Second Revolution

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Early U.S. Foreign Policy and a “second Revolution” (1793-1820)

How did the new US gain large territories on the continent?

What was the significance of the Treaty of Grenville?

How did the “Revolution of 1800” change the idea of foreign policy and views on the Constitution?

How did a failure of diplomacy lead to the outbreak of war, and how did it affect Americans?

Where did Republicans and Federalists stand on declaring and then fighting the war?

Did Americans achieve their goals in the War of 1812?
Background/Review: Washington’s Administration

I. New borders

  1. _________________________________ 1783 gave up Britain’s claim to Appalachian region

  2. Conflict over how to best claim new land and govern it, especially how to deal with ________________ populations

  3. Ideas on “care by their American neighbors”:

    1. ___________________ remaining tribes

    2. Assimilation of natives into Euro-American society, including division of tribal lands

    3. Drive to push into territory with passage of Northwest Ordinance of 1787

II. Negotiating with Native Nations

  1. New territory “gained” actually Native tribal lands

    1. Treaty of ________________________________ (1784)—US threatens former British native allies (________________________ Nation) with military action if they did not give up lands in ________________________ (NY, PA)

  2. Northwest Indian Wars 1785-1795

    1. Alliance between natives in the area under Little Turtle called the Western Confederacy

    2. Battle of ______________________________ (1794) leads to major defeat of natives in the area

    3. Treaty of ________________________(OH) (1795)—Indian ownership of land acknowledged, but forced to cede most of Ohio and other areas of Great Lakes region, give up alliance with Britain

  3. Expands territory, Britain reduces trade with natives and after ___________________________ (1795), start to remove military units

    1. Treaty was to work out problems between Britain and U.S. over ___________________ frontier, trade in Caribbean, British seizure of U.S. ships, and debts owed to British merchants

    2. However, Americans did not like the Treaty

      1. Did not stop British seizure of ships, or arming of natives on the frontier

      2. Americans still had to pay back British merchants from before Revolution

Early European Diplomacy: Washington and Adams

I. ___________________________ Treaty (aka Treaty of ___________________________)

  1. U.S. border extended to _________________________________ River, but large portion of “deep” South remained in Spanish territory.

    1. Spain wanted to ______________ties with England, ally with the U.S. and France

  2. To do this, Thomas Pinckney (US) and Manuel de Godoy (Spain) agreed to set the U.S. southern boundary at 31° N and allow free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory.

    1. Also gave U.S. privilege of tax-free right of deposit (temporary storage of goods) at ____________________________________, a major port city.

      1. Enabled, encouraged American settlers to continue westward expansion

      2. Made frontier areas more attractive and lucrative (potential for expansion, access to transportation)

      3. Popular with the American public, especially in the West and South.

  3. The success of Pinckney, a _______________________, gave party new influence outside of Northeast

  4. Treaty marked a reverse in Spanish policies, placed U.S. in a stronger diplomatic position in Europe, especially after problems from Jay’s Treaty

Jefferson’s Foreign Policy 1801-1809


  1. Reject Alien and Sedition Act, amend Naturalization Act to allow immigrants to become citizens after 5 years

  2. Settlement with Barbary States of North Africa (“pirates”) over protection of trade ships

    1. However, reduces size of US Navy

  3. Support for Haitian revolutionaries against France (Toussaint L’Overture) and attempted imperialism of Napoleon Bonaparte in Western Hemisphere

I. Political and Economic Diplomacy

  1. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte (France) began a series of conquests called the ________________________________________

    1. intended to compete with European imperialism and counter attacks related to revolutionary fear

  2. Part of these wars was the sale of _____________________ in 1803 to gain funds for the war

    1. However, due to “______________________” of U.S., trade with both Britain and France led to hurt feelings—France had cut off trade of other European nations with Britain; Britain retaliates

  3. One means of retaliation was through _____________ restrictions. As the U.S. was trading openly with France and Britain, US ships were harassed, cargo that appeared “French” was seized (sugar, molasses).

