Section a prescribed Subject 1 Peacemaking, peacekeeping – international relations 1918-36



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SECTION A


Prescribed Subject 1 Peacemaking, peacekeeping – international relations 1918-36

These sources refer to the aims of the participants and peacemakers at the Paris Peace Settlements of 1919.



SOURCE A Extract of Lloyd George’s Fontainebleau Memorandum issued March 25th, 1919.

You may strip Germany of her colonies, reduce her armaments to a mere police force and her navy to that of a fifth rate power; all the same in the end if she feels that she has been unjustly treated in the peace of 1919 she will find means of exacting retribution from her conquerors. The impression, the deep impression, made upon the human heart by four years of unexampled slaughter will disappear with the hearts upon which it has been marked by the terrible sword of the Great War. The maintenance of peace will then depend upon there being no causes of exasperation constantly stirring up the spirit of patriotism, of justice or of fair play to achieve redress. Our terms may be severe, they may be stern and even ruthless but at the same time they can be so just that the country on which they are imposed will feel in its heart that it has no right to complain. But injustice, arrogance, displayed in the hour of triumph will never be forgotten or forgiven.

For these reasons I am, therefore, strongly adverse to transferring more Germans from German rule to the rule of some other nation than can possibly be helped. I cannot conceive of any greater cause of future war than that the German people, who have certainly proved themselves one of the most vigorous and powerful races in the world should be surrounded by a number of small states, many of them consisting of people who have never previously set up a stable government for themselves, but each of them containing large masses of Germans clamoring for reunion with their native land.

SOURCE B Extract from the book The Treaty of Versailles edited by Jeff Hay, San Diego 2002.

It was into this environment that those staunch representatives of the old order – Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and Wilson – arrived on January 18, 1919, the anniversary of France’s 1871 humiliation at German hands. Clemenceau, of course, chose this date intentionally […].

The conference’s greatest issue remained the peace with Germany. Clemenceau favored harsh terms. He continually reminded negotiators that he had seen Germany invade France twice during his lifetime. He was not going to allow it to happen again, and he advocated extreme measures to restrict Germany’s war-making capacity. French public opinion, in addition, demanded harsh terms. Lloyd George’s highest priority was to prevent a German threat to the British overseas empire. Beyond that he was willing to compromise and appeared to believe that Germany should properly remain a major European power. The British prime minister, however, like the French premier, had to answer to public opinion at home. Many Britons, sick of the privations of war, wanted Germany to pay for its crimes.

SOURCE C Extract from the book The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking in Paris, 1919 by Alan Sharp, New York 1991.

British policy had four main bases. Germany should pay reparations, but they payments should cease, if possible, with the passing of the generation responsible for the war. Germany must be allowed equal access to world markets and resources… Lloyd George wished to apply Wilson’s doctrine of national self-determination as far as was possible in establishing new European boundaries, but he was “strongly averse to transferring more Germans from German rule to the rule of some other nation that can possibly be helped”.

Lloyd George’s thoughts were not universally acclaimed by his colleagues […]. Clemenceau’s view was that Lloyd George, with the main threats to Britain removed, could afford to be magnanimous, whereas France faced a powerful neighbor without the benefit of a natural boundary like the Channel. The French attempts […] to gain a Rhine frontier, or at least to detach the Rhineland from Germany, had foundered in the face of implacable opposition from Wilson and Lloyd George, but Clemenceau did achieve a package of linked concessions.

SOURCE D Extract of a speech by Georges Clemenceau while debating with Lloyd George and Wilson on March 27th, 1919, published in Historia 5, 2008. Translated from Dutch by Maria Radikov.

We must make every effort to be fair to the Germans, but it is something else to convince them that we are being just. I believe that we can succeed in securing the world for a long time against a German attack, but the mentality of the Germans shall not change so fast. I know them. Since 1871, I have forced myself nearly each year to go to Germany. I wanted to get to know the Germans and there were moments when I hoped that a means could be found by which our two peoples could be brought together. I can assure you: their idea of justice is not consistent with ours! After the grandest efforts and greatest sacrifices of blood that history has ever known, we must not put the result of our victory into jeopardy. The League of Nations is being presented as a means to guarantee the peace that we need: I accept that as a means. But if the League of Nations is not capable of enforcing decisions using military force, it may become imperative that such possibilities be available elsewhere. Please understand my position, as I try to understand yours. America is far away, protected by the ocean. Not even Napoleon himself could touch England.  You are both sheltered; we are not.



