Sectionalism and Civil War Unit Test Review



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Sectionalism and Civil War Unit Test Review

  1. List characteristics of the 3 eras:

  1. Sectionalism – Tariffs, increasing divide between north and south, manufacturing society vs. plantation society, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, Dred Scott vs. Sandford, Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law, Harriett Beecher Stowe and Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Bleeding Kansas, Harper’s Ferry and John Brown, popular sovereignty

  2. Civil War – Secession, slavery, states’ rights, 1861-1865, Abraham Lincoln, Confederate States of America, Union, Rebels, Yankees, Blue, Gray, Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Emancipation Proclamation, Appomattox Courthouse, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, William Carney, Phillip Bazaar, Stonewall Jackson, Assassination of Lincoln

  3. Reconstruction – Re-admitting the southern states to the Union, 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments, Radical Reconstruction, Andrew Johnson, sharecropping, carpetbaggers, scalawags, Freedmen’s Bureau, Reconstruction Act of 1867, Civil Rights Act of 1866, Black Codes, Jim Crow Laws, Homestead Act, Dawes Act, Morrill Act

  1. Explain the significance of the following date, 1861-1865. The years of the Civil War.

  2. Analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil War.

  1. North – high tariffs help the industrial North by making their prices more competitive against cheap imports; had most of the nation’s manufacturing. Northerners liked tariffs because it caused Americans to buy more American-made products by increasing the cost of European imported manufactured goods.

  2. South – had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods; saw the high tariffs as a burden imposed by the more industrialized and populated North; sold most of their cotton to foreign buyer’s on credit

  3. West – backed government spending on internal improvements, such as new roads and canals. The improvements were financed by tariffs.

  1. Compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks.

  1. Political – Slaves have no political voice; no rights, 3/5th Compromise counts them as population. Free Blacks have no political voice, limited and restricted rights.

  2. Economic – Slaves are the labor of the plantation system, considered property; children considered property and sold with no regard to parents. Free Blacks are low-wage earners.

  3. Social – Slaves are viewed as property, viewed as outside the American identity, loose communities within the plantation system. Frees Blacks were the lowest social class, limited access to education, socially isolated. Both had 3 main points family, religion, and resistance. Racism develops in both the North and South.

  1. Analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.

  1. North – illegal since the Revolution. Abolitionist societies and newspapers. Underground Railroad. Many were ambivalent to the plight of slaves and free blacks. Fear of labor competition.

  2. South – Slaves were viewed a property and labor supply. Maintain way of life. Considered a states’ right issue. Fugitive Slave Law.

  3. West – Fight over whether or not to extend slavery into the territories. Maintain balance of free vs. slave states in the Senate.

  1. Identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War:

  1. Missouri Compromise – sponsored by Henry Clay, allowed for Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state, this maintained the balance of power in the Senate

  2. Compromise of 1850 – disagreement over admitting California as a slave state or free state. Henry Clay came up with a solution that stated that California would be admitted as a free state and slave trade would be abolished in Washington, D.C.

  3. Kansas-Nebraska Act - Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed for Kansas and Nebraska organize on the basis of popular sovereignty. They would vote themselves to decide if they would be free or slave state.

  4. Nullification Crisis – In 1828, the Tariff of Abominations was passed resulting in a higher tariff. In 1832, a lower tariff was passed but this still angered South Carolinians, led by John C. Calhoun. South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders and threatened to secede from the Union. To prevent a war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833. The Federal Government lowers the tariffs and South Carolina backs down.

  1. Explain the roles of the following individuals in relation to congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War:

  1. John Quincy Adams – he was instrumental to the compromise that ended the Nullification Crisis.

  2. John C. Calhoun – South Carolina senator, who stood for the rights of the states to determine tariffs (Nullification Crisis), expands slavery into the territories.

  3. Henry Clay – senator from Kentucky, who worked for the American system and the expansion of the U.S. economy and infrastructure, founder of the Whig Party, the “Great Compromiser”

  4. Daniel Webster – senator from Massachusetts, known as the “Great Orator” worked to create compromises with the Southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War

  1. Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War:

  1. Jefferson Davis – president of the Confederacy

  2. Ulysses S. Grant – commander of the Union forces

  3. Robert E. Lee – commander of the Confederate forces

  4. Abraham Lincoln – president of the United States

  1. Explain the roles played by heroes, such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients:

  1. William Carney – Congressional Medal of Honor recipient; served with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War. He was the first African American soldier to receive this award. When the 54th’s sergeant was shot down, he grasped the flag, led the way to the top and planted the flag. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded.

  2. Phillip Bazaar – born in Chile, South America, was a Navy seaman in the Union Navy, won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his distinguished service during the Civil War. On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher, Bazaar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle.

  1. Explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states’ rights, and slavery:

  1. Missouri Compromise – Missouri entered the union as slave states and Maine entered as a free state. This Missouri Compromise also stated that all new states entering the Union with latitude north of the 36’30 line would be slaves.

  2. Compromise of 1850 – California admitted as a free state; slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.; stronger fugitive slave laws would be passed to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves

  3. Dred Scott vs. Sandford – denied citizenship of slaves, slaves were property, and made Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it limited areas allowed for slavery. The South favored the decision, but the North did not, causing further tensions.

  4. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin – book about the horrors of slavery.