    1. Britain required licenses for ships bound for Europe; France confiscated cargo from licensed ships

  4. _______________________________ [forcible service] of American sailors

    1. Many British sailors desert their ships, join U.S. crews

    2. British Navy kidnapped these sailors off American ships and had them rejoin the British Navy

    3. 1807: Attack on U.S. Navy vessel Chesapeake sparks U.S. response (Chesapeake-Leopard Affair)

  5. Response to Britain—Economic Diplomacy (Coercion): Embargo Act of 1807

    1. Halted all trade with Europe until Britain and France lift restrictions on U.S. trade; requires license for any trade

    2. _______________________________ is a government ban on trade with other countries

    3. Overestimated reliance on trade with Europe; underestimated resistance of Northern merchants

Madison’s Foreign Policy 1809-1816

I. Madison was already politically famous as Jefferson’s Secretary of State, author of Federalist Papers, the “father of the Constitution” and author of the BoR

  1. However, cited as “too timid and indecisive as a statesman,” especially on matters of foreign affairs

    1. Britain helps Natives in the West attack Americans on the frontier (Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811), violating Treaty of Paris

    2. Spanish use Natives of Florida and Georgia as spies and encouraged the tribes to raid U.S. settlements

  2. ____________________________________ Act (replaces Embargo Act)

    1. Forbade trade with France and Britain; however President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions

  3. Influence of Republican “War Hawks

    1. Weary of failed attempts to demand British respect for American sovereignty in the West, neutrality on the water

    2. Southern congressmen rise to power in newly-elected, sectionally-divided Congress (John C. Calhoun—SC, Henry Clay—KY as leaders)

      1. Wanted territory in British Canada, Spanish Florida

      2. Favored war, even though it hurt the east, as a show of American patriotism of their forefathers (“a second war for independence”)

CAUSES OF WAR of 1812 (simplified)

  • Impressment of U.S. citizens and ships by Britain

  • Interference with American shipping by both Britain and France

  • British support of Native American resistance in the West

  • Poor diplomatic efforts to fix economic and political foreign affairs issues

II. The War of 1812

June 1812: Madison asks Congress for declaration of war; vote split along regional lines (sectionalism)


  • Reopening of _____________

  • Renewed “National Pride” and “American spirit”

  • Halt impressment of sailors and destruction of business profits

  • Territorial acquisition (perhaps Canada, Florida)


  • Military was small

    • State militias made up most of U.S. forces; didn’t like to fight outside of borders

    • Navy was only 22 ships

  • Could potentially lose territory from Treaty of Paris (1783) or Louisiana Purchase

  • Britain was the leading world superpower

War started with invasion of western ______________________________________, almost disastrous for U.S.

  1. Britain blockades Eastern Seaboard, prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast

These domestic issues allow Britain to gain ground:

    1. NE Federalists oppose war, refuse to let state militias attack Canada

    2. Boston merchants, banks refuse to fund/lend money to gov’t for war

    3. Old D-R, known as “Quids” opposed the war because they felt it gave central gov’t too much power

    4. Daniel ____________________ (NH) leads Congressional opposition to higher tax, tariffs, national conscription of militia

  1. August 1814: British sail into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C.

    1. burn White House and the Capitol; Madison and Congress barely escape

    2. Unlike D.C., Baltimore was ready for the British; city militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British

  2. After a failed bombardment of ______________________________ on September 13, 1814, British abandon the attack

    1. Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment from a nearby ship, where he penned a poem, “The Star-Spangled Banner” (later the National Anthem)

III. Reaction to the War

The ____________________________ Convention, 1814

  1. Convention of New England merchants who opposed the ___________________ and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812.

    1. Propose Constitutional amendments, such as four-year presidential term, restriction of embargoes, 2/3 majority of Congress to declare war (not 51%) or admit new state

  2. Advocate states rights, including ______________________________, or ability to say federal laws were ________________________________

    1. discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored (the “Essex Junto” led by Aaron Burr)

  3. Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists, who have already started to split

IV. Treaty of _________________ and Battle of New Orleans

  1. Treaty was Negotiated in Europe and was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812

  2. The War ended in a stalemate, where no party gained or lost any territory.

  3. The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.

JANUARY, 1815:

  • British invasion force was repelled by _______________________________________ troops at New Orleans, an important port and point of control of Mississippi

    • 2,500 British soldiers were killed or captured; only 13 Americans died.

    • Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle.

    • This victory inspired American _________________________, ensured treaty ratification, and makes Jackson a _____________________________

If the War of 1812 ended in a “tie”, why was it important?

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