Secretary of the Treasury Samuel Chase sought to fund the Union war effort by doing all of the following



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1. B

Secretary of the Treasury Samuel Chase sought to fund the Union war effort by doing all of the following except


  1. enlarging the national debt by engaging in deficit spending.

  2. proposing an amendment to allow the levying of a progressive federal income tax.

  3. introducing the National Bank Act of 1863 to encourage the investment of private capital in federal bonds.

  4. raising the tariff rate.

  5. issuing the federal currency popularly known as "greenbacks."

2. C

Which of the following statements about conditions surrounding passage of the Homestead Act is correct?


  1. land speculators were forced out of business by the sudden availability of free land

  2. the best land was still held back by the Federal Government for the National Park Service

  3. the law was passed with a thought to the future, and the votes, of Union veterans

  4. pre-emption rights were eliminated by the Act

  5. the railroads held their land grants until after the free land was gone in order to secure higher prices

3. A

It is often assumed that the North always championed a strong national government and opposed the doctrine of states' rights. This is contradicted by both the North's adoption of resolutions at the Hartford Convention and also in its


  1. support of personal liberty laws.

  2. support of the Missouri Compromise.

  3. opposition to the Compromise Tariff of 1833.

  4. denunciation of the decision in McCulloch v. Maryland.

  5. attacks on the court which sentenced John Brown to death.

4. A

The original purpose of the 14th Amendment differed from the purpose of the Bill of Rights in that this amendment


  1. restricted the power of the states

  2. restricted the power of the federal government

  3. restricted the rights of individuals accused of having committed federal crimes

  4. protected the rights of corporations

  5. protected the rights of states to regulate business

5. C

"By his action was revived a perilous dispute that was thought to have been settled."

This statement best refers to



  1. Daniel Webster's debate with Hayne.

  2. Andrew Jackson's veto of the Bank charter.

  3. Stephen Douglas' championing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

  4. Abraham Lincoln's speech at Freeport.

  5. John Brown's raid.

6. D

What prominent anti-slavery figure coined the phrases "a higher law" and "an irrepressible conflict" in reference to abolitionism and the Civil War?


  1. John Brown

  2. John C. Fremont

  3. Abraham Lincoln

  4. William H. Seward

  5. William Lloyd Garrison

7. B

Hinton Helper's work, The Impending Crisis, is concerned primarily with the


  1. moral ambiguities of slavery in a democracy.

  2. economic effects of slavery on the average white in the South.

  3. inevitable clash between North and South over slavery.

  4. threat of slave insurrections.

  5. criticism of popular sovereignty.

8. D

Which description is least accurate in its description of slavery in the 1850's?


  1. Slavery on a Georgia rice plantation was likely to be more rigorous than on a Virginia tobacco plantation.

  2. Slavery under the personal supervision of a benevolent master was likely to be different than slavery on a property managed by a hard-handed overseer.

  3. Household slaves were generally better treated than were field slaves.

  4. Under the patriarchal system in Virginia and North Carolina, slaves generally led an easygoing life.

  5. Slaves were generally provided with clothes, shelter, corn meal and salt pork.

9. E

Which group of men represented Southern interests in the United States Congress before the Civil War?


  1. Henry Clay, Robert Hayne, Daniel Webster

  2. Henry Clay, Thomas H. Benton, William Crawford

  3. Preston Brooks, Thomas H. Benton, John C. Calhoun

  4. Jefferson Davis, Stephen A. Douglas, Charles Sumner

  5. Alexander Stephens, William Crawford, John C. Calhoun

10. C

The 1860 slavery plank of the Republican Party corresponded most closely with the principles of the


  1. Liberty Party

  2. Whig Party

  3. Free Soil Party

  4. American ("Know Nothing") Party

  5. Federalist Party

11. A

"No matter what the decision of the Supreme Court might be, the right of the people to make a slave territory or a free territory is perfect ... under the Kansas-Nebraska Act."

These words were spoken by



  1. Stephen A. Douglas

  2. William Lloyd Garrison

  3. Abraham Lincoln

  4. John C. Calhoun

  5. Henry Clay

12. C

"On this issue (the movement to abolish slavery) ... I am in earnest - I will not equivocate - I will not excuse - I will not retreat a single inch - AND I WILL BE HEARD."

These words were written by



  1. Abraham Lincoln

  2. John C. Calhoun

  3. William Lloyd Garrison

  4. Henry Clay

  5. Stephen A. Douglas

13. D

"In your hands, not mine ... rests the momentous question of civil war. You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I have the most solemn one to preserve, protect, and defend it."

These words were spoken by



  1. William Lloyd Garrison

  2. Henry Clay

  3. John C. Calhoun

  4. Abraham Lincoln

  5. Stephen A. Douglas

14. A

"I stand before you today as a thief. I stole this body, these hands, these legs, from my master."

