Section 1 The First 100 Days – (1933)

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American Cultures Chapter 16 – The New Deal Name________________

Mr. Gatz/Mrs. Gilbert - Fall 2014

Section 1
The First 100 Days – (1933)

1) List the 4 pressing issues that FDR had to address within the first 100 days (include some

details about them)

a. Stabilizing Financial Institutions -

* FDR ordered a brief (4-day) bank holiday on March 5, 1933.

* Emergency Banking Act authorized the gov’t to inspect the financial health of all


* Americans began depositing more money back into their accounts. These deposits

allowed banks to make loans that would help stimulate the economy.

* The passing of the Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933 established a Federal Deposit

Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to insure bank deposits up to $5,000.

* Federal Securities Act required companies to provide information about their

finances if they offered stock for sale.

* Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) was set up to regulate the stock market

* Federal Reserve Board was given power to regulate purchases of stock on margin

* FDR decreased the value of U.S. currency in hopes to raise prices of farm products

and stimulate export trade
b. Providing Relief and Creating Jobs –

* Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) provided funds to state relief


* Public Works Administration (PWA) sponsored massive public works projects, such

as dams and hydroelectric plants.

* Civil Works Administration (CWA) provided federal jobs in building and improving

roads and public facilities.

* Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) put young, unmarried men to work maintaining

forests, beaches, and parks.
c. Regulating the Economy –

* National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) established the National Recovery

Administration (NRA), which worked with industries to establish codes outlining

fair business and labor practices.

d. Assisting Homeowners and Farmers –

* Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) refinanced mortgages to make payments

more manageable.

* National Housing Act of 1934 established the Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

to improve housing standards and conditions, insure mortgages, and stabilize the

mortgage market.

* Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) tried to raise farm prices by paying

farmers to lower farm output.

* Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) helped farmers by providing cheap hydroelectric

power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tenn. River valley

2) What derailed FDR’s first New Deal?

* The new programs failed to bring about significant economic improvement and people

began to criticize it, worrying that New Deal agencies were giving too much power to

the federal government.

* The Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional because it gave the President

lawmaking powers and regulated local commerce

* The Supreme Court struck down the tax that funded AAA subsidies to farmers.

American Cultures Chapter 16 – The New Deal Name________________

Mr. Gatz/Mrs. Gilbert - Fall 2014
Section 1
The Second 100 Days –

1) List the 5 major issues that FDR addressed in the second 100 days

a. Unemployment through offering new and expanded agencies. For example, Works

Progress Administration (WPA) gave the unemployed work in building construction

and arts programs, and the National Youth Administration (NYA) provided education,

jobs, recreation, and counseling for youth ages 16-25.
b. The plight of agricultural workers through the Resettlement Administration,

which loaned money to owners of small farms and helped resettle tenants and

sharecroppers on productive land. This agency was later replaced by the Farm

Security Administration (FSA), which loaned more than $1 billion to farmers and set

up camps for migrant workers.

c. Bringing electricity to those in rural areas through the Rural Electrification

Administration (REA), which provided loans to electric companies and farm

cooperatives for building power plants and extending power lines to rural areas, as

well as to farmers and other rural residents to wire their homes and barns.
d. Providing stronger support for unions through the National Labor Relations

Board (NLRB), which enforced provisions of the Wagner Act including the right to

collective bargaining and closed shops and outlawing the spying on union activities

and blacklisting.
e. Providing more social welfare benefits, such as the Social Security system to

provide financial security in regular payments to people who couldn’t support

themselves. It offered old-age pensions and survivors’ benefits, unemployment

insurance, and aid for dependent children, the blind, and the disabled.

American Cultures Chapter 16 – The New Deal Name________________

Mr. Gatz/Mrs. Gilbert - Fall 2014

Section 2
The Second 100 Days –

1) List the 2 people groups that were discriminated against and how

a. Women – NRA codes permitted lower wages for women’s work in almost a quarter

of all cases. Also, in relief and job programs, men/boys were preferred, and no

New Deal provision protected domestic service, the largest female occupation.
b. Minority groups – The New deal still reinforced segregation and discrimination. In

the South, for example, African-Americans were not offered jobs at a professional

level, were kept out of skilled jobs on dam and electric power projects, and received

lower pay for the same work. Also, the Social Security Act failed to cover nearly

two-thirds of working African-Americans. In the North, white-owned businesses

continued to employ only whites.

2) What political party criticized the New Deal? Republicans criticized the New Deal.
3) Why did the wealthy people oppose the New Deal?

* They disapproved the TVA and rural electrification programs, which they considered to

be socialistic. They also opposed the Revenue Act of 1935 because it raised the tax

rate for the rich (anyone earning an income of more than $50,000) as well as on the

income and profits of corporations.
4) What political groups opposed the New Deal?

* Progressives and Socialists attacked FDR’s New Deal programs because they felt these

programs did not provide enough help to people.
5) Who were the 2 demagogues that opposed the New Deal and why?

- Father Coughlin - Described FDR as a “betrayer and a liar” and made anti-Jewish

racial attacks against him
- Huey Long – Believed that the wealth in the country needed to be redistributed and

sought other improvements for Americans as well, such as shorter working hours,

more veterans’ benefits, payments for education, and pensions for the elderly
6) What were the issues behind the Court-Packing fiasco?

* By appointing 6 additional justices, FDR was trying to “pack” the Court with judges

supportive of the New Deal. Critics blasted the President for trying to inject politics

into the judiciary and worried that if Congress let FDR reshape the Supreme Court, the

U.S. might head toward a “dictatorial rule” like that in Europe. Strong opposition

forced FDR to withdraw his reform bill and he suffered political damage. In the end,

though, FDR still wound up with a Court that tended to side with him

American Cultures Chapter 16 – The New Deal Name________________

Mr. Gatz/Mrs. Gilbert - Fall 2014
Section 3
The Second 100 Days –

1) What 2 issues caused the slowly climbing economy into recession in 1937?

- The new Social Security tax, which came directly out of workers’ paychecks through

payroll deductions, resulted in Americans buying fewer goods.

- Due to the rising national debt as a result of the government having to borrow large

amounts of money to fund the New Deal, FDR cutback on programs, such as the WPA,

which caused Americans to have less money
2) What 2 union groups represented millions of laborers and which groups did they


- Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) represented unskilled workers; American

Federation of Labor (AFL) represented skilled workers in mass-production industries

3) What tool was used very effectively by the unions to bargain with companies?

* Sit-down strikes - strikes in which laborers stop working but refuse to leave the

Building - were effective tools
4) Unfortunately, what did this lead to? Violence
5) List 2 tangible reminders of Depression Era work programs:
- Government programs, such as the Social Security system
- Public Works projects, such as bridges, dams, tunnels, public buildings, and hospitals
6) List 3 government agencies, created during the Depression, that are still active today:
- Tennessee Valley Authority remains a model of government planning
- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation still guarantees bank deposits
- Securities and Exchange Commission continues to monitor stock exchanges
7) What was the New Deal’s lasting legacy? Restoring a sense of hope
8) What brought about the return of a robust economy to the U.S.? WWII

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