Section 1 south carolina's intriguing landscape (statewide overview) Index Map to Study Sites

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Activity 1-3: Landforms Influence History & Culture



State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief

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State Base Map #2, with Highways

1 :500,000


Land Use/Land Cover Map

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General Soil Map

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Revolutionary War Campaigns in S. Carolina

Figure 1-10


Population Density Map (1990)

Figure 1-14


Barbecue Regions of South Carolina

Figure 1-9


Transparent Grid Overlays


Wipe-off Pens


(Icon Key) Overview = Q; Science = R; Math = :; History = &; Language Arts = ?
1. Trace President George Washington's South Carolina visit, 1791. Q
Group I: Part I - President George Washington's Coastal Tour
Using George Washington's diary, on pages 1-20 through 1-24, and a wipe-off pen, trace his Coastal Tour of South Carolina on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. What were his objectives for making this southern tour? Describe Washington's party as they entered South Carolina. Why did Washington want to make compensation for his lodging and meals? Why did he dine and lodge with planters? What type of agricultural products did he find? How did the planters market their produce at that time? Why was Washington concerned about the feeling of these early settlers for the support of a federal government? How did he describe coastal South Carolina? Describe his entrance to Georgetown. Compare the events surrounding his entrance into Georgetown with later events in Charleston. Describe in detail the gala events held for President George Washington on his coastal tour.
Group II: Part II - President George Washington's Sandhills Tour
Using George Washington's diary, on pages 1-24 through 1-28, and a wipe-off pen, trace his Sandhills Tour on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. Describe Washington's reentrance into South Carolina from Georgia. Who met him in Augusta? What were the specific goals for his southern tour? Why was he concerned about the excise tax? After talking with the people along his trip, what was his conclusion about the opposition to the excise tax? Describe Washington's trip from Granby to the State House. Explain what was meant by each of the toasts given at the State House dinner. Is it the same state house building that we are using today? Explain. What did Washington think about the location of the State Capitol? Why was Washington so interested in Revolutionary War battle sites? Where on his Sandhills tour did he find extensive damage as a result of the Revolutionary War? Explain. What were the grievances of the Catawbas? How did Washington handle these grievances? Why were the Catawba grievances not settled until recently? Use George Washington's words to describe the Sandhills landscape.
2. Analyze President George Washington's writing style. ?

As you read Washington's diary, on pages 1-20 through 1-28, make a comparison between his writing style and that of modern journalists. Identify differences in sentence structure. List changes in spelling, punctuation, and common abbreviations. Compare his journal entry format with that of today. How has this type of literature changed over the last 200 years? Rewrite one or more days of his journal entries in your own words.

3. Outline Washington's southern tour using modern day highways. &

After tracing Washington's 1791 route (Performance Task #1 on page 1-58), use a different color wipe-off pen to outline his trip on modern day highways. Which primary highways or interstates would he follow today? Identify obstacles such as swamps, bays, sounds, and rivers that he had to overcome on his journey. Contrast the way he crossed these obstacles in 1791 versus the way they would be crossed on a modern day visit. Through which counties did Washington travel? Did he travel through your county? If so, is there a marker identifying his visit?

4. Examine Washington's entries about agriculture and land cover. &

Washington in his dairy, on pages 1-20 through 1-28, described two methods of cultivating rice. How did these two methods differ? Why did he think one was better than the other? Which method was used most often by South Carolina planters? How did Washington describe the soil? Where did he find the best soil? How did he describe the population density on his coastal tour? In 1791, where were most of the people living? Where is the population density the greatest in South Carolina today? Is it in the same area he traveled on his southern tour? He described the land in his diary by saying, "the sameness seems to run through all the rest of the Country." What did he mean by this statement? How did he describe the landscape on his coastal tour? On his Sandhills tour?

5. Determine Washington's daily rate of travel. : &

Measure with a string the distance Washington traveled, using the tracing of his tour route (Performance Task #1 on page 1-58) on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. Take different measurements for his coastal and Sandhills trips. For each part of his tour, calculate the average number of miles he traveled each day. Did he travel at the same rate (average miles/day) for each trip? How can you account for these differences? Compare his rate of travel per day with a modern business trip. (You must stay within the speed limit.) What was his normal daily schedule while traveling?

6. List influential people Washington mentioned in his diary. & R

Use George Washington's diary, on pages 1-20 through 1-28, to identify the influential people he met on his southern tour. Make connections between these people and their contribution to the early development of South Carolina. Use the State Base Map #2, with Highways, to identify counties and towns named for these early colonists. Use a Columbia map to identify streets named for many of these early South Carolina citizens.