These words to a meeting of the Philadelphia-based Anti-Slavery Society were spoken by



  1. Frederick Douglass

  2. Nat Turner

  3. Sojourner Truth

  4. Harriet Tubman

  5. Denmark Vesey

15. B

"No clearer proof of the pernicious influence of these vicious Northern abolitionists can be seen ... than the recent events (in Southhampton, Va., in 1831.) Did these weapons find their ways into the hands of these slaves without assistance?"

These words from a southern newspaper is referring to an abortive slave revolt led by



  1. Frederick Douglass

  2. Nat Turner

  3. Denmark Vesey

  4. Harriet Tubman

  5. John Brown

16. D

"Who knows how many slaves (this person) helped reach free territory. It is certainly in the hundreds. It may very well be in the thousands."

These words are referring to the activities of



  1. Frederick Douglass

  2. Nat Turner

  3. John Brown

  4. Harriet Tubman

  5. Denmark Vesey

17. E

"Southern white fears of impending slave revolts was so profound that even the possibility of a suggestion of a plan to that end was sufficient to plait the nooses and ready the gallows."

This statement is illustrated by the reaction of southern whites to the actions of



  1. Frederick Douglass

  2. Nat Turner

  3. Sojourner Truth

  4. Harriet Tubman

  5. Denmark Vesey

18. C

Members of Congress who wanted to punish the former leaders of the Confederacy approved of


  1. Lincoln's ten percent plan.

  2. Johnson's policies toward the South.

  3. the 14th Amendment.

  4. the "grandfather clauses."

  5. the Amnesty Act of 1872.

19. E

A major purpose of the Reconstruction Acts of 1867-1868 was to


  1. hasten the industrialization of the South.

  2. break down the South's one-crop economy.

  3. "bind up the nation's wounds."

  4. prevent the readmission of the Southern states to the Union

  5. enable the Republican Party to retain control of Congress.

20. D

The "grandfather clause" is most similar in purpose and principle to the


  1. Jim Crow laws

  2. personal liberty laws

  3. 14th Amendment

  4. poll tax

  5. gag rule

21. A

The platform of the American ("Know Nothing") Party of the 1850's advocated the


  1. enforcement of the principle that only citizens should be allowed to vote or hold office in a state or territory.

  2. abandonment of the process of naturalization.

  3. supervision of naturalization by state judges.

  4. administration of the Burlingame Treaty by the Attorney General.

  5. end to the admission of new states into the Union.

22. B

The process whereby slavery was introduced, restricted, and abolished, is of profound importance in understanding Black American History. What is the chronological order in which the proposals below became effective?

A-Settlers in a territory should have the right to decide whether they want slavery or not.


B-Slavery should be banned north of the 36th parallel.
C-Importation of slaves into the United States should be banned.
D-Slaves should be freed throughout the United States.
E-Slavery should be forbidden in the Northwest Territory.

  1. A, B, C, E, D

  2. E, C, B, A, D

  3. E, B, C, A, D

  4. C, E, A, B, D

  5. A, E, C, B, D

23. A

In the case ex parte Milligan, the United States Supreme Court set an important precedent in the field of


  1. civil rights.

  2. immigration.

  3. segregation.

  4. states' rights.

  5. government regulation of railroads.

24. D

Of the approximately 8 million white people in the 15 slave states in 1860, what approximate percentage were members of families who owned one or more slaves?


  1. 85%

  2. 65%

  3. 45%

  4. 25%

  5. 5%

25. B

Which of the following pieces of legislation created an inelastic currency by requiring 90% (and later 100%) backing of United States bonds for the issuing of bank notes?


  1. Gold Standard Act of 1900

  2. National Bank Act of 1863

  3. Independent Treasury Act of 1840

  4. charter of the second Bank of the United States in 1816

  5. charter of the Bank of the United States in 1791

26. E

Confederate hopes of diplomatic recognition and thus aid from France and Britain were never realized. France and Britain maintained neutrality during the Civil War for all of the following reasons except


  1. Britain's dependence upon Southern cotton was not pressing in 1861-1862 because of an overpurchase of cotton in 1859-1861.

  2. Crop failures in Europe had increased Great Britain's importation of wheat from the American Midwest.

  3. The late Prince Albert had admired the United States, and his widow, Queen Victoria, was thus reluctant to render aid to the Confederates.

  4. Napoleon III did not wish to help the South win, for a quick end to the war might interfere with his schemes in Mexico.

  5. The upper classes in both countries were decidedly pro-Union, and the pro-Confederate lower classes in France and Britain had little influence over policy.

27. B

During the Civil War the United States seized goods being shipped to British colonial ports, but destined ultimately for ports in the Confederacy. What principle of international law was used to justify this action?


