Security or Tokenism: Evaluating Role of Women as Peacekeepers within the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping



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Security or Tokenism:

Evaluating Role of Women as Peacekeepers within the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping

Kristen A. Cordell


Abstract

There is growing and significant evidence on the normative or structural impact of UN Women Peacekeepers on their community- their presence bringing a sort of calming effect, or inspiring in young women to take up ranks in their own remerging security sector. However, what is much less common is substantive or qualitative evidence on the actual impact that including women in multinational forces has on the environment’s hard security sector- that is- are people actually safer because the peacekeeping force is more engendered- or perhaps less? Using a case study of Women Peacekeepers (including Police, Military and Civilian contingents) within the UN Peacekeeping Mission to Liberia (UNMIL), this paper outlines the empirical impact of including women on national physical security and its change over time. It examines the best practices needed not only for recruiting women as peacekeepers but for making the most of their impact once they are in the mission. Based on the evidence it advocates for moving beyond the tokenism of broad inclusion and towards encouraging a substantive impact on the conflict environment through key institutional shifts. It argues that through these shifts the impact on overall physical security will broaden and equalize any negative- normative impacts. By advancing this argument for practical (yet challenging) inclusion- it advocates for greater recruitment of women into the ranks of Peacekeeping missions as a means of complete fulfillment of the terms of Security Council Resolution 1325 and 1820 as well as greater national stabilization and security.


UNSCR 1325 (2000) calls on women’s inclusion across peacekeeping missions, calling on mission leadership “ expand the role and contribution of women in United Nations field-based operations, and especially among military observers, civilian police, human rights and humanitarian personnel.”1


UNSCR 1820 (2008) calls on troop and police contributing countries to take key steps in addresses Sexual Abuse and Exploitation by troops- specifically through “deployment of a higher percentage of women peacekeepers or police.”2
UNSCR 1888 (2009) “Encourages Member States to deploy greater numbers of female military and police personnel to United Nations peacekeeping operations, and to provide all military and police personnel with adequate training to carry out their responsibilities;”
Introduction

There is growing and significant evidence on the normative or structural impact of women peacekeepers on the community- their presence bringing a sort of calming effect, or inspiring in young women to take up ranks in their own remerging security sector. However, what is less common is substantive or qualitative evidence on the actual impact that including women in multinational forces makes on the conflict environments hard security sector. That is- are people actually safer because the peacekeeping force is more engendered- does the presence of women impact the nature of the security or its effectiveness? Continuing to make the case for what is a costly and challenging goal- bringing more women into the ranks of the United Nations peacekeeping missions within the terms of Security Council Resolution 1325 and 1820- will be reliant on proving meaningful output.3 Such output should not just in terms of sound bytes and thought provoking photos, but actual empirical evidence of the impact on the provision of protection, prevention and response for the community at large and the evolving stability of the community.


Background

The deployment of female peacekeepers has recently become recognized as not simply “desirable, but an operational imperative.”4This is based on the presupposition that increasing the gender balance within a mission will increase the peace- and in the words of Rachel Manajaya, Special Advisory to the SRSG “without women’s participation in peace efforts there can be no peace and security.”5 Operationally, it is recognized that a mission achieve a stronger gender balance through increased numbers of women as police, military and civilian roles tend to have the following attributes:



  • Representative of the host population;

  • Encouraging of those women who are affected by the conflict who, have come to trust men less then women;

  • Supportive of participation of local women and their organizations in post-conflict processes which starts growing once the conflict has finished;

