Secondary Sources "Coal Mines Act of 1842."



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Claire Morgan

NHD Project


Annotated Bibliography

Secondary Sources

"Coal Mines Act of 1842." Child Labor During the English Industrial Revolution. N.p.. Web. 2 Nov 2013. .

What I learned from this document was that Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper composed the Coal Mines Act of 1842. What I also learned was that this act excluded women from working in the coal mines. It also stated that boys under 10 cannot work in the coal mines.

Koolbreeze, Angus . "Types of Jobs Children had during the Industrial Revolution." eHow. N.p.. Web. 6 Nov 2013. .

From this web document I learned that some children worked as trappers. Some worked as coal breakers, and some carried large baskets of coal on their back; these were the coal bearers. Many of the children died of lung cancer later in life. I also learned that in the factories, children would sometimes get their hair stuck in the machinery and get it ripped off of their heads.

Landow , George. "Industrial Revolution: a Timeline." The Victorian Web. N.p., 3 Mar 2012. Web. 2 Nov 2013. http://www.victorianweb.org/technology/ir/irchron.html.

What I learned from this web document was that the Wright Brothers first flight was in 1903. I also learned that in 1908, Henry Ford mass produced his Model T. Finally I learned that Joseph Thomson discovered particles smaller than atoms were in the year 1897. All of these happened during the industrial revolution.

Lindsay, Angie. "Children during the Industrial Revolution." Humanities. N.p., 5 Jun 2011. Web. 16 Dec 2013. .

From this document, I learned that children were used for labor because they were small and they could fit in between machinery and tight places. I also learned that the if the children did not perform their jobs well, they would get beaten and poorly mistreated. Finally, I learned that young children worked as trappers. This was where they opened trapped doors by a string when wagons would come.

Mack, Pamela. "British Industrial Revolution." . Pamela E. Mack, 326 Sep 2005. Web. 31 Oct 2013. .

I learned from this webpage that enclosure is the abolishment of the old system of communal farms and its replacement with family farms. I also learned that the society had a hard time adjusting to the new economic system. Finally, I learned that the cause of the revolution was many different new field of technology coming together

Mines." Of Men and Machines. N.p.. Web. 17 Dec 2013. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01419/mines.html

From this website, I learned that coal was needed to make steel. I also learned that when digging miners sometimes find water; the water the water then has to be taken up by buckets- a bucket brigade. Finally, I learned that they would also build holes in the sides of the mountains to drain the water; these were called adits.

Reed, Lawrence. "Child Labor and the British Industrial Revolution." FEE. Foundation for Economic Education, 23 Oct 2009. Web. 31 Oct 2013. http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/child-labor-and-the-british-industrial-revolution

From this website, I learned that the Industrial Revolution in England took place in the century after 1750. I learned that “free labour” children lived at home and during the day, went to the factory to work. The “free labour” children worked at the insistence of their parents of guardian

Thatcher, Wade. "child labor during the english industrial revolution." Child Labor During The English Industrial Revolution. Wade Thatcher, n.d. Web. 31 Oct 2013. http://wathatcher.iweb.bsu.edu/childlabor/

I learned more about child labor and the English industrial revolution from this article. I learned that the cotton spinning jenny (invented during the 18th century) was one of the leading causes of the Industrial revolution in England. I also learned that “Parish Apprenticed Children” were some of the first children to work in the factory setting.

THOS TOOKE, T.SOUTHWOOD SMITH, LEONARD HORNER, ROBERT J. SAUNDERS.
Children’s Employment Commission (Mines) 1842, vol XV, pp. 225-259.

From this document, I learned that some children as young as six years old would work in the coal


mines. I also learned the children would have to move carts upward, crawling on their hands and knees, in really, really, tight spaces. Finally, I learned that when the children ate, they would have to work at the same time.

United Nations. General Assembly. Convention on the Rights of the Child. 1989. Print. http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/crc.asp&xgt;.

From this document I learned more about the rights of children. I learned that children have the right to a name immediately after birth. I also learned that children have the right to and education.

Wegner, Jennifer. "The History of Child labor During the American Industrial Revolution." IHS Slave Labor. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov 2013.

What I learned from this web document was that the American Industrial Revolution was at its highest point during the 19th century. I also learned that over 2 million children were working in factories by 1900. Lastly, I learned that in 1885 a law was passed that said that children had to be at least twelve years of age before they could work in the coal mines.

Wolensky, Kenneth, and Judith Rich. "Child Labor in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commision. Commonwealth of Pennyslvania. Web. 2 Nov 2013. http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/things/4280/child_labor/478193.

From this website, I learned that Pennsylvania’s leading industry in the 1870s. I also learned that the boys in coal mines sorted coal from rocks several hours every day. In my opinion that was very tedious. Finally, I learned that in 1876 a protest occurred to prevent child labor.

"Working Conditions." The Open Door Website. N.p.. Web. 16 Dec 2013. .



From this website, I learned that sometimes, miners would have to go down 2 kilometers
under the ground. I also learned that the miners would have to wear baskets strapped to their heads, thus resulting in a bald spot. Finally, I learned that when girls worked in the coal mines, they had to strap these baskets to their waists that later in childbirth proved fatal.


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