School Unit: Social Studies This is a school unit plan using Columbus Chapel and Boal Mansion Museum content and collection. This unit plan is designed to fit into school curricula and satisfies many of the History Standards of the Commonwealth of



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“THEY DIED IN FRANCE FOR LIBERTY”

By Joe Horvath


Museum Educator

PA Military Museum

In the spring of 1916, with the European powers at war, an event was about to take place that had not been seen since the days of our Civil War. A militia unit was going to be recruited and mobilized for action. This was not to occur on some vast, isolated military base but rather on a privately owned family estate.


Nestled in Southern Centre County between the Tussey Mountain Range and Mount Nittany was the village of Springfield first settled by the Scotch-Irish. A former captain in the Cumberland Militia during the Revolutionary War, David Boal, made this area his home in 1789. The Boal family eventually established themselves as landed gentry owning approximately 80 small farms and a tavern on the main road to Pittsburgh. A popular vote in 1820 changed the town name to Boalsburg to honor the prosperous family.
The story of the militia unit starts with Theodore Davis Boal. He was born in Iowa City, Iowa in 1867. An architect by training, Boal moved to Paris in the 1890’s to study art. It was there that he met his wife, Mathilde Denis de Legarde, a niece of the family of Christopher Columbus. Boal returned to the States in 1898 with his wife and young son, Pierre. He purchased what was then called the “family farm” in Pennsylvania and settled into the life of an aristocrat.
In 1914 war broke out between the European Monarchies. President Wilson vowed to keep America Neutral. The country, however, was becoming divided in its’ opinion on the war. A “Preparedness Movement” was sweeping the country. Boal was a believer in the movement. He and his son volunteered for service in France. Boal donated money and material to French hospitals and organizes a number of military canteens for the troops in Calais and at the Belgian front while his son joined the French cavalry.
Upon his return home from France, Boal was convinced that America would soon be at war. Throughout the late winter and early spring of 1916, he laid the foundations for the formation of a horse-mounted machine gun troop that would fulfill a need within the Pennsylvania National Guard. On Friday May 19 the original 33 members of what was to become the “Boal Troop” met at the mansion on the estate in Boalsburg to map out the details for the logistics and political maneuvering involved with the formation of a volunteer militia group.
Construction of Camp Boal on the eastern border of the estate began in the late spring of 1916. Initially, the National Guard was to supply everything but the horses. However, it soon became apparent that Boal was paying the biggest share of expenses by supplying quarters, rations, uniforms and horses. The men trained without pay, yet enthusiasm and patriotism swelled the ranks. The troop roster listed 78 men. A good number were faculty, students and employees from Penn State with a lesser number of merchants, machinists, clerks, craftsmen, and laborers from a tri-county area. The troop was rounded out by the enlistment of “one” farmer and “one” doctor identified as privates.
A series of inspections throughout that summer by the State Adjutant General and U.S. Army Regulars praised the troop as being fit for service. Boal was voted in as Captain of the troop with George Thompson and Wilbur Leitzel as the lieutenants. The “Boal Troop” was accepted by the National Guard and became the “Machine Gun Troop of the 1st PA Cavalry.”
The first deployment of the Troop was to the Texas/ Mexican border in October of 1916. The Troop was mustered into federal service as part of a larger U.S. Army/National Guard presence. This was the result from armed border incursions by Mexican revolutionaries led by Poncho Villa. The Troop returned to Camp Boal in January of 1917.
America entered World War I on April 6, 1917. Camp Boal was modified to include a mock-up of a front line trench for training purposes. (That trench system was located at the present-day stretch of Business Route 322 in front of the Pennsylvania Military Museum.) By the late summer several changes had taken place. The National Guard was re-designated the 28th Infantry Division, Boal was promoted and transferred to division headquarters, and the Troop had grown to the battle strength of 172 men. The Troop was re-designated Company A of the 107th Machine Gun Battalion and left for the war with the 28th Division in mid-May of 1918.
By the time of the Armistice on November 11, 1918, twelve men from Company A were killed in action. The Troop returned with the division in May of 1919. In August, the first reunion of the 28th Division A.E.F. (American Expeditionary Force) was held at Camp Boal where a monument was dedicated to the memory the fallen troopers. A plaque reads, “This simple stone cross, found broken in the debris of an obliterated French village, through which our troops passed, is erected to the memory of Hayes M. Wilson, Bromley R. Smith, Eugene R. Davis, Michael A. Miller, Donald J. Hile, Arthur Monroe, Ralph I. Dunlap, Claude K. Kahle, William C. Conway, Lewis Crosovalt, James Thorp, George Simcox. They died in France for liberty.”
The memory of Camp Boal and the Troop has faded with time. It survived as an officers club and cavalry training site through the 1920’s and early 30’s, but an end to an era came to pass with the disbanding of the Troop in 1936 and Boal’s death in 1938. However, the idea of yearly reunions and the dedication of memorials to fallen comrades did take hold and the result has been one of beauty, honor and remembrance to this day.