  • Less likely to experience lack of male discipline inside the missions6

The later of these has recently garnered the most attention across United Nations PKOs- especially under the realization that women bear the burden of the post war insecurity7 which in many cases is inflicted by those very forces sent to protect them- UN Peacekeepers.8
To address the challenge of gender inequalities across missions, the UN has recently taken steps to address both the demand side (the peacekeeping operation itself) as well as the supply side (member states and troop contributing countries) of women’s inclusion.9 This has included a number of operational steps to enhance recruitment efforts for women, operational impact of missions, mechanisms for support of women peacekeepers and continued policy dialogue on the issue.10 The result of these gender sensitive policies has been (small) increases in the number of women personnel. As of May 2008 women constituted only 2 % of all DPKO Military personnel, 8% of its Police and 30% of civilian personnel. In August 2009, the United Nations highlighted the connection between women’s participation in peacekeeping missions and the protection of women in countries where peacekeeping missions are deployed. In 2010 the Secretary General called on member states to help the UN Reach a goral of 20% inclusion of women across agencies by 2014.11 Are we close to getting there? Can we do it in a meaningful way? Surely not, in a rushed way.
Being that the primary role of peacekeepers, both police and military, is to enhance physical and human security, we must take a harder look at the contribution of female staff to this task. Security in its most immediate sense is measured by the ability to ensure access to mobility, infrastructure and lack of physical violence. Let us examine what we know of women’s impact so far. A cross agency study found that all women units within the UN system maintained "low organizational status and lack of special powers [which] made it difficult for the units to advise and particularly to instruct colleagues in other parts of the organization."12 With the introduction of women in small numbers the prevailing findings was a sort of tokenism.
Other research of cumulative impacts have been mixed. In a study of the Ghanaian women troops in post conflict Liberia, Abraham Afrim-Narh found a significant disconnect between the perception of women peacekeepers (as favorable) and their “actual involvement” as extremely limited.13 I can attest to this. Even when looking across traditional reconstruction processes- such as DDRR, Elections and governance mechanisms, there are still questions about whether or not there is a cumulative impact.14
This paper thus examines the impact of women police and military battalions within the UN DPKO to these tasks. It also explores, in the case that these outputs have not yet been achieved- where female troops might reconfigure their approach, or positions to promote greater security and make the case for more counterparts.
Case Study: The United Nations Peacekeeping Mission to Liberia (UNMIL)

An excellent case study in this evolving question is UNMIL- where women are included at slightly higher than average rates than the DPKO writ large and their contribution is part of the mission mandate. Women serve as 2% percent of military personnel, 18% of Police, 30% of international civilian staff and 25% of national civilian staff. The mission receives regular attention highly visible and highly dynamic women peacekeeping and police forces, especially for the fact that it is DPKOs first head of mission SRSG Ms. Margaret Loj appointed in 2008 and first all women Formed Police Unit (FPU) which has been in the country since 2007.


In 2009, I had the chance to live and work in Liberia to study the impact of the women peacekeepers there. In 2007 the first all female Formed Police Unit (FPU) composed of women from India, joined UNMIL. Since this time, there have been three consecutive Indian battalions of approximately 112 women (and 25 men) in serving Liberia. There are 130 of 720 total UN Police in the Country. The imperative of the assignment- as passed down from UNMILs Senior Gender Advisor to me- was showing the impact beyond the normative rhetoric that accompanied the women. In addition to the mission and community wide interviews and focus group, I spent a significant time getting to know the FPU contingent, which was at that time the second to fill the role.
My methodology for the work was quite simple. I interviewed the women in the battalions (including not just the Indian women but women troops from Ghana and the Philippines which I will say more about in a minute), and held community focus group with those living in the immediate area or benefiting from their various projects. I also interviewed their male counterparts- the all men FPU from the UN. There are 130 women of 720 total police in Liberia- so there were significant resources. I also spent a lot of time with the crime statistics unit- that is the Police Unit at UNMIL and the Force Commander’s Office. The FPU Female unit is stationed at a base in Congo town (a suburb of Monrovia) and the crime rates are tracked by location and suburb so it was not difficult to isolate the impact.

I also spent a considerable amount of time considering the tasks of the women- looking at the day-to-day activities, both the formal and the informal. Their mandated tasks include serving as guards for UN and local authorities (including President Sirleaf), providing security at local events, riot control, carrying out night patrols in and around Monrovia, and assisting in building the capacity of local security institutions (including the LNP and AFL.) The Ghanaian units were similar but are located in non-urban settings thought the country. In addition to their mandated duties, the Indian FPU uses their own time to create and implement outreach projects in the community. Currently outreach programs include providing medical services to the community, adopting an orphanage and school (where they teach dance and self defense classes) and providing first aid classes for women.