SOURCE E A postcard depicting Clemenceau embracing the regions of Alsace and Lorraine on their return to France after the 1st World War, c. 1918, by Leon Fauret, a French Artist. Taken from Britannica Image Quest.

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Refer to the accompanying Source Booklet and answer all the questions in either Section A or Section B or Section C.


SECTION A


Prescribed Subject 1 Peacemaking, peacekeeping -- international relations 1918-36

These questions relate to the aims of the participants and peacemakers at the Paris Peace Settlements of 1919. The accompanying sources are on pages 2 to 4 in the Source Booklet.

  1. (a) According to source B, what are the reasons for the discrepancies in David Lloyd George’s and Georges Clemenceau’s views on Germany’s war reparations? [3 marks]

(b) What does source E suggest about the French’s feelings about the end of the war?

[2 marks]



  1. Compare and contrast the views of the British and French delegations on German treatment expressed in Sources A and B. [6 marks]



  1. With reference to their origin and purpose, assess the value and limitations of Source C and Source D for historians studying the aims of the peacemakers at the Paris Peace Settlements of 1919. [6 marks]



  1. Using these sources and your own knowledge, assess whether the claim of Source B that the British solely wanted “Germany to pay for its crimes” was true for all the peacemakers.

[8 marks]

SECTION A


Prescribed Subject 1 Peacemaking, peacekeeping -- international relations 1918-36

These questions relate to the aims of the participants and peacemakers at the Paris Peace Settlements of 1919. The accompanying sources are on pages 2 to 4 in the Source Booklet.

  1. (a) According to source B, what are the reasons for the discrepancies in George’s and

Clemenceau’s views on Germany’s war reparations? [3 marks]

The first mark should be awarded for a general comment such as the fact that Clemenceau favored harsher terms than Lloyd George, who was willing to compromise. The other two points should be awarded for comments that support the above statement.

Some suggestions are:


  • Clemenceau was afraid that Germany would try to invade France again unless its war-capacity diminished greatly

  • Lloyd believed that Germany should remain a European power

  • French public opinion demanded harsh terms

  • Clemenceau had witnessed in person the consequences of German invasions.

Allow these and any other reasonable interpretations.

Award [1 mark] for each relevant point made up to [3 marks].



(b) What does source E suggest about the French public opinion at the end of the war? [2 marks]

The picture, having been painted by a French artist at the end of the war, might suggest that:



  • The French were sure of their victory and of Germany’s defeat

  • One of France’s primary aim in the Paris Peace Settlement was to reclaim Alsace and Lorraine from the Germans

  • The French approved Clemenceau’s policies and saw him as a good leader

  • The French felt that the territories of Alsace and Lorraine inherently belonged to them

  • That the “children” Alsace and Lorraine wanted to be reunited with Clemenceau, their

“father”, representing the French nation

  • The French were moved by feelings of révange against the Germans.

Award [1 mark] for each appropriate point made, up to [2 marks].

N.B. Do not enter half marks or + and – but compensate between (a) and (b) if necessary for a final mark out of [5 marks].

  1. Compare and contrast the views of Lloyd George’s intentions in the Paris Peace Settlements as expressed in Sources A and C. [6 marks]

For comparison:

  • Both sources suggest that Lloyd George did not intend to apply excessively harsh measures on Germany

  • Both sources discuss the British policies on German war reparations

  • Both sources mention that Germany might have to have to relinquish territory

  • Both sources reveal Lloyd George’s aversion to transferring Germans from living under German rule to the rule of another nation.

For contrast:

  • Source C contrasts Lloyd George’s view with those of other participants, such as Clemenceau’s

  • Source C mentions the outcome of disputes regarding Germany’s reparations, source B does not

  • Source C mentions Lloyd George’s advantages in pursuing a certain policy, source B mentions George’s ideological aims

  • Source B mentions the possible consequences of harsh war reparations, source C does not.