  5. Harper’s Ferry and John Brown – leading abolitionist, trial and execution.

  6. Bleeding Kansas – Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed for Kansas and Nebraska organize on the basis of popular sovereignty. They would vote themselves to decide if they would be free or slave state. Pro-slavery groups and abolitionists

  1. Explain the significant events of the Civil War:

  1. Firing on Fort Sumter – a Union fort in Charleston Harbor, was fired upon by rebel forces to begin the Civil War, April 1861

  2. Battle of Antietam – the bloodiest single-day battle of the war, occurred in Maryland on September 17, 1862. Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation on September 23, following the Union victory at Antietam.

  3. Battle of Vicksburg – the North captured this strong hold to gain control of the Mississippi River and divided the Southern states, July 1863

  4. Battle of Gettysburg - From July 1 – 3, 1863, 92,000 Union troops fought 76,000 Confederates. Turning point of the war. Lee’s last attempt to bring the war north. Union victory led to Gettysburg Address.

  5. Announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation – changes the nature of the war from that of preserving the Union to freeing the slaves. The proclamation frees only the slaves in the rebelling territories. Announced in September 1862, official January 1, 1863.

  6. Appomattox Courthouse – Lee’s surrenders the Confederate Forces to Grant at Appomattox Court House. It brings the Civil War to a close. April 1865.

  7. Assassination of Abraham Lincoln – Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth, a southern sympathizer. April 1865.



  1. Analyze Abraham Lincoln’s 1st and 2nd Inaugural Addresses and the Gettysburg Address, explain his ideas about the following:

  1. Liberty – 1st - promised to not interfere with slavery; 2nd - war will continue until no more slavery; Gettys – liberty based on the Declaration of Independence.

  2. Equality – 1st – promised not to interfere with slavery; 2nd denounces slavery; Gettys – all me are created equal.

  3. Union 1st – Union could not be dissolved; 2nd restoration and peace for the nation; Gettys – restore peace and keep the nation united.

  4. Government – 1st – against the law to secede from the Union; 2nd – people trying to destroy the government; Gettys – government of the people, by the people, and for the people.

  5. Contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis’ Inaugural Address:

  1. Liberty – entitled, North taking freedoms from the South

  2. Equality – South was united in purpose with honor, right, liberty, and equality.

  3. Union – Davis explains that breaking from the Union was a necessity, not a choice and reunion with the States is neither practicable nor desirable.

  4. Government – The Confederacy had a goal of establishing a government system similar to the United States Constitution.

  1. Evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments:

  1. Freedmen’s Bureau – established in the War Department in March 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freemen, including rations, clothing and medicine. The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate States, border states, Washington, D.C., and Indian Territory.

  2. 13th Amendment – abolish slavery

  3. 14th Amendment - All persons born in the United States (except Native Americans) were citizens and all citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race, and their rights were protected by the due process of law. If Southern States hoped to rejoin the Union they had to accept the 14th amendment.

  4. 15th Amendment – granted black men the right to vote

  5. Reconstruction Act of 1867 – Military occupation of the former Confederate States, strict guidelines on representation and requirements for readmission to Union.

  6. Civil Rights Act of 1866 – Granted citizenship to persons born in the United States expect Native Americans.

  1. Evaluate the impact of the election of Hiram Rhodes Revels. He was elected as the first African-American Senator. In 1870, the Mississippi state legislature chose Revels to fill a seat in the Senate that had been vacant since the start of the Civil War. Although he served only a brief term, Revel established a significant precedent just by taking his seat, against the objection of white Southerners. As a senator, Revels won notice for speaking out against racial segregation.

  2. Explain the economic, political, and social problems during Reconstruction and evaluate their impact on different groups:

  1. Black Codes – laws passed in the South during Reconstruction to limit the opportunities for blacks.

  2. Jim Crow Laws – laws passed to bypass laws created by Radical Republicans and any other federal law that Southerners did not agree with concerning African-American. African-Americans were not always able to participate in government or exercise their rights.

  3. Ku Klux Klan – secret society that gained support in 1868 and sought to destroy the Republican Party in the South; used harsh intimidation tactics on African Americans and other groups that helped African Americans.

  1. Identify the effects of legislative acts:

  1. Homestead Act – government program that gave families 160 acres of public land for a small fee. Most of the land went to cattlemen, miners, lumbermen, and railroads. Accelerated westward growth.

  2. Dawes Act – law allowed for the President to break up Indian Reservation land. Purpose was to protect Indian property rights.

  3. Morrill Act – act made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens. This act facilitated the founding the University of Texas and Texas A&M.

  1. Describe the impact of 19th-century amendments, including 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, on life in the United States. 13 – freed all slaves; 14 – extended citizenship to blacks; 15 – granted black men the right to vote

  2. Explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states’ rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War. See answer 6d.

  3. Evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott vs. Sandford, on the life of the United States. - denied citizenship of slaves, slaves were property, and made Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it limited areas allowed for slavery. The South favored the decision, but the North did not, causing further tensions.

  4. Analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as Abraham Lincoln. – honesty, courage, inspirational, thoughtful

- Lincoln led the United States as President during the Civil War. Through his leadership the Union was preserved and slavery eventually abolished after his assassination in 1865.

  1. Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Stonewall Jackson. – Confederate General in the Civil War, earned his name “Stonewall” at the Battle of Bull Run, gifted tactical commander lead troops in the 1st and 2nd Battles of Bull Run and Antietam.


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