Section 1 south carolina's intriguing landscape (statewide overview) Index Map to Study Sites



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Group I Hydro-electric plant near Columbia on the Saluda River.

Group II Coal fired generating plant in Conway on the Waccamaw River.

Group III Paper mill in Georgetown on the Sampit River.

Group IV Soybean farm in Orangeburg County on the Edisto River.

Group V Nuclear processing plant in Aiken on the Savannah River.

Group VI Rock quarrying in Graniteville.
4. Explain obstacles to transportation in 1800's. &

What was the major method of transporting goods in the 1700's? Using Washington's diary for reference, what were the major cities in South Carolina at that time? What was the major method of transporting goods in the 1800's? Using Burges' diary, what were the major cities in S.C. at that time? Use the State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief, to decide which pair of cities listed below would have been the most difficult to travel between. Explain why. Your answer should be based on the transportation available in 1800. Which pair would have been easiest to travel between? Explain why. What method of transportation would have been the best choice for each pair at that time? What method would be best today?


· Beaufort and Georgetown · Greenville and Cheraw

· Columbia and Greenville · Columbia and Charleston
5. Locate reservoirs and list uses. R

Working in student teams with the State Base Map #2, with Highways, locate and name five large man-made reservoirs in South Carolina. List all of the recreational and industrial uses of these reservoirs you can think of. Identify the positive and negative impacts of creating these reservoirs. Compare your list of impacts with lists of the other groups.


6. Explain impact of railroads on economy. &

South Carolina's first locomotive, the Best Friend of Charleston, began running in 1833 from Charleston to Hamburg, which is located on the Savannah River near North Augusta. Trace with a wipe off pen the Charleston-Hamburg railroad track on the State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief. The South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company, chartered in 1827, was designed to improve the economy of Charleston by bringing goods to market. When finished, it was the longest railroad track, 136 miles, in the United States. Why did the geography of South Carolina hinder the development of Charleston as a major port city after the Revolutionary War? Identify at least ten major towns located on early railroad routes. Were many of these towns considered to be railroad towns? What is meant by saying a town is a "railroad town"? Are any of these towns still railroad towns today? Did the Best Friend of Charleston help Charleston's economy? Explain. Study the ridges and valleys on the shaded relief map. How did the early railroad engineers use South Carolina's landscape to their advantage in designing the location of railroad tracks? Note: The South Carolina State Museum has on display a replica of The Best Friend of Charleston.


7. Compare railroad travel costs 1842 - 1883. :

Compare the number of railroad routes listed in Figure 1-12 "Map of Antebellum Railroads - 1860", to the number of railroad routes shown on the STATE BASE MAP #1, SHADED RELIEF. Most of the modern railroads were constructed in the late 1800's and the early 1900's. In 1842 the cost of passenger travel in South Carolina was 6.5 cents a mile. In 1883 it only cost 3.42 cents a mile. Why do you think the cost had gone down so much? What do you expect would have happened to freight shipping costs? Was it usually cheaper to ship goods by water or on the railroads? Explain your answers. What are the most popular methods of passenger travel and cargo shipping today? Why?


8. Relate early railroad lines to locations of county seats. &

Using Figure 1-12 "Map of Antebellum Railroads - 1860" as a reference, trace with a wipe-off pen the major railroad lines of 1860 on the State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief. Create your own symbols for each of the railroads. These railroad lines were built with private funding and designed to transport goods and produce to the market. Complete the chart which follows indicating major cities along the route and full names of railroad companies. How many of the towns along the early routes are present day county seats? List all the counties today that carry the same name as their county seats, e.g., Allendale County, Edgefield County, and Chesterfield County. How many of the present day county seats are located on active or formerly active railroad lines? Why did towns away from the railroad lines tend to remain small? Which railroad line is closest to your home town? Which one is closest to your school?




RELATIONSHIP OF RAILROAD LINES TO COUNTY SEATS

RAILROAD SYSTEM

FULL NAME OF RAILROAD

MAJOR CITIES ON THE ROUTE

C&DRR







W&MRR







SCRR







BRRR







G&CRR







S&URR







C&SCRR







C&SRR






9. Investigate nicknames for cities. ?

Nicknames are often given to cities. For example, one is called the "Port City," others are identified as the "Textile City," "Gamecock City," or "Capitol City." Which South Carolina cities do you think have these particular nicknames? Suggest nicknames for several other major cities in South Carolina. Give a unique characteristic of each city. Does the city nearest your school have a nickname? If so, what is it? How did it get that nickname? If it does not have a nickname, choose an appropriate one and explain your choice to the class.
10. Trace flight path of Cessna. :

You are joining a group of students flying across South Carolina in a Cessna. Your pilot is flying by dead reckoning (using only a compass and altimeter) across the state at a steady velocity of 120 miles per hour with no winds. Time of departure is 8 A.M. at the Charleston Airport located in North Charleston. It is a clear day with blue skies. Visibility is 100 miles. As the plane takes off your pilot turns northeastward heading up the coast following the shoreline to Myrtle Beach. You have before you the State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief, and a wipe-off pen to trace your flight path. Once you reach Myrtle Beach, look for the Seaboard Coast Line railroad track, which almost runs into the ocean. As you leave Myrtle Beach, turn at the railroad track on a heading of 300°. You will fly over the Intracoastal Waterway. After you have gone 60 miles, look for a major city that is due west of the Pee Dee River and north of Jeffries Creek. What city is this? How long have you been flying? Record your time.



