Section 3-Opposition to Bismarck Problems for the Empire



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Section 3—Opposition to Bismarck
Problems for the Empire

-constitution did not give Bismarck absolute authority

-political parties that opposed Bismarck’s ideas formed

-increased tension b/t Prussia + other German states due to representation

-Kulturkampf- culture struggle + anti-Catholic campaign

-broke diplomatic relations w/ Vatican

-confiscated church land

-strict laws to control Catholicism

-by 1878 Kulturkampf modifications

-needed support b/c of socialists

-by 1887 ended in failure
Industrial Development

-abundant natural resources of coal + iron

-didn’t have to spend money on development of industrialization

-$$ + banking laws standardized throughout Germany

-high tariff policy to protect industry

-soon rivaled Britain + France


Socialism

-cities grew rapidly + working class as well

-wanted government regulation of industry

-Social Democratic Party formed in 1869 by 1877 had 12 members in the Reichstag + ½ million votes


Anti-Socialist Campaign

-blamed the socialists for 2 assassination attempts on the Kaiser

-began anti-socialist campaign

-prohibited print media from publishing socialist ideals

-banned public meetings

-dissolved the Reichstag

-again ended in failure

-changed policy granting reforms that socialists wanted-government-directed social reforms

-workers insurance against accidents + sick time

-limited work hours…holiday pay…pensions for disabled + retired


Resignation of Bismarck

-1888 William I died at 91…Frederick III died as well

-at 29 William II became Kaiser

-reduced Bismarchs power

-1890 Bismarck resigned and William accepted

-Germany strong thru industrialization

-William II builds into powerful military giant

-soon conflict w/ Great Britain-leading naval power in the world

Section 4—Reform + Revolution in Russia
The Russian Empire

-largest territory + population in Europe

-Industrialization far behind the West

-extensive natural resources remained undeveloped

-ports blocked by ice for most of the year

-exits from the sea were controlled by other countries

-variety of peoples…cultures…languages
Domestic + Foreign Policy

-ruled by Czar w/ autocratic power (absolute)

-strict censorship of the press + speech

-rejected all demands for a constitution

-1830s Russification- forced non-Russians to use language + adopt Orthodox religion + customs

-Pan-Slavism-union of all Slavic people under Russian leadership

-expansion east in Asia + the Ottoman Empire and south
Alexander II + Reforns

-1855 becomes Czar

realizes backwardness

-Emancipation for the Serfs

-bound to people not land

-industy need people to work in factories…nobles felt a great country should not allow ownership of people

-1861 Emancipation Edict-freed all sefrs

-most could not afford to buy or rent land…moved to cities…cheap labor force

-Other reforms

-county governments

-civil + criminal courts

-limited power of secret police

-gave press more freedom

-expanded education

-reduced active service in the military from 25 years to 6 years

Radicals + Government Reaction

-1860s Nihilists-middle + upper class intellectuals

-abolishing political, social + economic structures

-1870s Peoples Will

-Populists used terrorism-bombings + assassinations

-1881 assassinated Alexander II w/ 2 bombs

-Repression by Alexander III + Nicholas II

-pogroms- riots in which Jews were massacred

-censorship…control of education…spies…informers…imprisonment… exile

-1898 Social Democratic Labor Party

-radical…terrorism

-repression policy fails
Revolution of 1905

-1904+1905 Russo-Japanese War

-Japan defeats Russia

-22 January 1905 Bloody Sunday

-Troops shoot unarmed civilians

-street fighting…strikes…demonstrations…mutinies in army + navy

-October Manifesto

-promised individual liberties

-Duma- parliament

-finally halted revolution w/ severe repression + executions

-finally failed

-army remained loyal and would not end the Czarist regimes

-French bound by military alliance lent $$ to the Government

-many revolutionary groups…divided in their goals

Section 5--Unrest in Austria-Hungary
Results of the Uprisings

-Different nationalities under one government- Hapsburgs

-to combat Nationalism a dual monarchy is formed

-Francis Joseph I…king of Hungary + emperor of Austria

-each had its own parliament in Vienna + Budapest

-practical economics

-Austria industrial…Hungary agricultural
Ottoman Empire + the Balkans

-empire had declined

-independence for Greece + Serbia

-Russia hopes for access to the Mediterranean Sea


Congress of Berlin + the Balkan Wars

-1875 revolts in the Balkans

-1877 war w/ Russia

-Romania, Serbia, + Montenegro Independence…Bulgaria self rule occupied by Russia

-access to the Mediterranean thru the Aegean Sea

-1878 major European powers force Russia to meet

-Bulgaria reduced in size + given back to Ottomans

-Russia kicked out of Aegean Sea

-Austria continued to govern Bosnia + Herzegovina but not as own territory

-Great Britain granted Cypress in E Mediterranean to keep Russia out

-1908 Austria annexed Bosnia + Herzegovina

-1912 +1913 two wars b/t Balkan nations-Balkan League + Ottoman Empire



Bulgaria…Serbia…Montenegro…Greece defeat Ottomans

Serbia…Greece…Romania…Montenegro defeat Bulgaria


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