I also looked at other women serving in the mission- the point of this was to see the impact of an individual versus a group or battalion. The UN is using both approaches in Sudan and the like so hi considered the distinction important. There are 168 of 10,165 women peacekeepers within UNMIL, concentrated within the major troop contributing nations of Ghana, the Philippines and Nigeria. The largest group of women serves as part of the 10th contingent of Ghana Battalion, headquartered in the port city of Buchanan, in Grand Bass County. The battalion’s 41 women serve in supportive roles- including medical and administrative assignments. The group supports the implementation of Ghanabat to provide safety and security in the community by taking part in patrols (although in small numbers.) Women in the battalion participate in units outreach activities including: volunteering at the Elle Johnson Sirleaf High School and supporting Gods Heritage Orphanage, where they work to construct infrastructure and interact with the children.
Women peacekeepers from Nigeria concentrated the second largest group and serve in and around Monrovia. The women are spread out among the Nigerian Battalions in the Mission- including NiMBATT, NiGCON and GBINOBA. Like their Ghanaian counterparts they hold supportive role, which are fully integrated to the work of their particular battalion. In addition, the women from Nigeria perform outreach along side their male peers including free medical service, worship services for the community, sponsorship of school children and Sunday school activities.
Findings

So my first question was what was the impact on Kinetic or Physical Security? This case study found that the presence of the women police and peacekeepers in UNMIL has in fact lead to enhanced physical safety and security. This has been achieved by strengthening the actual security infrastructure, opening new channels for gathering intelligence and information, and the political will for a very the visible presence of women as police and peacekeepers in the Liberian community.


What is the evidence? First, crime rates in the areas of high visibility- especially home-based crimes (like domestic violence) are going down. Members of a focus group validated trends when they described the changes in crime in their community: “the community has been peaceful. In the absence of the FPU there were robbery cases around, the community has become much more tame.” 15 The community is highly aware of the security services provided. Community members describe an incidence of mob violence, when a group of young teenage boys became violent. The group reported that the incident was quickly and professionally handled by the FPU, a show of their strength as well as a message to the community that peace and security are the priority. In the words of one local community leader “their presence is our safety.”
Two, there is increased security through new resources for intelligence gathering. This finding was especially relevant among the community of Buchanan where the Ghana is based. Liberian women have become more active in reporting crimes or suspicious activities to UN troops on patrols, often activity seeking out the women to speak with. This is particularly relevant in Buchanan, where there is a sizable Muslim population. Muslim Women in Liberia often face the double burden of both religious and traditional barriers to their interactions with men. One LCRL described a case where a woman in the community provided crucial intelligence- leading them directly to a weapon stockpile- to help the Unit provide safety and security for the community “we were out on patrol and there was some weapon storage. She reflected, “I know if there were no women she would have not said anything, she is a Muslim and it is against her religion to approach men. She came to us she trusted us and we were able to respond to the situation.” 16
This finding was interesting me because of another project I had worked on in the past, we found that in Afghanistan’s most perilous locales, female patients in health clinics provided through Coalition support have volunteered valuable tactical information to U.S. forces, preventing attacks and supporting counterinsurgent efforts.17 Controversial: yes, I think so. But helpful, yes, I think so as well.
The third fang was that the all female units see their provision of security as distinctly different then their male counterparts. As one of five FPUs in Liberia, the Indian women have counterpart battalions from Nigeria, Nepal, and Jordan. Interviews with staff of the four predominantly male units revealed that they viewed their mission in a much more narrow way then the Indian FPU.18 The all-male FPUs, discussed their impact in terms of crime rates for armed robbery and assault, with little attention to the wider provision of human security. Few had developed community outreach activities (although some had plans to do so.) No all-male unit personnel described with certainly the specific and prevalent challenges women and men in the community faced and few had engaged in interpersonal interaction with local counterparts.19 All female FPU personnel reflect on securing the community as their greatest achievement. They move between riot and night patrol descriptions to that of their community impact.
The women are not shy when they notice changes in the community, approaching women and men they think might be having a problem at home, should the become absent or withdrawn from activities. Such interactions strengthen relationships with the community, enhances physical and human security alike. Women residents of Congo town pointed to the distinctly human approach of the all-female FPU in “getting to know the community” including families names and family members. “Women are more likely to interact we are the community know ourselves and they also know us, so they are seeing other things that are not right, are not normal they are investigating this they ask what happened, they ask for information on what ad the following,” added Mr. Alfred Sammy, of Congo town. “I prefer they are women because they are friendly when it comes around people. Were interacting together.” This approach is most likely more time consuming than the alternative, but is showing high returns in Congo town.
Impacts (and the nexus for human security)

This last topic takes us to the greater picture of human security and perhaps illustrates where the greatest potential is present. In the watershed UN report, Human Security Now, recognized that key functions of stability operations now recognized to improve the state of human lives- include core functions of health security, economic stability and viability and transparency of state governance and electoral systems.20 What use to be a relatively radical idea about the provision of human security is now both accepted and mainstreamed. But the ways to do it effectively- much less is know about that.


