SCORED SAMPLES: CHESAPEAKE V. NEW ENGLAND DBQ Sample Essay 1: Excellent (score of 9) p2376While New England and the Chesapeake region colonies (Maryland, Virginia) were both settled and ruled by the English, by the year 1700 they had evolved into two very separate distinct societies.
The first major cause of this differentiation lay in the very reasons for the founding of the two region's colonies. p2377In 1607 the London Company of Virginia, a joint-stock company, had been formed to settle in the Virginia area a colony of Englishmen. But the Company wanted this colony solely for economic gain. p2378As Document F, Capt Smith's history of Virginia, shows the first colonists spent their time searching for gold like the Spanish windfall instead of planting crops. As a result, half of the colony died and only Capt. Smith's assumption of dictatorial power and his use of draconian measures prevented the colony from collapsing completely.
In contrast to the mercenary nature of Virginia, New England was founded out of altruistic and religious reasons. The Separatists, and later the Puritans who arrived in 1630, came primarily so that they might practice their religion as they wished, free of royal interference. As John Winthrop wrote, the settlers saw their colony as a noble experiment, a "city upon a hill" which was being watched by the entire world. The settlement would be a Christian community in which all would labor together for the common good, and everybody would help his neighbor in every way. Clearly the two regions had very different outlooks in life.
Secondly, the colonies differed in the nature of the English settlers they attracted. As the ship's list of those bound for New England shows, entire families of men, women and children came over together. The men were primarily in their thirties and forties and were usually skilled in a profession or craft. On the other hand, p2379as the Virginia ship's list shows, those bound for the colony were almost all young, single men in their teens and twenties who came for adventure and to find their fortunes. Very few women came, and those that did were all young and single with no children.
p2380Next, the very different geography of the two regions influenced the economic activities of the people and greatly contributed to their different ways of life. New England had poor rocky soil and a shorter growing season. However it had good deep harbors and navigable rivers. This led to the development of small family farms and to a great interest in trade and commerce. In addition, rich forests and good fishing grounds made ship building and fishing primary New England industries along with farming and trading. In Virginia rich, fertile soil and a long growing season led to the creation of a plantation economy. When it was discovered how well tobacco grew, this became the primary cash crop of Virginia and caused a large growth in the number of plantations. In addition, with the new need for cheap labor to take on the back breaking work of tobacco cultivation, African slavery was introduced into the Virginia area in 1618. It soon spread to all the Southern colonies.
Lastly, the differences in the distribution of wealth set the two regions apart. In New England, because of the strong Christian foundation of the people it became common to set up communal systems to allow an equitable distribution of wealth. As Document E shows, it was common for the New England colonies to set wage and price regulations. These were very similar to the old medieval guilds which restricted merchants from charging excessive prices to raise profits. New Englanders wanted a "just price", a small profit but nothing that would raise prices too much. They also meant to set wages so that every laborer could earn a decent living. The antithesis of this was Virginia, where every man aspired to become a filthy rich planter with many slaves and a big plantation. Wealth was concentrated into the hands of a few wealthy planters and it was this inequality which helped to cause Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 as he himself stated.
p2381As these reasons show Virginia and New England developed into two separate societies because of geographic, political, religious, social, and economic differences. Is it any wonder then that by 1700 they were two very different groups of colonies, though both flew the Union Jack?
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Sample Essay 2: Good (score of 6) As England began to take interest in the "New World", colonization by Englishmen began to spread drastically in the 1600's. English colonies took place on the eastern coast of the United States. Two early settlements established were in the New England and Chesapeake region. p2384Although both were settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 these two regions had evolved into two distinct societies, due mainly to reasons involving the reasons for settlement, geographical differences leading to different economics, religion and politics.
The settlement of the New England region was done by people, mostly families, escaping religious persecution in England, and others wishing to separate from the Church of England altogether. Before these settlers even departed from their ships they laid down the laws of colony as seen in John Winthrop's (later governor p2385of Pilgrim colony) A Model for Christian Charity. In this the colonists laid down that God was the supreme being of the colony and that the people must be equal and work for God. These settlements in New England were dominated by religion. The p2386Mayflower Compact is another example of this.
The colony of the Chesapeake region was formed for different reasons. It was settled by individuals rather than families who sought land, freedom from debts, and adventure. As seen in John Smith's History of Virginia. Smith, a colonist in Jamestown, explained that the colonists headed toward Virginia were headed more for individual reasons, many for greed and gold. p2387Because of their differences the colony unlike New England was not equal.
