton, OK at Fort Sill
On his journey to Indian Territory, fans of Geronimo wanted buttons on his coats, his hat, and were paying good money for it.
He became a national celebrity, attending fairs, appearances,
They would dress him up in huge Native American head dresses and use him as if he was a clown.
He even rode in the World’s Fair with President Teddy Roosevelt.
Geronimo’s final days in Indian Territory & death was very sad
He was out riding his horse, and was thrown from it. He caught a serious case of pneumonia and died.
Before his death, he converted to Christianity and told his people he believed that the white man’s religion was the correct one.
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