Do not expect all of the above. If only one source is discussed award a maximum of [2 marks]. If the two sources are discussed separately award [3 marks] or with excellent linkage [4-5 marks]. For maximum [6 marks] expect a detailed running comparison/contrast.

  1. With reference to their origin and purpose, assess the value and limitations of Source C and Source D for historians studying the aims of the peacemakers at the Paris Peace Settlement of 1919. [6 marks]

Source C

Origin: an extract from a history book, written by a British author, Alan Sharp, and published in 1991.

Purpose: to inform the readers of the events of 1919 and provide and interpretation to them.

Value: since it was written long after the events had occurred, with hindsight, the author was not directly affected by the events of which he wrote, which allowed him to be more objective.

Limitations: since the author was British, he was probably subjected to a Western/British interpretation of the events, which may have resulted in a lack of objectivity.

Source D

Origin: a speech by George Clemenceau during the Paris Peace Settlements, about the treatment of Germany.

Purpose: to persuade Lloyd George and Wilson to agree to harsh terms regarding the treatment of Germany after the war.

Value: since Clemenceau was directly involved in the peacemaking process, the speech should reflect the views of the participants and give insight into his intentions.

Limitations: as someone who had witnessed two German invasions of France in his life, Clemenceau was directly affected by the events. Given that he was trying to persuade the other leaders, his speech might not reflect the true nature of events.

Do not expect all the above. Ideally there will be a balance between the two sources, and each one can be market out of [3 marks], but allow a 4/2 split. If only one source is assessed, mark out of [4 marks]. For a maximum of [6 marks] candidates must refer to both origin and purpose, and value and limitations in their assessment.



  1. Using these sources and your own knowledge, assess whether the claim of Source B that the British solely wanted “Germany to pay for its crimes” was true for all the peacemakers.

[8 marks]

The following source material could be used for analysis:

Source A Lloyd George’s claim that the maintenance of peace depended upon there being no causes for the Germans to achieve redress

Lloyd George’s claim that Germany would have found the means to exact retribution from her conquerors if she had felt unjustly treated

The need to impose just policies so that “the country on which they are imposed will feel… that it has no right to complain”

Lloyd George’s refusal to let excess territories be taken away from Germany.

Source B Clemenceau’s choice of starting the Paris Peace Conference on the anniversary of France’s “humiliation at German hands”

Clemenceau’s claim that only “extreme measures” would protect France from Germany



French and British public opinions favored harsh terms, to which their leaders had to answer

Lloyd George’s highest priority being to prevent the German threat to the British Empire.

Source C Lloyd George’s intention to apply Wilson’s doctrine of national self-determination

British claim that German war reparations should cease with the passing of the generation responsible for the war

Clemenceau’s attempt to detach the Rhineland from Germany

Clemenceau’s claim that France could not afford to be as magnanimous as England.

Source D The claim that French should not put the results of their victory into jeopardy

Clemenceau’s claim that the League of Nations might not be a sufficient means to guarantee peace in Europe

Clemenceau’s view that the German idea of justice was not consistent with that of the Allies’

Language implying that the mentality of the Germans was inherently aggressive, e.g. “the mentality of the Germans shall not change so fast”, justifying any harsh measures taken by the Allies.

Source E The intention of the French to reclaim the territories lost in the Franco-Prussian war, etc.

Own knowledge could include more details on French révanchism stemming from their defeat in the Franco-Prussian war and the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to the Germans, the British intent to reduce the German navy, the British intent to keep Germany a European power in order to prevent France’s dominance over the continent. The claim that Germany was to blame for the war and the infamous War Guilt Clause might be used as evidence to support the claim that Allies intended to enforce harsh terms to make Germany “pay for its crimes”.



Do not expect all of the above, and credit other relevant material. If only source material or only own knowledge is used, the maximum mark that can be obtained is [5 marks]. For maximum [8 marks] expect analysis, synthesis of source material and own knowledge, as well as references to source material used.


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