As seen from the ship's list of emigrants bound for New England on the Weymouth in 1675, emigrants were mostly families. p2388Thus the colony became family oriented. In contrast, a ship's list of the Ultima bound for Virginia in the same year shows that emigrants were many individuals seeking their own claims. Thus, the colony was separated by classes of people.
The political set up of the colonies was also different. The New England area Government was set around the community. The Articles of Agreement written in 1636 in Mass. shows that the community was composed of equal families led by a governor and by the church. They held town meetings to set up laws, etc. The Virginia region was different. As chartered by the King it was ruled by a Royal Governor who made laws and governed and taxed people. p2389The King and Parliament had the main control though. Thus, they were different in politics.
Also geographical differences contributed to distinct societies. New Englanders because of rocky soil had limited farming so they had to turn to timber, fur, and fishing. The Chesapeake region was, however, very rich in soil, and farming became the main thing. Tobacco, indigo and rice were the chief crops. Slaves also divided Virginia from New England. These difference led to different economies.
The two societies also differed in relation to Indians and other countries. p2390New Englanders got along well with Indians and other countries as their religion asserted. The Virginia area, on the other hand didn't. They were in constant conflicts with Indians and the Dutch. Governor Berkeley in 1673 and his council were forced to ask the king for help. They used slaves and indentured servants to defend them.
Virginia also had problems internally. Because there was a distinction in classes, a rebellion occurred. Farmers angry over the rise of the wealthy estates and irresponsible use of the treasury staged a rebellion led by p2391Roger Bacon known as Bacon's Rebellion, against Gov. Berkeley in 1674. They wanted to be p2392treated fairly as the New Englanders were.
Hence, one can see that, though of the same English origin, the New England and Chesapeake regions evolved into two distinct societies.
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Sample Essay 3: Excellent (score of 9) p2395The years 1607 and 1629 saw the start of two English colonies in the New World--first Jamestown and then the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Both were mainly populated by people of English origin, and yet the differences between the two colonies were evident and significant. As they evolved, the two colonies developed contrasting economies, societies, and institutions. These major differences can be traced to the varying motives for colonization, the various settlers, the geography and climate of the New World, and the contrasting philosophies and views of the colonies.
p2396By 1700, New England and the Chesapeake society had developed contrasting economies, as evident in a comparison between Massachusetts and Virginia. Whereas Virginia was thriving on a single cash crop, tobacco, Massachusetts had a varied commercial economy. Massachusetts was engaged in trade, fishing, ship building, and the industry of lumber. p2397This contrast can be traced to several causes. One includes the motives of the founders of the colonies. Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh were among the first people to try to develop settlements in the New World. Their motive was primarily to make money. Whereas they failed, the Virginia Company succeeded because it had garnered enough capital through its organization as a joint-stock company. The Virginia Company similarly launched Jamestown to make money. Thus the settlers of Virginia were influenced by the constant reminder that their first goal was to make profits. Captain John Smith, in History of Virginia explains how the settlers would only "dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, (and) load gold." This obvious concern for making money through gold was eventually ended due to the lack of gold and Captain Smith's leadership. However, this conviction for making profits found its outlet in the cash crop, tobacco, which John Rolfe perfected. Aiding the transformation to tobacco was the fertile soil, long growing seasons, and warm climate. On the other hand, Massachusetts had rocky soil, short growing seasons, and cold winters. Thus, Massachusetts settlers had to turn to other outlets to make a living--their fine harbors and vast forests. Massachusetts settlers quickly began to fish, cut lumber, build ships, and trade. This contrast in economies also occurred because the settlers of Massachusetts were Puritans endowed with the Puritan work ethic. John Winthrop explains in his A Model of Christian Charity how the Puritans wished to "knit together in this work as one man." The Puritans, with their dedication to hard work, conscience, and commitment, wished to join together to make a success of Mass. Thus, they could not develop the greedy, self-profiting attitudes of the Virginians and turned to more enriching pursuits.