I think however, we are getting a better idea about the skills needed- we know that in instable post conflict environments where DPKO is present, these multifaceted tasks require novel and diverse skills sets. We do know that UN Peacekeepers are now more then ever responsible for these core tasks- enhanced community safety, psychological and health security, and support for the transition for functional political and access to economic systems. We know that the face of the security institutions must reflect the security of the host community and that includes involving women. Thus, the evolving understanding of human security environment has come to include and recognize the integration of gender- motivated by the idea that this inclusion leads directly to improved human security and thus overall state stability.21 
During a focus group with civilians who live near the Nigerian Battalion in Monrovia, locals were asked about the impact of the Women Peacekeepers on personal security. Again and again they cited the provision of medical services by women staff as something that helped keep them and their family safe. Female members of the battalion agreed. One lieutenant described the result of opening channels of communication through discussions on protecting oneself against Aids, domestic violence, and attitudes about sex and sexuality. Research shows that providing medical care and health-care alongside military operations have been particularly effective in winning local support for keeping the peace. Such tasks ha created a sense of calm and a reduction in poverty motivated petty crimes (community member cite less stress in that they no longer have to compete for scarce resources.) Monthly community clean up days were introduced by the women in 2008 and have continued since- inspiring a community pride in the area, an effect which has been shown to dramatically decrease crime through stronger community participation and decreasing incidence of crime. It is the broken window theory at its strongest.
It is especially important to highlight the effect of female Police and Peacekeepers on reducing the instances of Sexual and Gender Based violence in the community. It is a well-documented fact that victims of sexual violence remain intimidated by male soldiers; regardless of their status and that the presence of women can alleviate this intimidation and act as a reassurance of the benign intentions of the peacekeepers.22The all-female FPU have provided crucial a resource in the UN coordinated response to sexual violence, which is a priority in post war Liberia. First, the Unit acts as a deterrent for SGBV by keeping the area secure and establishing strong communication networks with community members. Secondly, they provide sensitization mechanisms for educating community members through increased discussions about preventing rape. Finally, the Unit is a resource for women in the community to report experienced assault. This prevention and response approach is very conducive to lessening the effects of SGBV in the community.
The research continues to show has shown that having female and male peacekeepers working side by side in host countries can be catalytic in breaking down traditional views that discriminate against women and marginalize women from decision making processes.23 After three sequential years of having the all female FPU on the ground has had a great impact eroding long standing traditional norms that have inhibited women in Liberia. People are more comfortable with the idea of women in positions of power and non-traditional roles- including those in the emerging security sector (the completion of which is core to state stability).
The FPU have participated in innovative and creative partnerships that have resulted in increased sensitization of Liberian women and girls to take on like roles. For example, to address issues of recruitment within the LNP, the unit has worked in partnership, harnessing the positive message of the women peacekeepers Liberia. The ability to recruit more women for the local security sector - through the lessening of negative cultural stigmas that were formally in place- is an investment in security that will benefit the country for many years. In the words of a local teacher- girls and women feel “if a lady could be a police office why I cannot do the same.24
There is now more then ever great evidence to support this link between gender, human security and state stability- notably in examining the preferences of the local post population. While the absence of flying bullets is important, no less important to sustaining life are “clean water, the ability to obtain medical help for injuries and illnesses, safety against crime and intimidation, and a chance to obtain at least a minimal living standard.”25 Addressing human security, in its broadest form, isn’t a return to traditional feminist approaches- but I am not sure we have reconciled this.
Research and Resource Challenges