Continue from Florence heading due west until you come to the Wateree River. Turn north following the Wateree River. Name the rivers you have crossed so far. While following the Wateree River identify the four major dams you pass over. Identify the city that is located 7 miles due south of Wylie Dam. Go west from Wylie Dam until you fly over the railroad track located on the crest of the drainage divide between the Wateree and Broad rivers. Which town are you now near? Follow this track southward. Oh, by-the-way, you will be following the railroad track all the way to the Capitol City, Columbia. Why was this railroad track built along the crest of the land between these two river watersheds?
Passing Columbia, follow a heading of 190° from the confluence of the two major rivers which meet at this city until you see a railroad track. Follow the Seaboard Coast Line railway all the way to the Savannah River. Count the number of towns you fly over along the way. Why are there so many towns along this railway? Describe the landform features followed by the track. Head northwestward up the Savannah River until you see a small urban area that is known for its abundance of golf courses. What city is this? Turn northeastward, and follow another railroad track. Follow this track until you come to a junction. Turn and follow the north fork of the track. Continue to follow this track until you come to a familiar metropolitan area. Where are you now? Why was the track laid along this type of terrain?
Passing over this large metropolitan area, head due west (a heading of 270°) until you reach the headwaters of Clark Hill Reservoir. What latitude line are you flying along? Why are there so few towns along this path? When you come to the Savannah River, you will see a dam, spillway, and reservoir (lake). Name these landscape features. What is the elevation of the spillway? Head north up the lake (take the right fork) until you see a small town housing a major land grant university. Name this place.
Be sure to increase your altitude to 4000 feet MSL. Why is this necessary? Continue to follow the same string of rivers and lakes until you come to the Jocassee Dam. Name the bodies of water that you have just flown over since leaving the Savannah River. Describe the landscape. Turn eastward on a heading of 100° and land at the Greenville-Spartanburg Airport.
How are airports marked on the State Base MAP #1, Shaded Relief? How many total miles have you traveled since you left Charleston? List the counties that you flew over. How many landform regions have you crossed? Name and describe each region. List the major rivers that you have flown over. How long did it take you to make this entire flight? What time of day did you arrive at the Greenville-Spartanburg Airport?
And finally, the most important question - why did you take such a bizarre trip across South Carolina? Each person on your team should come up with a possible explanation. Share your reason with the other members of your team. Select one team member to tell the class your group's best reason or rationale for this incredible journey across South Carolina.

ENRICHMENT
1. Research land use management programs. R

Select and research one of the state land use management programs from the list below.

Forestry Management and Wildlife

Agricultural Soil and Water Conservation

Water Conservation and Management
2. Monitor stream pollution near your school. R

Find a way to monitor the dissolved oxygen, acidity, and/or heavy metal contaminants over several months in the stream, river, or lake nearest your school. To facilitate this activity, water testing kits can be purchased at feed and seed stores or through scientific supply companies. Research how toxic or hazardous waste materials pollute our river systems. What happens when too much sewage is allowed to enter a stream? What effect do phosphates and nitrates have on the growth of algae? Why is dissolved oxygen an important component to monitor? What is eutrophication?


3. Construct timeline of transportation. Q &

Make a timeline of transportation across South Carolina using opening dates of the railroad companies, and other important events related to railroads or other transportation. Use as a reference The History of South Carolina in the Building of a Nation, by Archie Vernon Huff, Jr.


4. Research information about the railroad closest to your school. R ?

Where is the closest railroad to your school? How often does it run? Is it mainly a freight or passenger line? What type of freight is carried on this line? Where are the passengers headed?


5. Locate and research railroad tunnels. R &

Locate Rabun Gap in Georgia and Stumphouse Tunnel near Walhalla S.C. Consult a map of the Southeastern States to trace the possible routes from Cincinnati that would have connected it to the ports in the Carolinas and Georgia. Which mountain range would they have to tunnel under? Research Stumphouse Tunnel and find out how far below the top of the mountain the tunnel was located, why vertical shafts were needed, how many feet a month the workers tunneled, and how close the men came to finishing.



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