Questions for the Boal Troop Reading



  1. Why did Terry start the Boal Troop?



  1. How did Terry outfit the Boal Troop?



  1. What does Preparedness Movement mean?



  1. Where was Camp Boal located at?



  1. Where were a lot of the soldiers from?



  1. What was the Boal Troop known as by the National Guard?



  1. What war was the Boal Troop in?



Chapter 3: Section 1: Civil War Weapons Reading
Civil War Weapons

By Mary Lynn Bushong   
  Do you ever wonder what it might have been like to take part in the Civil War? Even as the war began, weapons were changing. As they changed, the whole method of fighting would have to change with it.
 
    The Civil War is often referred to as the first modern war. The use of newer, more efficient means of killing-- coupled with poor hygiene and worse nutrition-- brought about huge losses of lives. Approximately 620,000 men died-- with disease killing two-thirds of them.
 
    When the war began, they still used the old form of fighting with armies. They would form up in masses across from one another to keep fire-power concentrated. This was necessary because smooth bore rifles and pistols did not have a long range, and they were also inaccurate.
 
     When rifled weapons were introduced, the speed and distance a bullet could go was greatly increased, as was the accuracy of the weapon. Rifling is the name of the shallow spiral channel on the inside of the rifle barrel. It caused the bullet to spin as it was forced through the barrel. The spinning caused it to go faster without wobbling. Suddenly, being in a massed formation was a much deadlier proposition. Instead of concentrating fire-power, it concentrated on the human targets. After that, the armies were less likely to be massed together. Instead, they moved in narrow lines, often utilizing what cover was available.
 
     At the start of the war, rifles were loaded by stuffing gun powder, a bullet, and cloth wadding down the muzzle of the weapon. Loading it again after each shot was time consuming. Sometimes the trigger would be pulled, but the rifle wouldn't fire. If there was heavy fire around him, the soldier might not have noticed if his weapon fired, and he would reload it again. On occasion, a rifle was known to explode because of an inattentive soldier.
 
    One of the great improvements to the rifle was making it breech loading and the use of cartridge rounds. A powder horn was no longer required, and reloading after firing was simple after ejecting the cartridge. Soon after that, the repeating rifle was introduced which allowed for multiple bullets to be loaded at once, allowing the soldier to take many shots in a row without reloading.
 
     

The new carbine rifles shot metal cartridges which were not ruined if they got wet, as the paper cartridges did. These carbines were extremely popular with the cavalry.
 
     Perhaps one of the most dramatic improvements was the Gatling gun, or early machine gun. While they could be very destructive, they were also notorious for jamming up when they got warm.
 
    Marksmen came into their own during the Civil War. Using long rifles and telescopic sights, they were able to pick off targets 1,800 yards away.
 
    In spite of the more modern weapons, blades were still used. The cavalry often used swords at the start, but those soon fell out of favor. Other edged weapons included bowie knives, bayonets, pikes, and lances.
 
    In addition to hand weapons used by soldiers, there was the artillery; guns, howitzers, and mortars. Guns like cannon would shoot a high speed shell and were most useful against fortifications, ships, and large buildings. Howitzers would shoot shells at a slower speed. They usually planned to have the shells burst over the heads of soldiers so the shrapnel did more damage. Mortars were usually mounted in one place and were great for lobbing shells over walls or barriers. They were most frequently used during the war along the Mississippi.
 