Addressing recruitment continues to be “one of the greatest challenges facing the United Nations” and a challenge that goes beyond simply including women and including a greater expansion of the recruitment pool for which “women remain an untapped resource.”26 It is a part of a larger missing story (much broader then there is room for here) about how the UN Recruits and restrains quality staff- at a level of concern that is endemic. Research groups like the NYU Center for International Cooperation are charting the on going need for greater deployment- across the inability of the UN as an institution to responded. They are excellent catalysts to continue to call for improved engendering- because they can address the institutional issues at hand. The CIC recently charted the deficit need for personnel in DRC, Sudan, and Chad, which has the attention of policy makers.27


The UN is changing the way in which it recruits and hires staff- logically changing it, consultants are more popular but the depth of that shift is not understood. New technical advancements often leave job seekers locked out of hiring processes. It’s a simple problem with a huge impact. Also extremely concerning is retention. Women police in India have to enter a queue for inclusion that few get through- only three in Sudan- and after their service with the UN are casts aside- even though who express and interest in staying within the system.
I could go on regarding this topic forever- but it doesn’t really get to the research. The truth is that research- with the exception of operations like the one at NYU- are doing a relatively poor job of speaking to one another. The 1325 tenth anniversary events in NYC are one particular example- the audiences were very segregated. On a more macro level nationally based research institutions, often speak directly to their military. This may be very useful in Scandinavia- but in the US- where the military sees UN integration a liability (not to mention one through a gendered lenses) leaving our academic intuitions without a platform through which to argue for the inclusion of women.
NGOs and women’s leadership groups have not typically been successful and advocating for more women in the hard security sector (especially when compared in their interest in calling for participating in high level delegations and negotiations)- nor the research on which such argumentation would be able to more stabile stand. This is most likely because of the whereas the NGO com- munity has been very vocal in lobbying for increased recruitment of women. This is most likely because of a fundamental disconnect between NGOs which have their origins in the peace movement- such as the ever active IASA- are fundamentally opposed to the development of the security sector via either gender. 28 Even though many believe this is a dated reference a 2010 report from Peace Women, showed it is alive and well. The report- while calling for fulfillment of the terms of 1325 in recruitment of women peacekeepers also warned of the slippery slope towards “militarism of women.”29 There seems there is much work to be done here.
Those in the academic field committed to its investigation are often left out of important policy dialogues. In many ways, research on the impact of the women peacekeepers must be from an internal standpoint. However, mission level work has little personnel expertise to carryout the work. In other cases, research trends are replaced by miss level assumptions. I found this out the hard way when presenting research on the Indian FPU across from he unit commander. While I worried our research would be contradictory, her report on the ability of women peacekeepers to serve as mothers to the community was a far different tone a temperate. In many ways the advent of women in security is calling back to the presuppose ion that they do not, from a feminist perspective, belong together. Additionally, collected research by DPOKO or other secretariat level initiatives is extremely practical, and creates workbooks or action plans as oppose to statistics and ideas. The bright spot here is the work on indicators coordinated by the IWG at the UN Secretariat level. There are several indicators themes that include measuring the impact and role of women peacekeepers and they will be very helpful if approved.
In 2006, Karen Barns reflected on the fact that gender mainstreaming in mission has lead to women’s issues not being “integrated [but instead] they have become invisible.”30 The trend is still the same, having particular impacts on the research and policy dialogue. Peacekeeping leadership is quick to call on mainstreaming as a success, the responsibility of female staff, stilled among a Gender Advisor Unit, which does often have the expertise to deal with its cross cutting nature.
Recommendations

First, the push and pull factors for getting more qualified women peacekeepers must be addressed as a quality – not quantity – issue. As coalition of member states the UN is reliant on Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs) to staff its forces. This means the number of women is directly based on the number of women sent- thus low numbers of women in UN missions reflects the low numbers of women in the military and police forces across UN member states, particularly in higher-ranking positions.31  TCCs should focus on increasing programs that recruitment and training for more women to UN missions- including novel approaches such as civilian expert rosters. At the Headquarters level- recommendations will address the pull for women peacekeepers- that understands the demand side- the United Nations Gender Assembly and Security Council. It is crucial that these women are professionally trained for the missions they serve- as the goal is security, not just numbers on the ground.