p2398Virginia and Mass. also contrasted in the composition of their society. Virginians developed a more stratified society, with aristocratic affluent planters at the top of the social pyramid, yeomen farmers next, then indentured servants and black slaves. Mass. instead had more social equality, with the "elect" as the most respected and powerful group. Mass. also focused their lives around families, while Virginia became composed of largely landless, freed men. p2399These societal differences can be traced to the original settlers and their voyage to the New World. The Ship's List of Emigrants Bound for New England consisted of large, whole families being transplanted while the Ship's List for Emigrants Bound for Virginia consisted mainly of young men. Also adding to the contrast were the motives of the founders. Mass. was founded by the Puritans to be a "city upon a hill (Document A)," and so developed their society around their church. Thus the "elect" who were predestined for salvation would naturally be the most important members of the society. Their desire also, as John Winthrop explains, to "make others' conditions our own, rejoice together . . . (and) labor and suffer together" made social equality more prevalent. Puritans felt they had to bond together to elevate their society as a model, and thus could not degrade members of their society as socially inferior. Virginians on the other hand, was already greedy and self-centered. They were more concerned about personal gain than equality, and so the different levels of society appeared. Inherent in the class levels, however, was the organization of the colony. Life centered around plantations, and so the rich planters were most important. Their constant need for labor source led to the introduction of land grants and indentured servants through the head-right system. Bacon's Rebellion and the end of the slave monopoly of the Royal African Company led to slaves, the lowest social class appearing. Massachusetts instead developed their life around towns, which bred even more feeling of unity sharing, and equality.
p2400Virginia and Mass. also differed greatly politically. Massachusetts developed a theocracy, where the church and state were joined and the "elect" having the most political power. Mass. also used town meetings to encourage self-government. Thus conflicts in Massachusetts were few. The Puritans dedicated themselves to the "church covenant (Document D)," or to a promise with God. Aiding the spread of political power was the Articles of Agreement stating that every settler should have convenient property given to them. Thus land-ownership requirements for voting were eased. p2401Also fostering political unity and self-government in Mass. was the stress on every settler having the same opinions. Thus Hutchinson, with her views on antinomianism, and Roger Williams and his wish to separate church and state, were expelled from Mass. p2402However in Virginia, there was strife between the aristocratic and the back country settlers. As Nathaniel Bacon asserts in his manifesto, "men in authority and favor" held "The dispensation of the country's wealth." Thus the plantation system in Virginia led to plantation owners holding too much political and economic power, as personified by Governor Berkeley. Thus the landless, freed indentured servants revolted in 1676, symbolizing the conflict in Virginia between its aristocratic and poor inhabitants.
p2403Virginia and Massachusetts both ended up prospering in the colonial era, even with the widely different institutions and opinions they each held. The forces of geography, economy, and motives for founding the colonies influenced the contrast. However, in the next century New England and Chesapeake would discover the forces of freedom and liberty would lead them to find a common ground--that of breaking free from Great Britain.
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Sample Essay 4: Unsatisfactory (score of 3) Both the New England and the Chesapeake region were settled by English people and to an extent, they did develop into two distinct colonies. The differences in the development that resulted have many reasons. One of the most important differences is their reason for immigration. p3372The pilgrims, one of the earliest settlers came to America for three basic reasons, gold, glory and gospel. These people were seeking riches, adventure and were also eager to spread their religion, however they differed from the later settlers who landed in the northern colonies. p3373The Puritans or Separatists who landed settled the Mass Bay Colony came to escape religious persecution from the Anglican Church or church of England. Their goal was to come to America and purify the Church of England and prove to them their way was better, and then someday return back to England with their modified religion.
In Document A, John Winthrop the leader of the Puritans writes about what they plan to do, before landing. Winthrop speaks of the city on the hill, which they picture as a model society, which they see as far better then all else looking down on other settlements. The Puritan religion and way of life shapes their colony and takes it in a different direction from the Southern Colonies. p3374The pilgrims that landed at Jamestown in 1607 were not so religiously inclined as the Puritans. Document F, the history of Virginia written by the leader of the colony John Smith describes how hard it was in the first few years at Jamestown. There was little food, new diseases, lots of quarreling between the settlers and they had many problem with Indians, as mentioned in Document G. Many died from starvation and diseases in the colony and by the time the supply ship from England arrived, the colony was almost devastated.
Another major difference in the Northern and Southern regions were their crops and what they produced. In the northern colonies they mainly were shipbuilders and fishermen because there were lots of the taller trees necessary for the masts of the ships. p3375This turned the north into a primarily industrial area, while the south developed into an agricultural area. p3376After tobacco was introduced to the colonists by Pocohontas, a friendly indian, they started growing tobacco and they later started producing p3377corn, indigo and cotton, which later became their main crop.
As you can see the Northern and Southern colonies were started for different reasons and the differences in beliefs, location and religion shaped the way they developed. The South became agricultural with their cotton, tobacco and corn crops while the north developed into an industrial region because of fishing and shipbuilding that occurred in the area.