AP World History - Chapter 22: Industrial Revolution Study Guide Name: __________________
Section 1: Causes of the Industrial Revolution
1. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population grew because of reliable food supplies and widespread resistance to disease.
2. The result of the 19th century population explosion in Europe was from the country to the city
3. What new crop became an important aspect of the Agricultural Revolution? the potato
4. The Agricultural Revolution was a change in farming methods and crops that resulted in
more food being produced, large farms taking over small farms
5. Explain what “cottage industries” are, where they were, and what products they produced merchants delivered raw materials to craftspeople who hand manufactured the goods in which the merchant came and picked up the finished product. Cloth, canvas, clothing, thread
6. What factors gave Britain a “head start” on the Industrial Revolution? it recovered from the Plague more quickly than the rest of Europe
7. How did other European countries respond to Britain’s head start in the Industrial Revolution?
eliminated internal tariff barriers and opened technical schools.
8. What new forms of energy were important for industrialization? the steam engine and electricity.
Section 2: Technological Revolution
9. Josiah Wedgwood’s innovations in porcelain were made possible by using mass production methods
10. What does it mean to use a “division of labor” in manufacturing? Dividing work into specialized and repetitive tasks.
11. Why did England begin importing raw cotton? the English Parliament banned importation of cotton cloth
12. What new inventions were developed to weave cotton textiles? the spinning jenny and the water frame
13. According to the chapter, what are the two advantages of mechanization? Lower prices and increased productivity
14. Iron production was transformed by Abraham Darby’s discovery that coke could be used in the place of charcoal in the smelting process.
15. What is an example of the enormous quantities of iron produced and novel applications of it? the Crystal Palace.
16. The most revolutionary invention of the Industrial Revolution was James Watt’s steam engine
17. Why did oceangoing ships initially not use steam power? they could not carry enough coal for a voyage
18. European industries such as iron, construction, and machinery were stimulated by first building a railroad network
19. What invention revolutionized communication during the Industrial Revolution? The electric telegraph
Section 3: The Impact of the Early Industrial Revolution
20. One profound impact that industrialization had on the world was that Europe and North America were empowered at the expense of the rest of the world
21. The most dramatic environmental change caused by the Industrial Revolution was the growth of urban populations
22. Describe the urban poor neighborhoods? workers lived in factory owned apartments, many in overcrowded tenements, cities were full of filth, pollution, and sewage, the danger of diseases like typhus, smallpox, dysentery, and tuberculosis was very high
23. The most obvious change in rural life during the industrial revolution was the appearance of new roads, canals, and railroads.
24. Factory work represented a complete transformation in the nature of agricultural work because workers felt that they had lost control over their work; industrial accidents were common; workers felt little job satisfaction; the jobs were repetitive, unskilled, and boring.
25. What impact did industrial work have on the family? work was now removed from the home and family members were separated all day, all for many the entire family worked at the factories
26. How did wages compare between men and women? women earned one third to one half as much as men, children earned ½ of female pay
27. Single women and married women both did factory work but for different reasons, such as married women worked if their husbands were unable to support their families, many single women came to work in factories to escape the rural lifestyle
28. Factory work provided families with what type of earnings? insufficient earnings to make ends meet, often father, mother& children worked.
29. How were children factory workers treated? worked fourteen to sixteen hours a day and were beaten to stay awake, made ¼ as much as men
30. How did factory owners live up to their commitment to decent wages and housing? lowered wages and imposed longer hours for their workers, after they had taken the job and moved into the factory apartment; workers had little choice but to accept it
31. Who and how did the cotton boom affect? Manufactors became rich, plantation owners became wealthy, however small farmers were still poor, and it also created an increase for the need of slaves
32. What types of people and businesses did not experience economic growth and prosperity during the Industrial Revolution? Unskilled workers (such as farm workers & factory workers), cottage industry workers, skilled workers who used their hands to produce goods (blacksmiths)
33. The Industrial Revolution’s real beneficiaries were the Owners such as factory, railroad, steel, bankers, large land owners, also skilled workers such as mechanics and engineers. These skilled workers became the foundation for the middle class
34. The role of the middle-class women became management of the home, children, and servants, otherwise known as the “cult of domesticity.”
35. What does Adam Smith propose in The Wealth of Nations? The government should not interfere in business, laize faire
Section 4: New Economic and Political Ideas
36. Thomas Malthus’s explanation of workers’ misfortunes was that population was outgrowing the food supply
37. When Britons spoke of “the dismal science,” they referred to economics.
38. To address the misery of the poor, French socialists proposed that workers form communities under the protection of business leaders, known as positivism.
39. Charles Fourier and other opponents of capitalism advocated utopian socialism.
40. What ways did workers resist harsh treatment? signing petitions and presenting them to the town government, they could not strike or protest for fear of losing their jobs
41. The Factory Act of 1833 did what?
Children (ages 14–18) must not work more than 12 hours a day with an hour lunch break.
Children (ages 9–13) must not work more than 8 hours with an hour lunch break.
Children (ages 9–13) must have two hours of education per day.
Outlawed the employment of children under 9 in the textile industry.
Children under 18 must not work at night.
provided for routine inspections of factories.
Section 5: Industrialization and the Non Industrialized World
42. How is the relationship between Western Europe and the non-Western world affected by industrialization? The WEST dominated the non-western world such as in Africa, Western and Southern Asia, and South America
43. How does industrialization change China’s relationship with the West? Great Britain used steam powered gunboats to humiliate China’s military in the Opium Wars. Great Britain “steals” Hong Kong for 100 years as a result.
AP World History - Mr. Mulford - Liberty High School