Secondly there must be political will from the host country and host mission. The significance of the impact of women police and peacekeepers on security in UNMIL has partially relied on support from UNMIL leadership. The missions previous SRSG Alan Doss fully supported the recruitment and placement of the Female FPU and seemed acutely aware of their forthcoming impact stating: “we know from police experience around the world that women officers are good at handling potentially violent situations.”32 The current SRSG, Margaret Loj has supported the unit by increasing the visibility of the unit at international events, calling attention to their impact to the mission overall. These factors combined this has created knowledge of their presence in the community and elevated security at the same time.33 There is also a high degree of support and buy in from the national government- who exercises the political will to use the battalion in a serious way. The ministry of gender staff described the “protection with a female face” as highly effective in opening the door to ensuring that Liberia moves towards a path of inclusive security.34
Very important to impacting security is a height level of visibility and concentration of the unit and efficient and effective use of limited resources to enhance support the peacekeepers. The more concentrated the groups of women are the more successful they are at achieving the outcomes above. The FPU’s concentrated efforts in areas of high visibility have increased both the feelings of peace and security but also the attention to the groups and thus their impact on empowerment and gender conditions. However, it is important to note women peacekeepers take a much les visible role. Since they serve as members of large battalion that include a majority of men. It is the discretion of the battalion’s leaders to hose how the women are used. In the case of the Ghana battalion patrols will include a maximum of one or two women, while most will include no women. It is the primarily complaint of the women peacekeepers that their interaction with the community is limited by these patrol choices- and it is clear that a more visible patrol presence would enhance the impact of their presence. It is also a complaint of the community who is calling on the women to come forward in positions of authority- “the women must have the capacity to engage this way, for the peacekeepers to be examples they must be seen and manifested.”35
Third there must be no place for Gender Stereotypes- which are not only demoralizing but also limiting to women in peacekeeping missions. In the case of the Ghanaian and Nigerian Women of peacekeepers can only hold supportive as oppose to direct impact roles. This reduces their visibility in the community and the amount of time they can interface with local population. Additionally, these peacekeepers are spread out across companies and do not participate as concentrated armed units. Despite this, the women peacekeepers have identified a unique opportunity to impact the community through their interpersonal interactions and have used immense energy and personal time to participate in such (the effects of which are presented in the outcome section of this chapter). Currently, however these interactions are ad-hoc-serving as product of their enthusiasm, interest and dedication as oppose to part of a strategic plan. In a Buchanan based Focus Group Discussion, women highlighted the presence of the Ghanaians in their community, but stated that “they are in the background, you can see them but they have not come forward. Some are in positions of authority but they should come forward to have an impact.”36 Not only does this placement inhibit the impact but also has a negative effect on the women’s ‘espri de corp’ and social networks that seem to motivate and sustain the Indian FPU. Despite the constraints, a number of outcomes have emerged from the presence of women peacekeepers, illustrating the potential for greater impact, should the constraints listed above be addressed.

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5 United Nations, Department Of Peacekeeping Operations, Enhancing The Operational Impact Of Peacekeeping Operations Gender Balance In Military And Police Services Deployed To UN Peacekeeping Missions. Policy Dialogue, New York, 28-29 March 2006.

6 DPKO Gender Website: WWW.DPKO.ORG

7 Cockburn, Cynthia & Meliha, Hubic, 2002. ‘Gender and the Peacekeeping Military: A View from Bosnian Women’s Organizations’, in Cynthia Cockburn & Dubravka Zarkov, eds, The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities and International Peacekeeping. London: Lawrence & Wishart: (103–121); Rehn, Elisabeth and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (2002) “Women, war and peace. The Independent Expert’s Assessment.” Progress of the Worlds Women, Vol. 1. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women. Also see: Enloe, Cynthia, 2002. ‘Demilitarization or More of the Same? Feminist Questions To Ask in the Postwar Moment’, in Cynthia Cockburn & Dubravka Zarkov, eds, The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities and International Peacekeeping. London: Lawrence & Wishart (22–32).

8 United Nations, General Assembly, Comprehensive Review of the Whole Question of Peacekeeping Operations in All Their Aspects, Prepared by Prince Zeid Ra’ad Zeid Al-Hussein, U.N. General Assembly Document A/59/710, March 24, 2005. Also see: United Nations, Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in Multidimensional Peace Operations, (2000). Available at: http://www.peacewomen.org/assets/file/Resources/UN/dpko_mainstreaminggenderperspecti ve_2000.pdf.