7. Write a descriptive skit about George Washington's tour. ?

Make up your own scenario or use one of the following suggested ideas to write a descriptive skit or short play based on some part of Washington's tour (pages 1-20 through 1-28) in which he had a conversation with:

local officials about the Duties on Distilled Spirits Act he had just signed into law

one of the planters while enjoying a fine dinner

community members who came to meet him

his white charger (his favorite horse)

8. Plan a modern day tour of your county. & R ?

If the President of the United States or some group of famous world leaders were to visit your county today, where would you take them? What would they be interested in seeing in your county, town, or school? Plan a tour and identify the places that you would like for them to visit? Who would you like for them to meet? Why? Outline on a local map the route you plan to follow. Explain the significance of each stop.

9. Trace Charleston Businessman's trip. & R

Use "The Diary of Samuel Edward Burges, 1860-1862" on pages 1-32 through 1-36 and a wipe-off pen, to trace his travels on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. List all the modes of transportation Samuel E. Burges used to get around South Carolina. Why was he going to the county seats? Would he have had an easier time traveling to all the county seats later on in 1883? Why? Why did he use so many different railroads in his travels? Why did he have to use the stage and/or steamboat to reach some of his destinations? What momentous historical event does he specifically mention on January 9, 1861? What is the significance of this event for South Carolina? Keep a day-by-day diary of your own activities for one week. Share your journal with other students and compare your descriptions of similar events. Save your diary for several years and then re-read it. It may surprise you.

10. Compare travel differences 1700's - 1900's. &:

Describe the different modes of transportation that George Washington and Samuel E. Burges used as they traveled through South Carolina (refer to pages 1-20 through 1-28 and pages 1-32 through 1-36 as needed). Following the same routes, which travel options could you use today? Compare George Washington's rate of travel across South Carolina, from Performance Task #5, with that of the Charleston Businessman. How fast could you make a similar trip today? Compare the purpose of these two trips, the obstacles each man encountered, and the number of people in their parties as they traveled across South Carolina during these two very different periods of early South Carolina history. What would be the difference in travel arrangements if our current President visited South Carolina? Consider method of travel, obstacles encountered, security arrangements, attendance at local events, and the total length of time spent in the state. How would the President's description of our landscape differ from that of George Washington?

11. Speculate how town names reflect local landforms. Q

Choose any six of the following towns or cities listed below. Locate them on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. Each city name is followed by the name of the county in which it is located. Identify the landform region in which each city is located. Suggest a reason as to how each city got its name. What local landform, if any, is referred to? Can you identify other places in South Carolina that have a name related to a local landform?

Branchville, Orangeburg Little Rock, Dillon Pineville, Berkeley

Britton's Neck, Marion Mt. Pleasant, Charleston Red Bank, Lexington

Four Holes, Orangeburg Mountain Rest, Oconee Ridgeland, Jasper

Graniteville, Aiken Myrtle Beach, Horry Rock Hill, York

Great Falls, Chester Piedmont, Anderson Ware Shoals, Greenwood
12. Analyze census of Native American Nations. :

A census is an official count of the population. Such a census of existing Native American Nations in the Carolina Colony was completed in the so-called Indian Census of 1715. Below is an excerpt of the statistical information compiled on eight Siouan Nations. What Nation was the largest, based on the table given below? Which Nation had the largest average village population? What was the average number of inhabitants in a typical Catapaw village? What percentage of this total were woman and children? Why do you think that the census collectors divided the count into two groups, men and women/children? How did Native Americans influence the history of South Carolina?


Name of Nation

miles & direction

from Charles Towne



Women &




200 northwest






170 north






100 northeast





Cape Fear

200 northeast






70 north






120 north






80 northeast





60 northeast


Source: South Carolina Records, British Public Record Office, VII, 238-239 cited in Chapmen T. Milling, Red Carolinians (Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, (1969) p. 222. Incomplete data extrapolated for table.

13. Locate Native American national territories. & :

Using wipe-off pens, the State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief, and the census information given in Performance Task #12, (miles and compass direction from Charles Towne), locate and label the specific territories in which the eight Siouan Nations once lived. Using wipe-off pens, circle any place names today that bear the name of any of these eight Siouan Nations. Note that the Nations are listed using the eighteenth century spelling as recorded in the Indian Census of 1715.
14. Compare Native American census data to modern population density. &

Compare the locations of major Native American communities in 1715, as determined in Performance Task #13, to the locations of modern cities and other heavily populated areas. Refer to Figure 1-14 "Population Density Map (1990)" for the location of urbanized areas shown on the LAND USE/LAND COVER MAP. Which locations were highly populated both then and now? What landform features in those areas favored continued higher population density? Which locations were highly populated then but not now? What factors might have caused the decline in relative population density? Which locations were not highly populated then, but are now? What factors might have caused the upward trend in population density in these areas?

15. Analyze effects of landforms on Revolutionary War campaigns. &

Each class group should work with a single battle from Figure 1-10 "Revolutionary War Campaigns in South Carolina." Locate and mark your assigned battle site with a wipe-off pen on the State Base Map #2, with Highways, at your table and also on the map located at the front of the classroom. Each group should trace the assigned campaign routes on its base map with a wipe-off pen, answer the following questions for both the British forces and the American forces, and be prepared to report its answers to the rest of the class in the proper time-line sequence. Who commanded the forces at the Battle? From where did each army march to get to the battle? How far did they each have to march? Approximately how long did it take each army to travel that distance? What landform obstacles did they have to overcome to reach the battle site? Were there any landform features at the battle site which influenced the outcome of the battle? Explain your answer.