  1. the Ostend Manifesto

  2. the doctrine of continuous voyage

  3. rights under a paper blockade

  4. rights established by the Jay Treaty

  5. privilege under letters of marque and reprisal

28. A

The riots in New York City in 1863 began as a protest against


  1. the Conscription Act.

  2. war profiteering by the munitions industry.

  3. the presence of the Russian fleet in New York harbor.

  4. food shortages resulting from war-time rationing.

  5. military defeats suffered by the Union forces.

29. E

President Lincoln's most significant achievement in foreign affairs was his success in


  1. gaining the support of the Russian Tsar for the Union cause.

  2. negotiating a demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border.

  3. restraining Mexico from intervention in the Civil War.

  4. establishing claim to islands in the Caribbean.

  5. forestalling foreign powers from granting diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy.

30. D

The prosperity of the U.S. merchant marine in the years before the Civil War was greatly stimulated by the


  1. invention of the screw propeller.

  2. rapid development of steamships.

  3. reopening of the British East Indian trade.

  4. contruction of clipper ships.

  5. granting of Federal subsidies for ship construction.

31. A

Which of the following factors had the least influence on the growth of manufacturing in the United States during the period 1855-1865?


  1. increase in exports

  2. development of natural resources

  3. expansion of population

  4. growth of cities

  5. the Civil War

32. A

Five scholars were engaged in a discussion of farmer’s problems during the last half of the 19th century. Read their statements, and then answer the question.

SPEAKER A: In examining the problems faced by farmers during this period, we must give special attention to the physical problems of soil erosion, drought, flood, and soil exhaustion.

SPEAKER B: The problems were basically economic. The farmer was exploited in the domestic market and faced sharp competition in the world market. In addition, overproduction and rising costs led to declining returns.

SPEAKER C: The words, “Man does not live by bread alone” has a special meaning for the farmer. Increased income would not compensate for the isolation and drabness of rural life, nor would it create recreational facilities and schools.

SPEAKER D: The decentralization of population in agricultural areas helped create a spiritual void because there were not enough people in one area to support a church. The Puritanism that helped sustain the New England farmer in times of stress had not counterpart in the Midwest.

SPEAKER E: All of these problems could have been solved if the farmers had been able to wrest remedial legislation from state and local government. What the farmers needed was political power.

The Morrill Act of 1862 would contribute most directly to the solution of the problem cited by Speaker


  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. E

33. A



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Which country on the map was the central point of discussion in the Ostend Manifesto of 1854?



  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. E

34. C



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The placard pictured was issued in response to the



  1. Fugitive Slave Act passed after importation of slaves was outlawed in 1808.

  2. refugees created by Denmark Vesey's rebellion.

  3. Fugitive Slave Act passed after the issued raised by the Mexican Cession were settled by compromise.

  4. refugees created by Nat Turner's rebellion.

  5. Crittenden Compromise.

35. D



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The placard issued in reaction against the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 reflected much northern sentiment, to such a degree that some Northern state and city governments were guided in their actions more by the sentiments in the placard than by the letter of the law. This can bedescribed as a Northern attempt at



  1. obstruction of justice.

  2. unofficial referendum.

  3. illegal initiative.

  4. nullification.

  5. pre-emption.

36. B



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The people who wrote and published this placard would in all likely have been supporters of the



  1. Fugitive Slave Act of 1851.

  2. activities of Harriet Tubman in New York in 1854.

  3. Crittenden Compromise of 1861.

  4. activities of Quantrill's Raiders in Missouri in 1862.

  5. Missouri Compromise of 1820.

37. D



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The cartoon was published in 1846 in Britain in 1856, in the middle of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. The sentiments expressed by the cartoon would have been unthinkable twenty years later. Why is this the case?



  1. The U.S. and Canada had resolved all their differences by then.

  2. Britain needed American help in the 1870's in the conflict with France.

  3. American neutrality was an important factor in the Franco-Prussian War.

  4. The American Civil War had been won by the Union with a great deal of bloodshed.

  5. The Oregon Boundary Dispute had been settled long before.

38. A

The purpose of Commodore Matthew Perry's 1854 visit to Japan was to


  1. obtain Japanese markets for American goods.

  2. prevent Japanese aggression against China.

  3. break the British monopoly on Japanese trade.

  4. settle the controversy over the whaling industry.

  5. secure American fishing rights in Japanese waters.

39. C

Which act of Congress was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case?


  1. the Fugitive Slave Act

  2. the admission of California to the Union

  3. the Missouri Compromise

  4. the Kansas-Nebraska Act

  5. the abolition of the international slave trade

40. B

Which of the following resulted from the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862?