    Wars always push new innovations forward, and the Civil War was no different. The difference was that it straddled two times, bridging the old and the new, ushering in the equipment and techniques that defined modern warfare.

Chapter 3: Section 1: Civil War Questions and short answer questions

Name _____________________________ Date ___________________
Civil War Weapons
1. How could the invention of the repeating rifle affect the outcome of the war?

2. Two-thirds of all Civil War deaths were caused by:

Bullets

Shrapnel

Swords

Disease
3. What was the advantage of having metal cartridges for the new carbine rifles?

4. Rifling is:

The art of shooting a rifle.

The shallow groove that spirals inside the gun barrel.

A quick look through records.

All of the above.
5. How would rifling affect the speed of a bullet?

6. Bladed weapons were obsolete before the war.

False

True
7. What was the purpose of using the howitzer to explode shells over the heads of enemy soldiers?
8. Why was a muzzle-loading rifle so dangerous at times?
  It was slow to load.
  It was not accurate.
  The possibility of it exploding.
  All of the above.


Civil War Weapons
If you were able to choose any Civil War weapon to fight with, which would it be? Explain your answer.


Civil War Weapons - Answer Key



1 Various
2    Disease
3 Various
4    The shallow groove that spirals inside the gun barrel.
5 Various
6    False
7  The shrapnel would cause many injuries and deaths.
8    The possibility of it exploding.

Chapter 3: Section 2: Civil War Activity Lesson Plan:
Teacher: Lesson: Civil War Act.
Grade Level/Subject: 8th Grade American History Length: 1 day
Section One: Identifying all standards and District Standards
8.1.9A. Analyze chronological thinking

8.1.9B Analyze and interpret historical sources.

8.1.9C Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation

8.1.9D Analyze and interpret historical research.

8.2.9A Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.

8.2.9B Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.

8.3.9A Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914.

8.3.9B Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914.

.

Performance Standards:



In order to meet Standards, students will be able to:
Analyze the chronological thinking and interpret historical sources of why the Civil War started.
Analyze the contributions that different commanders had in the Civil War.
Analyze the weapons room at the Boal Mansion Museum to see some of the guns and swords that were used doing the Civil War.

Essential Questions:

In order to understand, students will need to consider the following questions

Why was there a Civil War?
Where were the battles of the Civil War fought at?
How many battles were there during the Civil War?

Section Two: Identifying methods of assessment and point of use throughout lesson
Formative Assessment: Activity on the Civil War battles
Section Three: Identifying the learning activities/instructional practices
Materials: notebook, pencil, Civil War Map, Battles Worksheet
Anticipatory Set: What was the Civil War?
Transition: Let the students know that we will be learning about the different battles of the Civil War.
Activities:


  1. Teacher will pass out the activity for the Civil War.

  2. Teacher and Students will go over the directions for the activity.

  3. Students will work on the activity independently in class.

Chapter 3: Section 2: Civil War Activity:


Instructions: In the computer lab, look up each battle of the Civil War. On your map locate where the battle took place. On this sheet please write a sentence or two about the battle.
Name: Date:

Battles of the Civil War

Battle of Shiloh-

Battle of Antietam-

Seven Days Battle-

Battle of Fredericksburg-

Battle of Chancellorsville-

Battle of Vicksburg-

Battle of Gettysburg-

Battle of Chickamauga-

Battle of Chattanooga-

Battle of the Wilderness-

Battle of the Cold Harbor-

Battle of Petersburg-

Sherman’s march to the sea-

Battle of Appomattox Court House-










Chapter 3: Section 3: Power Point for the Weapons Room

Chapter 3: Section 3: Power Point for the Weapons Room
Teacher: Lesson: Weapons Room Power point
Grade Level/Subject: 8th Grade American History Length: 1 day
Section One: Identifying all standards and District Standards
8.1.9A. Analyze chronological thinking

8.1.9B Analyze and interpret historical sources.

8.1.9C Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation

8.1.9D Analyze and interpret historical research.

8.2.9A Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.

8.2.9B Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.

8.3.9A Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914.

8.3.9B Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914.

.