9 UN Secretary General Speaks on Women and Peacekeeping, New York, NY, June 2010. Accessed at: http://www.unmultimedia.org/tv/unifeed//d/15286.html

10 Mayanja, Rachel, Assistant Secretary-General Special Adviser On Gender Issues And Advancement Of Women At The Policy Dialogue With Troop And Police Contributing Countries To Review Strategies For Enhancing Gender Balance Among Uniformed Personnel In Peacekeeping Missions New York, 28 March 2006.

11 United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Police Magazine, January 2010, 4thEd. (2010). Available at: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/sites/police/pdf/UNPolice_mag4.pdf.

12 Skard, Torlid, Gender in the Malestream – Acceptance of Women and Gender Equality in Different United Nations Organisations, Forum for Development Studies | 36 [1] 2009: 155–191 , ppg. 32. Whitworth, Sandra, 2004. Men, Militarism and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. New York: Lynne Rienner.

13 Afrim-Narh, A. T. (2006). Gender integration and international peacekeeping: The case of the Ghana armed forces. (Master’s thesis, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Available at: http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/statsvitenskap/2006/41510/41510.pdf

14 Hudson, Natalie. "Engendering Human Security in the United Nations: The Case of Peacekeeping" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006.

15 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.

16 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.

17 Observations and Lessons Learned: Task Force Devil, 1st Brigade Combat Team, 82 Airborne Division, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, January 2004, p. 19.

18 The phrase predominantly male is used because while the Indian FPU has approximately 24 male members, the remaining four FPU have an average of 2 women on staff, who work predominantly as medical personnel.

19 When comparing the all female and all male FPUs it is important to note the difference in English language skills. One reason for the all female FPU’s flexibility for key tasks is their ability to communicate with the local population and within the UN mission.

20 Human Security Now, New York, Commission on Human Security, United Nations, 2003.

21 United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 1994 – New Dimensions of Human Security. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Accessed at : http://www.undp.org/hdro/1994/94.htm> 08/08/2001

22 United Nations, Department Of Peacekeeping Operations, Enhancing The Operational Impact Of Peacekeeping Operations Gender Balance In Military And Police Services Deployed To UN Peacekeeping Missions. Policy Dialogue, New York, 28-29 March 2006.

23 Mayanja, Rachel, Assistant Secretary-General Special Adviser On Gender Issues And Advancement Of Women At The Policy Dialogue With Troop And Police Contributing Countries To Review Strategies For Enhancing Gender Balance Among Uniformed Personnel In Peacekeeping Missions New York, 28 March 2006.

24 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.

25 Cheryl Benard and Kristen Cordell, Women and Human Security: The Case of Post Conflict Afghanistan, Georgetown University: WIIS Words Journal, Winter 2007.

26 Torunn L. Tryggestad, Trick or Treat? The UN and Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, Global Governance 15 (2009), 539-557.

27 All Peace Operations Are Political: A Case for Designer Missions and the Next UN Reform

Source, Center on International Cooperation, New York University, Review of Political Missions 2010.

28 Torunn L. Tryggestad, Trick or Treat? The UN and Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, Global Governance 15 (2009), 539-557.

29 Maria Butler, Kristina Mader and Rachel Kean Women, Peace, and Security Handbook: Compilation and Analysis of United Nations Security Council Resolution Language 2000-2010 Publication of the PeaceWomen Project of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), October 2010.

30 Barnes, Karen. "Reform or more of the same? Gender mainstreaming in UN peace operations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006

31 Women in International Security, “Women in United Nations Peace Operations: Increasing Leadership Opportunities”, Georgetown University, July 2008. United Nations, Department Of Peacekeeping Operations, Enhancing The Operational Impact Of Peacekeeping Operations Gender Balance In Military And Police Services Deployed To UN Peacekeeping Missions. Policy Dialogue, New York, 28-29 March 2006.

32 United Nations Institute For Training And Research On Women, Women, Peace And Security In Liberia: Supporting The Implementation Of Resolution 1325 In Liberia, Background Paper, March 2009.

33 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.

34 The Analyst, Female Peacekeepers Providing Hope For Women Victimized By Conflict , Monrovia, Liberia, June 01, 2009.

35 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.

36 Author Focus Group, Monrovia Liberia, 2009. See: Best Practices for Gender Mainstreaming at the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) From 2003 to 2008, United Nations, Best Practices Unit, 2010.



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