  1. Increased desertions from the Confederate Army by soldiers hoping to obtain free land

  2. A dramatic increase in western settlement in the two and a half decades following the Civil War.

  3. The growth of public awareness of the need to conserve our natural resources.

  4. Criticism of the Republican Party for pandering to the electorate.

  5. An resurgence of support for the Democratic Party in the election of 1864.

41. B

During the Civil War and the Reconstruction period, the greatest infringement upon civil liberties was occasioned by the


  1. seizure of Mason and Slidell from the Trent.

  2. suspension of the right to a writ of habeas corpus.

  3. use of conscription to obtain men for military service.

  4. impeachment of Andrew Johnson.

  5. repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

42. C

All of the following comments about the international situation during the American Civil War are true except


  1. The British aristocracy tended to be pro-Confederate.

  2. The French welcomed the War, as it allowed them to penetrate Mexico unimpeded.

  3. The Russians followed a decidedly pro-Confederate line.

  4. The British working class hailed Lincoln as a champion of free labor.

  5. The Emancipation Proclamation helped persuade the British to remain neutral.

43. A

The election of 1876 demonstrated that


  1. it is possible for the method of selecting the president as set forth in the Constitution to be unworkable.

  2. a third party candidate can obstruct the will of the people.

  3. a minority party such as the Republicans were at that time can establish an electoral lock on the presidency.

  4. the stationing of troops in the South had no impact whatsoever upon the election.

  5. the House of Representatives votes along party lines in breaking a tie in a presidential election.

44. B

The doctrine of laissez faire helped the progress of industrialization in the United States because it


  1. advocated the regulation of business to protect consumers and small businesses.

  2. imposed a minimum of restrictions on the freedom of industrialists to develop their businesses.

  3. protected workers from unfair labor practices on the part of management.

  4. supported a governmental policy of high protective tariffs against foreign goods.

  5. led to a bimetallic currency policy, which inflated the dollar and eased the burden of debt.

45. D

During the Reconstruction period following the Civil War, Congress based its control over Reconstruction policy upon its constitutional right to


  1. make treaties ending hostilities.

  2. regulate commerce among the states.

  3. wage war and make peace.

  4. establish rules for governing territories and admitting states to the Union.

  5. enforce laws against treason and sedition.

46. C

Which of the following statements about the impeachment of Andrew Johnson is incorrect?


  1. He was charged with violating the Tenure of Office Act.

  2. He would not have been impeached if he had not attempted to thwart Congress's reconstruction policies.

  3. He was not really impeached, inasmuch as he was acquitted in his trial in the Senate.

  4. He was acquitted by the margin of one vote.

  5. His trial was presided over by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

47. B



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The fact that this country had a slave-based economy and a large slave population led many visionary Confederate leaders to fantasize about a vast slave empire expanding ever south, including not only this nation, but Cuba and Haiti as well.



  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. E

48. B



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One conclusion which can be drawn from the subject matter referred to in the cartoon is that



  1. government investigations of corruption are invariably failures.

  2. being an effective military leader does not necessarily mean that one will be an effective civilian executive.

  3. corruption affected all segments of U.S. society during the Grant administration.

  4. the South was vindicated in its condemnation of the new Republican Party.

  5. President Grant had no chance of re-election in 1872.

49. D



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The situation referred to in the cartoon tarnished the popular reputation of the



  1. Democratic Party.

  2. People's (Populist) Party.

  3. Free Soil Party.

  4. Republican Party.

  5. Greenback Party.

50. B



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The sentiments of disapproval expressed in this cartoon would have been shared by



  1. Chester A. Arthur.

  2. Carl Schurz.

  3. James Garfield.

  4. Charles Giteau.

  5. William Tecumseh Sherman.

51. E



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This cartoon, published in the British magazine Punch in January of 1863, is referring to



  1. the arming of blacks in irregular units in the border states.

  2. the use of blacks as conscript labor in Union engineer units.

  3. the creation of formally organized black regiments in the Union army.

  4. Lincoln's use of Frederick Douglass as a propagandist in Europe.

  5. Lincoln's promulgation of the Emancipation Proclamation.

52. C



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This cartoon refers to an event which occurred after the battle of



  1. Bull Run (Manassas.)

  2. Fredericksburg.

  3. Antietem.

  4. Gettysburg.

  5. Vicksburg.

53. D



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One major reason Lincoln cast the black ace (i.e., emancipation) into his card game with Jefferson Davis was that he hoped



  1. it would lead to a bloody slave uprising in the South.

  2. the Confederates would feel pressured to initiate at least some form of preliminary emancipation.

  3. this move would guarantee his renomination as Republican candidate in 1864.

  4. the action would help prevent an establishment of relations between the Confederacy and the British.

  5. it would satisfy the abolitionists, who had thus far disapproved of Lincoln's policy on slavery.

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