Performance Standards:



In order to meet Standards, students will be able to:
Analyze the chronological thinking and interpret historical sources of the different kinds of guns in the weapons room.
Analyze the contributions that Terry Boal made, so that the Boal Troop could be outfitted.
Analyze the discharge paper that John Boal signed.
Analyze the weapons room at the Boal Mansion Museum to see some of the guns that Terry brought back from WWI and also look at the Civil War weapons.

Essential Questions:

In order to understand, students will need to consider the following questions


What is a model 1763 French Charleville musket?
Why was the Springfield rifled musket important in the Civil War?
What is the 1853 Sharps carbine also called and why?
What do Terry Boal, General John Pershing and Pancho Villa have in common?
Why do you think the Boal’s have so many things from WWI?
Section Two: Identifying methods of assessment and point of use throughout lesson
Formative assessment: Questions asked through out the whole power point
Section Three: Identifying the learning activities/instructional practices
Materials: notebook, pencil, weapons room power point
Anticipatory Set: Can anyone tell me about the different weapons that were used during the civil war?
Transition: Let the students know that we will be showing a power point today on the weapons room.
Activities:


  1. Teacher will show the students the power point on the weapons room.

  2. Students will take notes on the weapons room power point

  3. Teacher and students will review the power point

  4. Students will ask any questions that they have regarding the power point



1 Captain of a company of the Cumberland County Militia which protected this part of Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War. Built two room stone cabin in 1789 (now used as the kitchen).

2 Captain. Joined the rebellion against the British in Ireland in 1797. Escaped in the blanket chest in 1798. Added hallway, parlor, living room and dining room in 1798. Built the tavern in 1804 around which the village grew up in 1809 which was named Boalsburg in his honor when the post office was established.

3 Captain, Associate Judge of Centre County, member of the State House of Representatives (1840’s), President of the Centre County Agricultural Society in 1852 when they petitioned the Commonwealth to establish the Farmers High School here, now called Penn State University.

4 Lawyer in Bellefonte. Member of the State House of Representatives.

5 Union Army Captain in the Civil War. Killed in action, March 1865.

6 Lawyer in the mining industry out west. Lived in Iowa and Colorado.

7 a) Added ballroom, servants quarters, farmers quarters in 1898. Built carriage house in 1900.

b) Imported Columbus Chapel from Spain in 1909 and installed it in Pennsylvania stone building in 1912.

c) Lt. Colonel and recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross in World War I.

d) Founded the Boalsburg Fire, Electric, Telephone, Water and Bus Companies.

e) Founded his own machine gun troop in 1916 which pursued Pancho Villa in New Mexico with Gen. Pershing and served in WWI. First instance in National Guard history of mounted machine guns.

f) Founded the 28th Division Shrine across the road in 1919.



8 Niece of Victoria Montalvo Columbus (wife of a direct descendant of Christopher Columbus) and great-granddaughter of Eugene de Beauharnais (Napoleon’s stepson) and Louise de Trobriand (sister of Gen. James de Trobriand and cousin of Simon Bolivar). Inherited the Columbus Chapel in 1908 from her Aunt Victoria Columbus.

9 a) World War I: joined French cavalry in 1914. Was a pilot in the Lafayette Flying Corps and a captain in the US Army Air Service.

b) Joined US State Department in 1920, eventually serving as US Ambassador to Nicaragua and Bolivia.

c) Opened the Boal Estate to the community as a museum in 1952.


10 Descendant of Bernard de Menthon, who trained the dogs to rescue travelers in the French Alps 1,000 years ago and was proclaimed a saint in 1126. St. Bernard dogs were named after him.

11 International champion swimmer in the Masters Division.

12 Governor of Maryland in the 1970’s, direct descendant of Richard Henry Lee of Virginia who signed the Declaration of Independence, and a collateral descendant of Confederate General Robert E. Lee.

13 a) CEO of the Columbus Chapel and Boal Mansion Museum

b) Local government: former Chairman of the Centre Region Council of Governments, the Centre Region Metropolitan Planning Organization (transportation), the Centre Regional Planning Commission and the Harris Township Board of Supervisors. A founder of the Boalsburg Village Conservancy, the Boalsburg Heritage Museum and the annual Boalsburg Memorial Day Festival.


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