Group I Battle of Camden, August 16, 1780

Group II Battle of Kings Mountain, October 7, 1780

Group III Battle of Cowpens, January 17, 1781

Group IV Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, April 25, 1781

Group V Battle of Orangeburg, May 11, 1781

Group VI Battle of Ninety Six, May 22, 1781

Group VII Battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8, 1781
16. Explain geographic distribution of barbecue regions of South Carolina. &

Use Figure 1-9 "Barbecue Regions of South Carolina" to trace the approximate boundaries of each barbecue region onto the STATE BASE MAP #2, WITH HIGHWAYS, with a wipe-off pen. Do the barbecue regions line up more closely with the landform regions or with the major river system watersheds? Explain your answer. Develop a hypothesis about why that particular relationship might exist in South Carolina. Write down a list of reasons why you think your hypothesis is correct. Do you expect the boundaries of the barbecue regions to change in the future, or would you expect those borders to be constant through time? Explain your answer.

17. Analyze spelling of word "barbecue." ?

How many different ways have you seen the word "barbecue" spelled? List each spelling along with your hypothesis as to why the advertisement used that spelling. Discuss your list with the rest of the class and speculate about why different spellings might exist. How can people recognize the word "barbecue" on signs even when it is purposely misspelled? Why would restaurant owners want to deliberately misspell the word? What meat is traditionally used to make South Carolina barbecue? Do you expect this to change? Why or why not? Explain your answer. Refer to Figure 1-9, "Barbecue Regions of South Carolina."

1. Research origins of selected city names. & ?

Write to the Chambers of Commerce of several of the cities listed below. Ask how the town got its name. Compare these official explanations to your own given in Performance Task #11.

Branchville Little Rock Pineville

Britton's Neck Mt. Pleasant Red Bank

Four Holes Mountain Rest Ridgeland

Graniteville Myrtle Beach Rock Hill

Great Falls Piedmont Ware Shoals
2. Research South Carolina place names. ?

Have you ever poked fun at a name of a town, city, or river in South Carolina? The people in this state have given all sorts of names, taken from a variety of sources, to identify places they call home. In Nancy Coleman's S.C. Wildlife article "Nine Times to Pocotaligo," (Nov.-Dec., 1979), she relates the sources used for naming a variety of places in South Carolina. Dr. Claude H. Neuffer, Professor Emeritus of English at the University of South Carolina, has studied the origins of names and later wrote a book on the subject, Names in South Carolina. The study of the origins of names is called onomastics. Use these sources to research the names given to places, rivers, landforms, etc. in your county. Circle the appropriate names on the State Base Map #2, with Highways, and list each name separately along with its source. Make up a story relating all of these place names.

3. Research people Washington met on Southern Tour. &

Select any two famous people Washington met on his Southern Tour in 1791 and explain their contribution to the early growth and development of South Carolina. Were any places in the state named for them?

4. Choose a Native American Nation to research. & ?

Over forty different Native American Nations lived in South Carolina in 1670. Pick one Nation and list at least two cultural characteristics of that Nation. You should utilize a wide range of reference materials.

Activity 1-4: Landforms and Land Use



State Base Map #1, Shaded Relief

1 : 500,000


State Base Map #2, with Highways

1 : 500,000


Land Use/Land Cover Map

1 : 500,000


General Soil Map

1 : 594,000


Map of Antebellum Railroads -1860

Figure 1-14


Wipe-off Pens


(Icon Key) Overview = Q; Science = R; Math = :; History = &; Language Arts = ?
1. Determine city size and reason for location. Q

Use the printed size of the letters in city names, e.g. (ANDERSON, Honea Path, Starr) on the State Base Map #2, with Highways, as a guide to determine the relative size of the cities. Also note the city limit boundaries of the largest cities as shown on the map. Name the city with the largest population in each of the five landform regions. Why is each city located where it is? Give a unique characteristic of each city.

2. Compare land use/land cover map with soils map. R

Compare the patterns on the Land Use/Land Cover Map with the General Soil Map. What are the major divisions on the soils map? What are the major divisions on the land use/land cover map? How does each land use category relate to the major soil groups? Do these land uses follow geological and landform region patterns? Explain.

3. Explain how water is used by various businesses. Q R

Large industries, plants, businesses, and agriculture in this state depend on our river systems and reservoirs for water in a variety of ways. Divide into groups and locate each industrial or other use listed below, as closely as possible, on the State Base Map #2, with Highways. Identify the source of the water that is used. Explain how the water is used and whether or not it is returned to the river or reservoir. Speculate about what happens to the water afterwards and whether it is returned clean or polluted. Share your results with other groups and note similarities and differences.

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